# A Textbook of Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines [In S.I. Units] [For Degree, U.P.S.C. (Engg. Services), A.M.I.E. (India)] Reprint

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## Book Information

Publisher: | Laxmi Publications Pvt. Ltd. |

Published In: | 2009 |

ISBN-10: | 8131806618 |

ISBN-13: | 9788131806616 |

Binding Type: | Paperback |

Weight: | 3.91 lbs |

Pages: | pp. xxvi + 1093, Figures, Index, Appendix |

The Title "A Textbook of Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines [In S.I. Units] [For Degree, U.P.S.C. (Engg. Services), A.M.I.E. (India)] Reprint" is written by R.K. Bansal. This book was published in the year 2009. The ISBN number 8131806618|9788131806616 is assigned to the Paperback version of this title. The book displayed here is a Reprint edition. This book has total of pp. xxvi + 1093 (Pages). The publisher of this title is Laxmi Publications Pvt. Ltd.. We have about 1542 other great books from this publisher. A Textbook of Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines [In S.I. Units] [For Degree, U.P.S.C. (Engg. Services), A.M.I.E. (India)] Reprint is currently Available with us.

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## Contents

Chap. I : PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS :

1. Introduction

2. Properties of Fluids :

i. Density or Mass Density

ii. Specific Weight or Weight Density

iii. Specific Volume

iv. Specific Gravity

Solved Problems 1.1-1.2

3. Viscosity :

i. Units of Viscosity

ii. Kinematic Viscosity

iii. Newton's Law of Viscosity

iv. Variation of Viscosity with Temperature

v. Types of Fluids

Solved Problems 1.3-1.19

4. Thermodynamic Properties :

i. Dimension of R

ii. Isothermal Process

iii. Adiabatic Process

iv. Universal Gas Constant

Solved Problems 1.20-1.22

5. Compressibility and Bulk Modulus

Solved Problems 1.23-1.24

6. Surface Tension and Capillarity :

i. Surface Tension on Liquid Droplet

ii. Surface Tension on a Hollow Bubble

iii. Surface Tension on a Liquid Jet :

Solved Problem 1.25-1.27

iv. Capillarity :

Solved Problems 1.28-1.32

7. Vapour Pressure and Cavitation

Highlights

Exercise-1

Chap. II : PRESSURE AND ITS MEASUREMENT :

1. Fluids Pressure at a Point

2. Pascal's Law

3. Pressure Variation in a Fluid at Rest

Solved Problems 2.1-2.7

4. Absolute, Gauge, Atmospheric and Vacuum Pressures

Solved Problem 2.8

5. Measurement of Pressure :

i. Manometers

ii. Mechanical Gauges

6. Simple Manometers :

i. Piezometer

ii. U-tube Manometer

Solved Problems 2.9-2.13

iii. Single Column Manometer

Solved Problem 2.14

7. Differential Manometers :

i. U-tube Differential Manometer

Solved Problems 2.15-2.17

ii. Inverted U-tube Differential Manometer

Solved Problems 2.18-2.21

8. Pressure at a Point in Compressible Fluid :

i. Isothermal Process

ii. Adiabatic Process

iii. Temperature at any Point in Compressible Fluid

iv. Temperature Lapse-Rate (L)

Solved Problems 2.22-2.26

Highlights

Exercise-2

Chap. III : HYDROSTATIC FORCES ON SURFACES :

1. Introduction

2. Total Pressure and Centre of Pressure

3. Vertical Plane Surface Submerged in Liquid

Solved Problems 3.1-3.12

4. Horizontal Plane Surface Submerged in Liquid

Solved Problem 3.13

5. Inclined Plane Surface Submerged in Liquid

Solved Problems 3.14-3.21

6. Curved Surface Submerged in Liquid

Solved Problems 3.22-3.31

3.7. Total Pressure and Centre of Pressure on Lock Gates

Solved Problems 3.32-3.33

8. Pressure Distribution in a Liquid Subjected to Constant Horizontal/Vertical Acceleration :

i. Liquid Containers Subject to Constant Horizontal Acceleration

Solved Problems 3.34-3.36

ii. Liquid Containers Subjected to Constant Vertical Acceleration

Solved Problems 3.37-3.38

Highlights

Exercise-3

Chap. IV : BUOYANCY AND FLOATATION :

1. Introduction

2. Buoyancy

3. Centre of Buoyancy

Solved Problems 4.1-4.6

4. Meta-centre

5. Meta-centric Height

6. Analytical Method for Meta-centric Height

Solved Problems 4.7-4.11

7. Conditions of Equilibrium of a Floating and Submerged Bodies

i. Stability of a Submerged Body

ii. Stability of a Floating Body

Solved Problems 4.12-4.18

8. Experimental Method of Determination of Meta-centric Height

Solved Problems 4.19-4.20

9. Oscillation (Rolling) of a Floating Body

Solved Problems 4.21-4.22

Highlights

Exercise-4

Chap. V : KINEMATICS OF FLOW AND IDEAL FLOW :

A. Kinematics of Flow :

1. Introduction

2. Methods of Describing Fluid Motion

3. Types of Fluid Flow :

i. Steady and Unsteady Flows

ii. Uniform and Non-uniform Flows

iii. Laminar and Turbulent Flows

iv. Compressible and Incompressible Flows

v. Rotational and Irrotational Flows

vi. One, two and Three-dimensional Flows

4. Rate of Flow or Discharge (Q)

5. Continuity Equation

Solved Problems 5.1-5.5

6. Continuity Equation in Three-Dimensions :

i. Continuity Equation in Cylindrical Polar Co-ordinate

Solved Problems 5.5A-170

7. Velocity and Acceleration :

i. Local Acceleration and Convective

Acceleration

Solved Problems 5.6-5.9

8. Velocity Potential Function and Stream Function :

i. Velocity Potential Function

ii. Stream Function

iii. Equipotential Line

iv. Line of Constant Stream Function

v. Flow Net

vi. Relation between Stream Function and Velocity Potential Function from Equation

Solved Problems 5.10-5.17

9. Types of Motion :

i. Linear Translation

ii. Linear Deformation

iii. Angular Deformation or Shear Deformation

iv. Rotation

v. Vorticity

Solved Problems 5.18-5.19

10. Vertex Flow :

i. Forced Vortex Flow

ii. Free Vortex Flow

iii. Equation of Motion for Vortex Flow

iv. Equation of Forced Vortex Flow

Solved Problems 5.20-5.25

v. Closed Cylindrical Vessels

Solved Problems 5.26-5.31

vi. Equation of Free Vortex Flow

Solved Problem 5.32

B. Ideal Flow (Potential Flow) :

11. Introduction

12. Important Cases of Potential Flow

13. Uniform Flow :

i. Uniform Flow Parallel to x-Axis

ii. Uniform Potential Flow Parallel to y-Axis

14. Source Flow

15. Sink Flow

Solved Problems 5.33-5.35

16. Free-Vortex Flow

17. Super-Imposed Flow :

i. Source and Sink Pair

Solved Problems 5.36-5.37

ii. Doublet

Solved Problem 5.38

iii. A Plane Source in a Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Half-Body)

Solved Problems 5.39-5.41

iv. A Source and Sink Pair in a Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Rankine Oval Body)

Solved Problem 5.42

v. A Doublet in a Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Circular Cylinder)

Solved Problems 5.43-5.44

Highlights

Exercise-5

Chap. VI : DYNAMICS OF FLUID FLOW :

1. Introduction

2. Equations of Motion

3. Euler's Equation of Motion

4. Bernoulli's Equation from Euler's Equation

5. Assumptions

Solved Problems 6.1-6.6

6. Bernoulli's Equation for Real Fluid

Solved Problems 6.7-6.9

7. Practical Applications of Bernoulli's Equation :

i. Venturimeter

Solved Problems 6.10-6.21

ii. Orifice Meter or Orifice Plate

Solved Problems 6.22-6.23

iii. Pitot-tube

Solved Problems 6.24-6.28

8. The Momentum Equation

Solved Problems 6.29-6.35

9. Moment of Momentum Equation

Solved Problems 6.36-6.37

10. Free Liquid Jets

Solved Problems 6.38-6.41

Highlights

Exercise-6

Chap. VII : ORIFICES AND MOUTHPIECES :

1. Introduction

2. Classifications of Orifices

3. Flow Through an Orifice

4. Hydraulic Co-efficients :

i. Co-efficient of Velocity (Cv)

ii. Co-efficient of Contraction (Cc)

iii. Co-efficient of Discharge (Cd)

Solved Problems 7.1-7.2

5. Experimental Determination of Hydraulic Co-efficients :

i. Determination of Cd

ii. Determination of Co-efficient of Velocity Cv

iii. Determination of Co-efficient of Contraction Cc

Solved Problems 7.3-7.10

6. Flow Through Large Orifices :

i. Discharge Through Large Rectangular Orifice

Solved Problems 7.11-7.13

7. Discharge Through Fully Submerged Orifice

Solved Problems 7.14-7.15

8. Discharge Through Partially Submerged Orifice

Solved Problem 7.16

9. Time of Emptying a Tank Through an Orifice at its Bottom

Solved Problems 7.17-7.18

10. Time of Emptying a Hemispherical Tank

Solved Problems 7.19-7.21

11. Time of Emptying a Circular Horizontal Tank

Solved Problems 7.22-7.23

12. Classification of Mouthpieces :

13. Flow Through an External Cylindrical Mouthpiece

Solved Problems 7.24-7.25

14. Flow Through a Convergent-Divergent Mouthpiece

Solved Problems 7.26-7.28

15. Flow Through Internal or Re-entrant on Borda's Mouthpiece

Solved Problem 7.29

Highlights

Exercise-7

Chap. VIII : NOTCHES AND WEIRS :

1. Introduction

2. Classification of Notches and Weirs

3. Discharge Over a Rectangular Notch or Weir

Solved Problems 8.1-8.3

4. Discharge Over a Triangular Notch or Weir

Solved Problems 8.4-8.6

5. Advantages of Triangular Notch or Weir over Rectangular Notch or Weir

6. Discharge Over a Trapezoidal Notch or Weir

Solved Problem 8.7

7. Discharge Over a Stepped Notch

Solved Problem 8.8

8. Effect on Discharge Over a Notch or Weir Due to Error in the Measurement of Head :

i. For Rectangular Weir or Notch

ii. For Triangular Weir or Notch

Solved Problems 8.9-8.11

9.a. Time Required to Empty a Reservoir or a Tank with a Rectangular Weir or Notch

b. Time Required to Empty a Reservoir or a Tank with a Triangular Weir or Notch

Solved Problems 8.12-8.14

10. Velocity of Approach

Solved Problems 8.15-8.19

11. Empirical Formulae for Discharge Over Rectangular Weir

Solved Problems 8.20-8.22

12. Cipolletti Weir or Notch

Solved Problems 8.23-8.24

13. Discharge Over a Broad-crested Weir

14. Discharge Over a Narrow-crested Weir

15. Discharge Over an Ogee Weir

16. Discharge Over Submerged or Drowned Weir

Solved Problems 8.25-8.27

Highlights

Exercise-8

Chap. IX : VISCOUS FLOW :

1. Introduction

2. Flow of Viscous Fluid Through Circular Pipe

Solved Problems 9.1-9.6

3. Flow of Viscous Fluid between Two Parallel Plates

Solved Problems 9.7-9.12

4. Kinetic Energy Correction and Momentum Correction Factors

Solved Problem 9.13

5. Power Absorbed in Viscous Flow :

i. Viscous Resistance of Journal Bearings

Solved Problems 9.14-9.18

ii. Viscous Resistance of Foot-step Bearing

Solved Problems 9.19-9.20

iii. Viscous Resistance of Collar Bearing

Solved Problems 9.21-9.22

6. Loss of Head Due to Friction in Viscous Flow

Solved Problems 9.23-9.24

7. Movement of Piston in Dash-pot

Solved Problem 9.25

8. Methods of Determination of Co-efficient of Viscosity :

i. Capillary Tube Method

ii. Falling Sphere Resistance Method

iii. Rotating Cylinder Method

iv. Orifice Type Viscometer

Solved Problems 9.26-9.32

Highlights

Exercise-9

Chap. X : TURBULENT FLOW :

1. Introduction

2. Reynolds Experiment

3. Frictional Loss in Pipe Flow :

i. Expression for Loss of Head Due to Friction in Pipes

ii. Expression for Co-efficient of Friction in Terms of Shear Stress

4. Shear Stress in Turbulent Flow :

i. Reynold Expression for Turbulent Shear Stress

ii. Prandtl Mixing Length Theory for Turbulent Shear Stress

5. Velocity Distribution in Turbulent Flow in Pipes :

i. Hydrodynamically Smooth and Rough Boundaries

ii. Velocity Distribution for Turbulent Flow in Smooth Pipes

iii. Velocity Distribution for Turbulent Flow in Rough Pipes

Solved Problems 10.1-10.4

iv. Velocity Distribution for Turbulent Flow in Terms of Average Velocity

Solved Problems 10.5-10.6

v. Velocity Distribution for Turbulent Flow in Smooth Pipes by Power Law

6. Resistance of Smooth and Rough Pipes

Solved Problems 10.7-10.13

Highlights

Exercise-10

Chap. XI : FLOW THROUGH PIPES :

1. Introduction

2. Loss of Energy in Pipes

3. Loss of Energy (or Head) Due to Friction

Solved Problems 11.1-11.7

4. Minor Energy (Head) Losses :

i. Loss of Head Due to Sudden Enlargement

ii. Loss of Head Due to Sudden Contraction

Solved Problems 11.8-11.14

iii. Loss of Head at the Entrance of a Pipe

iv. Loss of Head at the Exit of Pipe

v. Loss of Head Due to an Obstruction in a Pipe

vi. Loss of Head Due to Bend in Pipe

vii. Loss of Head in Various Pipe Fittings

Solved Problems 11.15-11.21

5. Hydraulic Gradient and Total Energy Line :

i. Hydraulic Gradient Line

ii. Total Energy Line

Solved Problems 11.22-11.26

6. Flow Through Syphon

Solved Problems 11.27-11.29

7. Flow Through Pipes in Series or Flow Through Compound Pipes

Solved Problems 11.30-11.30A

8. Equivalent Pipe

Solved Problem 11.31

9. Flow Through Parallel Pipes

Solved Problems 11.32-11.41

10. Flow Through Branched Pipes

Solved Problems 11.42-11.44

11. Power Transmission Through Pipes :

i. Condition for Maximum Transmission of Power

ii. Maximum Efficiency of Transmission of Power

Solved Problems 11.45-11.47

12. Flow Through Nozzles :

i. Power Transmitted Through Nozzle

ii. Condition for Maximum Power Transmitted Through Nozzle

iii. Diameter of Nozzle for Maximum Transmission of Power Through Nozzle

Solved Problems 11.48-11.51

13. Water Hammer in Pipes :

i. Gradual Closure of Valve

ii. Sudden Closure of Valve and Pipe is Rigid

iii. Sudden Closure of Valve and Pipe is Elastic

iv. Time Taken by Pressure Wave to Travel from the Valve to the Tank and from Tank to the Valve

Solved Problems 11.52-11.55

14. Pipe Network :

i. Hardy Cross Method

Solved Problem 11.56

Highlights

Exercise-11

Chap. XII : DIMENSIONAL AND MODEL ANALYSIS :

1. Introduction

2. Secondary or Derived Quantities

Solved Problem 12.1

3. Dimensional Homogeneity

4. Methods of Dimensional Analysis :

i. Rayleigh's Method

Solved Problems 12.2-12.7

ii. Buckingham's π-Theorem

iii. Method of Selecting Repeating Variables

iv. Procedure for Solving Problems by Buckingham's π-Theorem

Solved Problems 12.8-12.14

5. Model Analysis

6. Similitude-Types of Similarities

7. Types of Forces Acting in Moving Fluid

8. Dimensionless Numbers :

i. Reynold's Number (Re)

ii. Froude's Number (Fe)

iii. Euler's Number (Eu)

iv. Weber's Number (We)

v. Mach's Number (M)

9. Model Laws or Similarity Laws :

i. Reynold's Model Law

Solved Problems 12.15-12.18

ii. Froude Model Law

Solved Problems 12.19-12.27

iii. Euler's Model Law

iv. Weber Model Law

v. Mach Model Law

Solved Problem 12.28

10. Model Testing of Partially Submerged Bodies

Solved Problems 12.29-12.32

11. Classification of Models :

i. Undistorted Models

ii. Distorted Models

iii. Scale Ratios for Distorted Models

Solved Problem 12.33

Highlights

Exercise-12

Chap. XIII : BOUNDARY LAYER FLOW :

1. Introduction

2. Definitions :

i. Laminar Boundary Layer

ii. Turbulent Boundary Layer

iii. Laminar Sub-layer

iv. Boundary Layer Thickness (δ)

v. Displacement Thickness (δ ٭)

vi. Momentum Thickness (δ)

vii. Energy Thickness (δ٭٭)

Solved Problems 13.1-13.2

3. Drag Force on a Flat Plate Due to Boundary Layer :

i. Local Co-efficient of Drag [Cd٭]

ii. Average Co-efficient of Drag [Cd]

iii. Boundary Conditions for the Velocity Profiles

Solved Problems 13.3-13.12

4. Turbulent Boundary Layer on a Flat Plate

Solved Problem 13.13

5. Analysis of Turbulent Boundary Layer

6. Total Drag on a Flat Plate Due to Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layer

Solved Problems 13.14-13.17

7. Separation of Boundary Layer :

i. Effect of Pressure Gradient on Boundary Layer Separation

ii. Location of Separation Point

Solved Problem 13.18

iii. Methods of Preventing the Separation of Boundary Layer

Highlights

Exercise-13

Chap. XIV : FORCES ON SUBMERGED BODIES :

1. Introduction

2. Force Exerted by a Flowing Fluid on a Stationary Body :

i. Drag

ii. Lift

3. Expression for Drag and Lift :

i. Dimensional Analysis of Drag and Lift

Solved Problems 14.1-14.15

ii. Pressure Drag and Friction Drag

iii. Stream-lined Body

iv. Bluff Body

4. Drag on a Sphere

Solved Problem 14.16

5. Terminal Velocity of a Body

Solved Problems 14.17-14.20

6. Drag on a Cylinder

7. Development of Lift on a Circular Cylinder :

i. Flow of Ideal Fluid Over Stationary Cylinder

ii. Flow Pattern Around the Cylinder when a Constant Circulation T is Imparted to the Cylinder

iii. Expression for Lift Force Acting on Rotating Cylinder

iv. Drag Force Acting on a Rotating Cylinder

v. Expression for Lift Co-efficient for Rotating Cylinder

vi. Location of Stagnation Points for a Rotating Cylinder in a Uniform Flow-field

vii. Magnus Effect

Solved Problems 14.21-14.23

8. Development of Lift on an Airfoil :

i. Steady-state of a Flying Object

Solved Problems 14.24-14.25

Highlights

Exercise-14

Chap. XV : COMPRESSIBLE FLOW :

1. Introduction

2. Thermodynamic Relations :

i. Equation of State

ii. Expansion and Compression of Perfect Gas

3. Basic Equations of Compressible Flow :

i. Continuity Equation

ii. Bernoulli's Equation

Solved Problems 15.1-15.3

iii. Momentum Equations

4. Velocity of Sound or Pressure Wave in a Fluid :

i. Expression for Velocity of Sound Wave in a Fluid

ii. Velocity of Sound in Terms of Bulk Modulus

iii. Velocity of Sound for Isothermal Process

iv. Velocity of Sound for Adiabatic Process

5. Mach Number

Solved Problems 15.4-15.7

6. Propagation of Pressure Waves (or Disturbances ) in a Compressible Fluid :

i. Mach Angle

ii. Zone of Action

iii. Zone of Silence

Solved Problems 15.8-15.10

7. Stagnation Properties :

i. Expression for Stagnation Pressure (Ps)

ii. Expression for Stagnation Density (Ps)

iii. Expression for Stagnation Temperature (Ts)

Solved Problems 15.11-15.12

8. Area Velocity Relationship for Compressible Flow

9. Flow of Compressible Fluid Through Orifices and Nozzles Fitted to a Large Tank

i. Value of n or P1/P2 Maximum Value of Mass Rate of Flow

ii. Value of V2 for Maximum Rate of Flow of Fluid

iii. Maximum Rate of Flow of Fluid Through Nozzle

iv. Variation of Mass Rate of Flow of Compressible Fluid with Pressure Ratio (P1/P2)

v. Velocity at Outlet of Nozzle for Maximum Rate of Flow is Equal to Sonic Velocity

Solved Problems 15.13-15.15

10. Mass Rate of Flow of Compressible Fluid Through Venturimeter

Solved Problem 15.16

11. Pitot-static Tube in a Compressible Flow

Solved Problem 15.17

Highlights

Exercise-15

Chap. XVI : FLOW IN OPEN CHANNELS :

1. Introduction

2. Classification of Flow in Channels :

i. Steady Flow and Unsteady Flow

ii. Uniform Flow and Non-uniform Flow

iii. Laminar Flow and Turbulent Flow

iv. Sub-critical, Critical and Super-critical Flow

3. Discharge Through Open Channel by Chezy's Formula

Solved Problems 16.1-16.7

4. Empirical Formulae for the Value of Chezy's Constant

Solved Problems 16.8-16.12

5. Most Economical Section of Channels :

i. Most Economical Rectangular Channel

Solved Problems 16.13-16.15

ii. Most Economical Trapezoidal Channel

Solved Problems 16.16-16.22

iii. Best Side Slope for Most Economical Trapezoidal Section

Solved Problems 16.23-16.24

iv. Flow Through Circular Channel

Solved Problems 16.25-16.29

v. Most Economical Circular Section

Solved Problems 16.30-46.32

6. Non-uniform Flow through Open Channels

7. Specific Energy and Specific Energy Curve :

i. Critical Depth (Hc)

ii. Critical Velocity (Vc)

iii. Minimum Specific Energy in Items of Critical Depth

Solved Problems 16.33-16.35

iv. Critical Flow

v. Streaming Flow or Sub-critical Flow or Tranquil Flow

vi. Super-critical Flow or Shooting Flow or Torrential Flow

vii. Alternate Depths

viii. Condition for Maximum Discharge for a Given Value of Specific Energy

Solved Problems 16.36-16.37

8. Hydraulic Jump or Standing Wave :

i. Expression for Depth of Hydraulic Jump

ii. Expression for Loss of Energy Due to Hydraulic Jump

iii. Expression for Depth of Hydraulic Jump in Terms or Up-stream Froude Number

iv. Length of Hydraulic Jump

Solved Problems 16.38-16.42

9. Gradually Varied Flow (G.V.F.) :

i. Equation of Gradually Varied Flow

Solved Problems 16.43-16.44

ii. Back Water Curve and Affux

iii. Expression for the Length of Back Water Curve

Solved Problem 16.45

Highlights

Exercise-16

Chap. XVII : IMPACT OF JETS AND JET PROPULSION :

1. Introduction

2. Force Exerted by the Jet on a Stationary Vertical Plate :

i. Force Exerted by a Jet on Stationary Inclined Flat Plate

ii. Force Exerted by a Jet on Stationary :

i. Curved Plate

Solved Problems 17.1-17.6

3. Force Exerted by a Jet on a Hinged Plate

Solved Problems 17.7-1710 (a)

4. Force Exerted by a Jet on Moving Plates :

i. Force on Flat Vertical Plate Moving in the Direction of Jet

ii. Force on the Inclined Plate Moving in the Direction of the Jet

Solved Problems 17.11-17.13

iii. Force on the Curved Plate when the Plate is Moving in the Direction of Jet

Solved Problems 17.14-17.17

iv. Force Exerted by a Jet of Water on an Un-symmetrical Moving Curved Plate when Jet Strikes Tangentially at One of the Tips

Solved Problems 17.18-1723

v. Force Exerted by a Jet of Water on a Series of Vanes

vi. Force Exerted on a Series of Radial Curved Vanes

Solved Problems 17.24-17.26

5. Jet Propulsion :

i. Jet Propulsion of a Tank with an Orifice

Solved Problems 17.27-17.28

ii. Jet Propulsion of Ships

Solved Problems 17.29-17.33

Highlights

Exercise-17

Chap. XVIII : HYDRAULIC MACHINES-TURBINES :

1. Introduction

2. Turbines

3. General Layout of a Hydro-electric Power Plant

4. Definitions of Heads and Efficiencies of a Turbine

5. Classification of Hydraulic Turbines

6. PELTON Wheel (or Turbine) :

i. Velocity Triangles and Work Done for Pelton Wheel

ii. Points to be Remembered for Pelton Wheel

Solved Problems 18.1-18.10

iii. Design of Pelton Wheel

Solved Problems 18.11-18.13

7. Radial Flow Reaction Turbines :

i. Main Parts of a Radial Flow Reaction Turbine

ii. Inward Radial Flow Turbine

iii. Degree of Reactions

iv. Definitions

Solved Problems 18.14-18.20

v. Outward Radial Flow Reaction Turbine

Solved Problems 18.21-18.22

8. Francis Turbine :

i. Important Relations for Francis Turbines

Solved Problems 18.23-18.26

9. Axial Flow Reaction Turbine :

i. Some Important Point for Propeller (Kaplan Turbine)

Solved Problems 18.27-18.33

10. Draft Tube :

i. Types of Draft Tubes

ii. Draft Tube Theory

iii. Efficiency of Draft Tube

Solved Problems 18.33 (a)-18.35

11. Specific Speed :

i. Derivation of the Specific Speed

ii. Significance of Specific Speed

Solved Problems 18.36-18.41

12. Unit Quantities :

i. Unit Speed

ii. Unit Discharge

iii. Unit Power

iv. Use of Unit Quantities (Nu, Qu, Pu)

Solved Problems 18.41 (a)-18.45

13. Characteristic Curves of Hydraulic Turbines :

i. Main Characteristic Curves or Constant Head Curves

ii. Operating Characteristic Curves or Constant Speed Curves

iii. Constant Efficiency Curves or Muschel Curves or Iso-Efficiency Curves

14. Governing of Turbines

Highlights

Exercise-18

Chap. XIX : CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS :

1. Introduction

2. Main Parts of a Centrifugal Pump

3. Work Done by the Centrifugal Pump (or by Impfller) on Water

4. Definitions of Heads and Efficiencies of a Centrifugal Pump

Solved Problems 19.1-19.12

5. Minimum Speed for Starting a Centrifugal Pump

Solved Problems 19.13-19.15

6. Multistage Centrifugal Pumps :

i. Multistage Centrifugal Pumps for High Heads

ii. Multistage Centrifugal Pumps for High Discharge

Solved Problems 19.16-19.17

7. Specific Speed of a Centrifugal Pump (Ns) :

i. Expression for Specific Speed for a Pump

8. Model Testing of Centrifugal Pumps

Solved Problems 19.18-19.22

9. Priming of a Centrifugal Pump

10. Characteristic Curves of Centrifugal Pumps :

i. Main Characteristic Curves

ii. Operating Characteristic Curves

iii. Constant Efficiency Curves

11. Cavitation :

i. Precaution against Cavitation

ii. Effects of Cavitation

iii. Hydraulic Machines Subjected to Cavitation

iv. Cavitation in Turbines

v. Cavitation in Centrifugal Pumps

Solved Problem 19.23

12. Maximum Suction Lift (or Suction Height)

13. Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH)

14. Cavitation in Centrifugal Pump

Solved Problem 19.24

Highlights

Exercise-19

Chap. XX : RECIPROCATING PUMPS :

1. Introduction

2. Main Parts of a Reciprocating Pump

3. Working of a Reciprocating Pump :

i. Discharge Through a Reciprocating Pump

ii. Work Done by Reciprocating Pump

iii. Discharge, Work Done and Power Required to Drive a Double-acting Pump

4. Slip of Reciprocating Pump :

i. Negative Slip of the Reciprocating Pump

5. Classification of Reciprocating Pumps

Solved Problems 20.1-20.2

6. Variation of Velocity and Acceleration in the Suction and Delivery Pipes Due to Acceleration of the Piston

7. Effect of Variation of Velocity on Friction in the Suction and Delivery Pipes

Solved Problem 20.3

8. Indicator Diagram :

i. Ideal Indicator Diagram

ii. Effect of Acceleration in Suction and Delivery Pipes on Indicator Diagram

Solved Problems 20.4-20.9

iii. Effect of Friction in Suction and Delivery Pipes on Indicator Diagram

iv. Effect of Acceleration and Friction in Suction and Delivery Pipes on Indicator Diagram

Solved Problems 20.10-20.12

v. Maximum Speed of a Reciprocating Pump

Solved Problem 20.13

9. Air Vessels

Solved Problems 20.14-20.18

10. Comparison between Centrifugal Pumps and Reciprocating Pumps

Highlights

Exercise-20

Chap. XXI : FLUID SYSTEM :

1. Introduction

2. The Hydraulic Press :

i. Mechanical Advantage

ii. Leverage of the Hydraulic Press

iii. Actual Heavy Hydraulic Press

Solved Problems 21.1-21.5

3. The Hydraulic Accumulator :

i. Capacity of Hydraulic Accumulator

Solved Problems 21.6-21.11

ii. Differential Hydraulic Accumulator

4. The Hydraulic Intensifier

Solved Problems 21.12-21.13

5. The Hydraulic Ram

Solved Problems 21.14-21.15

6. The Hydraulic Lift :

i. Direct Acting Hydraulic Lift

ii. Suspended Hydraulic Lift

Solved Problems 21.16-21.17

7. The Hydraulic Crane

Solved Problems 21.18-21.20

8. The Fluid or Hydraulic Coupling

9. The Hydraulic Torque Converter

10. The Air Lift Pump

11. The Gear-wheel Pump

Highlights

Exercise-21

Objective Type Questions

Answers to Objective Type Questions