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A Textbook of Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines [In S.I. Units] [For Degree, U.P.S.C. (Engg. Services), A.M.I.E. (India)] Reprint,8131806618,9788131806616

A Textbook of Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines [In S.I. Units] [For Degree, U.P.S.C. (Engg. Services), A.M.I.E. (India)] Reprint

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Publisher:Laxmi Publications Pvt. Ltd.
Published In:2009
ISBN-10:8131806618
ISBN-13:9788131806616
Binding Type:Paperback
Weight:3.91 lbs
Pages:pp. xxvi + 1093, Figures, Index, Appendix

The Title "A Textbook of Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines [In S.I. Units] [For Degree, U.P.S.C. (Engg. Services), A.M.I.E. (India)] Reprint" is written by R.K. Bansal. This book was published in the year 2009. The ISBN number 8131806618|9788131806616 is assigned to the Paperback version of this title. The book displayed here is a Reprint edition. This book has total of pp. xxvi + 1093 (Pages). The publisher of this title is Laxmi Publications Pvt. Ltd.. We have about 1542 other great books from this publisher. A Textbook of Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines [In S.I. Units] [For Degree, U.P.S.C. (Engg. Services), A.M.I.E. (India)] Reprint is currently Available with us.

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Contents

Chap. I : PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS :
1. Introduction
2. Properties of Fluids :
i. Density or Mass Density
ii. Specific Weight or Weight Density
iii. Specific Volume
iv. Specific Gravity
Solved Problems 1.1-1.2

3. Viscosity :
i. Units of Viscosity
ii. Kinematic Viscosity
iii. Newton's Law of Viscosity
iv. Variation of Viscosity with Temperature
v. Types of Fluids
Solved Problems 1.3-1.19

4. Thermodynamic Properties :
i. Dimension of R
ii. Isothermal Process
iii. Adiabatic Process
iv. Universal Gas Constant
Solved Problems 1.20-1.22

5. Compressibility and Bulk Modulus
Solved Problems 1.23-1.24

6. Surface Tension and Capillarity :
i. Surface Tension on Liquid Droplet
ii. Surface Tension on a Hollow Bubble
iii. Surface Tension on a Liquid Jet :
Solved Problem 1.25-1.27

iv. Capillarity :
Solved Problems 1.28-1.32

7. Vapour Pressure and Cavitation
Highlights
Exercise-1

Chap. II : PRESSURE AND ITS MEASUREMENT :
1. Fluids Pressure at a Point
2. Pascal's Law
3. Pressure Variation in a Fluid at Rest
Solved Problems 2.1-2.7

4. Absolute, Gauge, Atmospheric and Vacuum Pressures
Solved Problem 2.8

5. Measurement of Pressure :
i. Manometers
ii. Mechanical Gauges

6. Simple Manometers :
i. Piezometer
ii. U-tube Manometer
Solved Problems 2.9-2.13

iii. Single Column Manometer
Solved Problem 2.14

7. Differential Manometers :
i. U-tube Differential Manometer
Solved Problems 2.15-2.17

ii. Inverted U-tube Differential Manometer
Solved Problems 2.18-2.21

8. Pressure at a Point in Compressible Fluid :
i. Isothermal Process
ii. Adiabatic Process
iii. Temperature at any Point in Compressible Fluid
iv. Temperature Lapse-Rate (L)
Solved Problems 2.22-2.26
Highlights
Exercise-2

Chap. III : HYDROSTATIC FORCES ON SURFACES :
1. Introduction
2. Total Pressure and Centre of Pressure
3. Vertical Plane Surface Submerged in Liquid
Solved Problems 3.1-3.12

4. Horizontal Plane Surface Submerged in Liquid
Solved Problem 3.13

5. Inclined Plane Surface Submerged in Liquid
Solved Problems 3.14-3.21

6. Curved Surface Submerged in Liquid
Solved Problems 3.22-3.31

3.7. Total Pressure and Centre of Pressure on Lock Gates
Solved Problems 3.32-3.33

8. Pressure Distribution in a Liquid Subjected to Constant Horizontal/Vertical Acceleration :
i. Liquid Containers Subject to Constant Horizontal Acceleration
Solved Problems 3.34-3.36

ii. Liquid Containers Subjected to Constant Vertical Acceleration
Solved Problems 3.37-3.38
Highlights
Exercise-3

Chap. IV : BUOYANCY AND FLOATATION :
1. Introduction
2. Buoyancy
3. Centre of Buoyancy
Solved Problems 4.1-4.6

4. Meta-centre
5. Meta-centric Height
6. Analytical Method for Meta-centric Height
Solved Problems 4.7-4.11

7. Conditions of Equilibrium of a Floating and Submerged Bodies
i. Stability of a Submerged Body
ii. Stability of a Floating Body
Solved Problems 4.12-4.18

8. Experimental Method of Determination of Meta-centric Height
Solved Problems 4.19-4.20

9. Oscillation (Rolling) of a Floating Body
Solved Problems 4.21-4.22
Highlights
Exercise-4

Chap. V : KINEMATICS OF FLOW AND IDEAL FLOW :
A. Kinematics of Flow :
1. Introduction
2. Methods of Describing Fluid Motion
3. Types of Fluid Flow :
i. Steady and Unsteady Flows
ii. Uniform and Non-uniform Flows
iii. Laminar and Turbulent Flows
iv. Compressible and Incompressible Flows
v. Rotational and Irrotational Flows
vi. One, two and Three-dimensional Flows

4. Rate of Flow or Discharge (Q)
5. Continuity Equation
Solved Problems 5.1-5.5

6. Continuity Equation in Three-Dimensions :
i. Continuity Equation in Cylindrical Polar Co-ordinate
Solved Problems 5.5A-170

7. Velocity and Acceleration :
i. Local Acceleration and Convective
Acceleration
Solved Problems 5.6-5.9

8. Velocity Potential Function and Stream Function :
i. Velocity Potential Function
ii. Stream Function
iii. Equipotential Line
iv. Line of Constant Stream Function
v. Flow Net
vi. Relation between Stream Function and Velocity Potential Function from Equation
Solved Problems 5.10-5.17

9. Types of Motion :
i. Linear Translation
ii. Linear Deformation
iii. Angular Deformation or Shear Deformation
iv. Rotation
v. Vorticity
Solved Problems 5.18-5.19

10. Vertex Flow :
i. Forced Vortex Flow
ii. Free Vortex Flow
iii. Equation of Motion for Vortex Flow
iv. Equation of Forced Vortex Flow
Solved Problems 5.20-5.25

v. Closed Cylindrical Vessels
Solved Problems 5.26-5.31

vi. Equation of Free Vortex Flow
Solved Problem 5.32

B. Ideal Flow (Potential Flow) :
11. Introduction
12. Important Cases of Potential Flow
13. Uniform Flow :
i. Uniform Flow Parallel to x-Axis
ii. Uniform Potential Flow Parallel to y-Axis

14. Source Flow
15. Sink Flow
Solved Problems 5.33-5.35

16. Free-Vortex Flow
17. Super-Imposed Flow :
i. Source and Sink Pair
Solved Problems 5.36-5.37

ii. Doublet
Solved Problem 5.38

iii. A Plane Source in a Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Half-Body)
Solved Problems 5.39-5.41

iv. A Source and Sink Pair in a Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Rankine Oval Body)
Solved Problem 5.42

v. A Doublet in a Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Circular Cylinder)
Solved Problems 5.43-5.44
Highlights
Exercise-5

Chap. VI : DYNAMICS OF FLUID FLOW :
1. Introduction
2. Equations of Motion
3. Euler's Equation of Motion
4. Bernoulli's Equation from Euler's Equation
5. Assumptions
Solved Problems 6.1-6.6

6. Bernoulli's Equation for Real Fluid
Solved Problems 6.7-6.9

7. Practical Applications of Bernoulli's Equation :
i. Venturimeter
Solved Problems 6.10-6.21

ii. Orifice Meter or Orifice Plate
Solved Problems 6.22-6.23

iii. Pitot-tube
Solved Problems 6.24-6.28

8. The Momentum Equation
Solved Problems 6.29-6.35

9. Moment of Momentum Equation
Solved Problems 6.36-6.37

10. Free Liquid Jets
Solved Problems 6.38-6.41
Highlights
Exercise-6

Chap. VII : ORIFICES AND MOUTHPIECES :
1. Introduction
2. Classifications of Orifices
3. Flow Through an Orifice
4. Hydraulic Co-efficients :
i. Co-efficient of Velocity (Cv)
ii. Co-efficient of Contraction (Cc)
iii. Co-efficient of Discharge (Cd)
Solved Problems 7.1-7.2

5. Experimental Determination of Hydraulic Co-efficients :
i. Determination of Cd
ii. Determination of Co-efficient of Velocity Cv
iii. Determination of Co-efficient of Contraction Cc
Solved Problems 7.3-7.10

6. Flow Through Large Orifices :
i. Discharge Through Large Rectangular Orifice
Solved Problems 7.11-7.13

7. Discharge Through Fully Submerged Orifice
Solved Problems 7.14-7.15

8. Discharge Through Partially Submerged Orifice
Solved Problem 7.16

9. Time of Emptying a Tank Through an Orifice at its Bottom
Solved Problems 7.17-7.18

10. Time of Emptying a Hemispherical Tank
Solved Problems 7.19-7.21

11. Time of Emptying a Circular Horizontal Tank
Solved Problems 7.22-7.23

12. Classification of Mouthpieces :
13. Flow Through an External Cylindrical Mouthpiece
Solved Problems 7.24-7.25

14. Flow Through a Convergent-Divergent Mouthpiece
Solved Problems 7.26-7.28

15. Flow Through Internal or Re-entrant on Borda's Mouthpiece
Solved Problem 7.29
Highlights
Exercise-7

Chap. VIII : NOTCHES AND WEIRS :
1. Introduction
2. Classification of Notches and Weirs
3. Discharge Over a Rectangular Notch or Weir
Solved Problems 8.1-8.3

4. Discharge Over a Triangular Notch or Weir
Solved Problems 8.4-8.6

5. Advantages of Triangular Notch or Weir over Rectangular Notch or Weir
6. Discharge Over a Trapezoidal Notch or Weir
Solved Problem 8.7

7. Discharge Over a Stepped Notch
Solved Problem 8.8

8. Effect on Discharge Over a Notch or Weir Due to Error in the Measurement of Head :
i. For Rectangular Weir or Notch
ii. For Triangular Weir or Notch
Solved Problems 8.9-8.11

9.a. Time Required to Empty a Reservoir or a Tank with a Rectangular Weir or Notch
b. Time Required to Empty a Reservoir or a Tank with a Triangular Weir or Notch
Solved Problems 8.12-8.14

10. Velocity of Approach
Solved Problems 8.15-8.19

11. Empirical Formulae for Discharge Over Rectangular Weir
Solved Problems 8.20-8.22

12. Cipolletti Weir or Notch
Solved Problems 8.23-8.24

13. Discharge Over a Broad-crested Weir
14. Discharge Over a Narrow-crested Weir
15. Discharge Over an Ogee Weir
16. Discharge Over Submerged or Drowned Weir
Solved Problems 8.25-8.27
Highlights
Exercise-8

Chap. IX : VISCOUS FLOW :
1. Introduction
2. Flow of Viscous Fluid Through Circular Pipe
Solved Problems 9.1-9.6

3. Flow of Viscous Fluid between Two Parallel Plates
Solved Problems 9.7-9.12

4. Kinetic Energy Correction and Momentum Correction Factors
Solved Problem 9.13

5. Power Absorbed in Viscous Flow :
i. Viscous Resistance of Journal Bearings
Solved Problems 9.14-9.18

ii. Viscous Resistance of Foot-step Bearing
Solved Problems 9.19-9.20

iii. Viscous Resistance of Collar Bearing
Solved Problems 9.21-9.22

6. Loss of Head Due to Friction in Viscous Flow
Solved Problems 9.23-9.24

7. Movement of Piston in Dash-pot
Solved Problem 9.25

8. Methods of Determination of Co-efficient of Viscosity :
i. Capillary Tube Method
ii. Falling Sphere Resistance Method
iii. Rotating Cylinder Method
iv. Orifice Type Viscometer
Solved Problems 9.26-9.32
Highlights
Exercise-9

Chap. X : TURBULENT FLOW :
1. Introduction
2. Reynolds Experiment
3. Frictional Loss in Pipe Flow :
i. Expression for Loss of Head Due to Friction in Pipes
ii. Expression for Co-efficient of Friction in Terms of Shear Stress

4. Shear Stress in Turbulent Flow :
i. Reynold Expression for Turbulent Shear Stress
ii. Prandtl Mixing Length Theory for Turbulent Shear Stress

5. Velocity Distribution in Turbulent Flow in Pipes :
i. Hydrodynamically Smooth and Rough Boundaries
ii. Velocity Distribution for Turbulent Flow in Smooth Pipes
iii. Velocity Distribution for Turbulent Flow in Rough Pipes
Solved Problems 10.1-10.4

iv. Velocity Distribution for Turbulent Flow in Terms of Average Velocity
Solved Problems 10.5-10.6

v. Velocity Distribution for Turbulent Flow in Smooth Pipes by Power Law

6. Resistance of Smooth and Rough Pipes
Solved Problems 10.7-10.13
Highlights
Exercise-10

Chap. XI : FLOW THROUGH PIPES :
1. Introduction
2. Loss of Energy in Pipes
3. Loss of Energy (or Head) Due to Friction
Solved Problems 11.1-11.7

4. Minor Energy (Head) Losses :
i. Loss of Head Due to Sudden Enlargement
ii. Loss of Head Due to Sudden Contraction
Solved Problems 11.8-11.14

iii. Loss of Head at the Entrance of a Pipe
iv. Loss of Head at the Exit of Pipe
v. Loss of Head Due to an Obstruction in a Pipe
vi. Loss of Head Due to Bend in Pipe
vii. Loss of Head in Various Pipe Fittings
Solved Problems 11.15-11.21

5. Hydraulic Gradient and Total Energy Line :
i. Hydraulic Gradient Line
ii. Total Energy Line
Solved Problems 11.22-11.26

6. Flow Through Syphon
Solved Problems 11.27-11.29

7. Flow Through Pipes in Series or Flow Through Compound Pipes
Solved Problems 11.30-11.30A

8. Equivalent Pipe
Solved Problem 11.31

9. Flow Through Parallel Pipes
Solved Problems 11.32-11.41

10. Flow Through Branched Pipes
Solved Problems 11.42-11.44

11. Power Transmission Through Pipes :
i. Condition for Maximum Transmission of Power
ii. Maximum Efficiency of Transmission of Power
Solved Problems 11.45-11.47

12. Flow Through Nozzles :
i. Power Transmitted Through Nozzle
ii. Condition for Maximum Power Transmitted Through Nozzle
iii. Diameter of Nozzle for Maximum Transmission of Power Through Nozzle
Solved Problems 11.48-11.51

13. Water Hammer in Pipes :
i. Gradual Closure of Valve
ii. Sudden Closure of Valve and Pipe is Rigid
iii. Sudden Closure of Valve and Pipe is Elastic
iv. Time Taken by Pressure Wave to Travel from the Valve to the Tank and from Tank to the Valve
Solved Problems 11.52-11.55

14. Pipe Network :
i. Hardy Cross Method
Solved Problem 11.56
Highlights
Exercise-11

Chap. XII : DIMENSIONAL AND MODEL ANALYSIS :
1. Introduction
2. Secondary or Derived Quantities
Solved Problem 12.1

3. Dimensional Homogeneity
4. Methods of Dimensional Analysis :
i. Rayleigh's Method
Solved Problems 12.2-12.7

ii. Buckingham's π-Theorem
iii. Method of Selecting Repeating Variables
iv. Procedure for Solving Problems by Buckingham's π-Theorem
Solved Problems 12.8-12.14

5. Model Analysis
6. Similitude-Types of Similarities
7. Types of Forces Acting in Moving Fluid
8. Dimensionless Numbers :
i. Reynold's Number (Re)
ii. Froude's Number (Fe)
iii. Euler's Number (Eu)
iv. Weber's Number (We)
v. Mach's Number (M)

9. Model Laws or Similarity Laws :
i. Reynold's Model Law
Solved Problems 12.15-12.18

ii. Froude Model Law
Solved Problems 12.19-12.27

iii. Euler's Model Law
iv. Weber Model Law
v. Mach Model Law
Solved Problem 12.28

10. Model Testing of Partially Submerged Bodies
Solved Problems 12.29-12.32

11. Classification of Models :
i. Undistorted Models
ii. Distorted Models
iii. Scale Ratios for Distorted Models
Solved Problem 12.33
Highlights
Exercise-12

Chap. XIII : BOUNDARY LAYER FLOW :
1. Introduction
2. Definitions :
i. Laminar Boundary Layer
ii. Turbulent Boundary Layer
iii. Laminar Sub-layer
iv. Boundary Layer Thickness (δ)
v. Displacement Thickness (δ ٭)
vi. Momentum Thickness (δ)
vii. Energy Thickness (δ٭٭)
Solved Problems 13.1-13.2

3. Drag Force on a Flat Plate Due to Boundary Layer :
i. Local Co-efficient of Drag [Cd٭]
ii. Average Co-efficient of Drag [Cd]
iii. Boundary Conditions for the Velocity Profiles
Solved Problems 13.3-13.12

4. Turbulent Boundary Layer on a Flat Plate
Solved Problem 13.13

5. Analysis of Turbulent Boundary Layer
6. Total Drag on a Flat Plate Due to Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layer
Solved Problems 13.14-13.17

7. Separation of Boundary Layer :
i. Effect of Pressure Gradient on Boundary Layer Separation
ii. Location of Separation Point
Solved Problem 13.18

iii. Methods of Preventing the Separation of Boundary Layer
Highlights
Exercise-13

Chap. XIV : FORCES ON SUBMERGED BODIES :
1. Introduction
2. Force Exerted by a Flowing Fluid on a Stationary Body :
i. Drag
ii. Lift

3. Expression for Drag and Lift :
i. Dimensional Analysis of Drag and Lift
Solved Problems 14.1-14.15

ii. Pressure Drag and Friction Drag
iii. Stream-lined Body
iv. Bluff Body

4. Drag on a Sphere
Solved Problem 14.16

5. Terminal Velocity of a Body
Solved Problems 14.17-14.20

6. Drag on a Cylinder
7. Development of Lift on a Circular Cylinder :
i. Flow of Ideal Fluid Over Stationary Cylinder
ii. Flow Pattern Around the Cylinder when a Constant Circulation T is Imparted to the Cylinder
iii. Expression for Lift Force Acting on Rotating Cylinder
iv. Drag Force Acting on a Rotating Cylinder
v. Expression for Lift Co-efficient for Rotating Cylinder
vi. Location of Stagnation Points for a Rotating Cylinder in a Uniform Flow-field
vii. Magnus Effect
Solved Problems 14.21-14.23

8. Development of Lift on an Airfoil :
i. Steady-state of a Flying Object
Solved Problems 14.24-14.25
Highlights
Exercise-14

Chap. XV : COMPRESSIBLE FLOW :
1. Introduction
2. Thermodynamic Relations :
i. Equation of State
ii. Expansion and Compression of Perfect Gas

3. Basic Equations of Compressible Flow :
i. Continuity Equation
ii. Bernoulli's Equation
Solved Problems 15.1-15.3

iii. Momentum Equations

4. Velocity of Sound or Pressure Wave in a Fluid :
i. Expression for Velocity of Sound Wave in a Fluid
ii. Velocity of Sound in Terms of Bulk Modulus
iii. Velocity of Sound for Isothermal Process
iv. Velocity of Sound for Adiabatic Process

5. Mach Number
Solved Problems 15.4-15.7

6. Propagation of Pressure Waves (or Disturbances ) in a Compressible Fluid :
i. Mach Angle
ii. Zone of Action
iii. Zone of Silence
Solved Problems 15.8-15.10

7. Stagnation Properties :
i. Expression for Stagnation Pressure (Ps)
ii. Expression for Stagnation Density (Ps)
iii. Expression for Stagnation Temperature (Ts)
Solved Problems 15.11-15.12

8. Area Velocity Relationship for Compressible Flow
9. Flow of Compressible Fluid Through Orifices and Nozzles Fitted to a Large Tank
i. Value of n or P1/P2 Maximum Value of Mass Rate of Flow
ii. Value of V2 for Maximum Rate of Flow of Fluid
iii. Maximum Rate of Flow of Fluid Through Nozzle
iv. Variation of Mass Rate of Flow of Compressible Fluid with Pressure Ratio (P1/P2)
v. Velocity at Outlet of Nozzle for Maximum Rate of Flow is Equal to Sonic Velocity
Solved Problems 15.13-15.15

10. Mass Rate of Flow of Compressible Fluid Through Venturimeter
Solved Problem 15.16

11. Pitot-static Tube in a Compressible Flow
Solved Problem 15.17
Highlights
Exercise-15

Chap. XVI : FLOW IN OPEN CHANNELS :
1. Introduction
2. Classification of Flow in Channels :
i. Steady Flow and Unsteady Flow
ii. Uniform Flow and Non-uniform Flow
iii. Laminar Flow and Turbulent Flow
iv. Sub-critical, Critical and Super-critical Flow

3. Discharge Through Open Channel by Chezy's Formula
Solved Problems 16.1-16.7

4. Empirical Formulae for the Value of Chezy's Constant
Solved Problems 16.8-16.12
5. Most Economical Section of Channels :
i. Most Economical Rectangular Channel
Solved Problems 16.13-16.15

ii. Most Economical Trapezoidal Channel
Solved Problems 16.16-16.22

iii. Best Side Slope for Most Economical Trapezoidal Section
Solved Problems 16.23-16.24

iv. Flow Through Circular Channel
Solved Problems 16.25-16.29

v. Most Economical Circular Section
Solved Problems 16.30-46.32

6. Non-uniform Flow through Open Channels
7. Specific Energy and Specific Energy Curve :
i. Critical Depth (Hc)
ii. Critical Velocity (Vc)
iii. Minimum Specific Energy in Items of Critical Depth
Solved Problems 16.33-16.35

iv. Critical Flow
v. Streaming Flow or Sub-critical Flow or Tranquil Flow
vi. Super-critical Flow or Shooting Flow or Torrential Flow
vii. Alternate Depths
viii. Condition for Maximum Discharge for a Given Value of Specific Energy
Solved Problems 16.36-16.37

8. Hydraulic Jump or Standing Wave :
i. Expression for Depth of Hydraulic Jump
ii. Expression for Loss of Energy Due to Hydraulic Jump
iii. Expression for Depth of Hydraulic Jump in Terms or Up-stream Froude Number
iv. Length of Hydraulic Jump
Solved Problems 16.38-16.42

9. Gradually Varied Flow (G.V.F.) :
i. Equation of Gradually Varied Flow
Solved Problems 16.43-16.44

ii. Back Water Curve and Affux
iii. Expression for the Length of Back Water Curve
Solved Problem 16.45
Highlights
Exercise-16

Chap. XVII : IMPACT OF JETS AND JET PROPULSION :
1. Introduction
2. Force Exerted by the Jet on a Stationary Vertical Plate :
i. Force Exerted by a Jet on Stationary Inclined Flat Plate
ii. Force Exerted by a Jet on Stationary :
i. Curved Plate
Solved Problems 17.1-17.6

3. Force Exerted by a Jet on a Hinged Plate
Solved Problems 17.7-1710 (a)

4. Force Exerted by a Jet on Moving Plates :
i. Force on Flat Vertical Plate Moving in the Direction of Jet
ii. Force on the Inclined Plate Moving in the Direction of the Jet
Solved Problems 17.11-17.13

iii. Force on the Curved Plate when the Plate is Moving in the Direction of Jet
Solved Problems 17.14-17.17

iv. Force Exerted by a Jet of Water on an Un-symmetrical Moving Curved Plate when Jet Strikes Tangentially at One of the Tips
Solved Problems 17.18-1723

v. Force Exerted by a Jet of Water on a Series of Vanes
vi. Force Exerted on a Series of Radial Curved Vanes
Solved Problems 17.24-17.26

5. Jet Propulsion :
i. Jet Propulsion of a Tank with an Orifice
Solved Problems 17.27-17.28

ii. Jet Propulsion of Ships
Solved Problems 17.29-17.33
Highlights
Exercise-17

Chap. XVIII : HYDRAULIC MACHINES-TURBINES :
1. Introduction
2. Turbines
3. General Layout of a Hydro-electric Power Plant
4. Definitions of Heads and Efficiencies of a Turbine
5. Classification of Hydraulic Turbines
6. PELTON Wheel (or Turbine) :
i. Velocity Triangles and Work Done for Pelton Wheel
ii. Points to be Remembered for Pelton Wheel
Solved Problems 18.1-18.10

iii. Design of Pelton Wheel
Solved Problems 18.11-18.13

7. Radial Flow Reaction Turbines :
i. Main Parts of a Radial Flow Reaction Turbine
ii. Inward Radial Flow Turbine
iii. Degree of Reactions
iv. Definitions
Solved Problems 18.14-18.20

v. Outward Radial Flow Reaction Turbine
Solved Problems 18.21-18.22

8. Francis Turbine :
i. Important Relations for Francis Turbines
Solved Problems 18.23-18.26

9. Axial Flow Reaction Turbine :
i. Some Important Point for Propeller (Kaplan Turbine)
Solved Problems 18.27-18.33

10. Draft Tube :
i. Types of Draft Tubes
ii. Draft Tube Theory
iii. Efficiency of Draft Tube
Solved Problems 18.33 (a)-18.35

11. Specific Speed :
i. Derivation of the Specific Speed
ii. Significance of Specific Speed
Solved Problems 18.36-18.41

12. Unit Quantities :
i. Unit Speed
ii. Unit Discharge
iii. Unit Power
iv. Use of Unit Quantities (Nu, Qu, Pu)
Solved Problems 18.41 (a)-18.45

13. Characteristic Curves of Hydraulic Turbines :
i. Main Characteristic Curves or Constant Head Curves
ii. Operating Characteristic Curves or Constant Speed Curves
iii. Constant Efficiency Curves or Muschel Curves or Iso-Efficiency Curves

14. Governing of Turbines
Highlights
Exercise-18

Chap. XIX : CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS :
1. Introduction
2. Main Parts of a Centrifugal Pump
3. Work Done by the Centrifugal Pump (or by Impfller) on Water
4. Definitions of Heads and Efficiencies of a Centrifugal Pump
Solved Problems 19.1-19.12

5. Minimum Speed for Starting a Centrifugal Pump
Solved Problems 19.13-19.15

6. Multistage Centrifugal Pumps :
i. Multistage Centrifugal Pumps for High Heads
ii. Multistage Centrifugal Pumps for High Discharge
Solved Problems 19.16-19.17

7. Specific Speed of a Centrifugal Pump (Ns) :
i. Expression for Specific Speed for a Pump

8. Model Testing of Centrifugal Pumps
Solved Problems 19.18-19.22

9. Priming of a Centrifugal Pump
10. Characteristic Curves of Centrifugal Pumps :
i. Main Characteristic Curves
ii. Operating Characteristic Curves
iii. Constant Efficiency Curves

11. Cavitation :
i. Precaution against Cavitation
ii. Effects of Cavitation
iii. Hydraulic Machines Subjected to Cavitation
iv. Cavitation in Turbines
v. Cavitation in Centrifugal Pumps
Solved Problem 19.23

12. Maximum Suction Lift (or Suction Height)
13. Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH)
14. Cavitation in Centrifugal Pump
Solved Problem 19.24
Highlights
Exercise-19

Chap. XX : RECIPROCATING PUMPS :
1. Introduction
2. Main Parts of a Reciprocating Pump
3. Working of a Reciprocating Pump :
i. Discharge Through a Reciprocating Pump
ii. Work Done by Reciprocating Pump
iii. Discharge, Work Done and Power Required to Drive a Double-acting Pump

4. Slip of Reciprocating Pump :
i. Negative Slip of the Reciprocating Pump

5. Classification of Reciprocating Pumps
Solved Problems 20.1-20.2

6. Variation of Velocity and Acceleration in the Suction and Delivery Pipes Due to Acceleration of the Piston
7. Effect of Variation of Velocity on Friction in the Suction and Delivery Pipes
Solved Problem 20.3

8. Indicator Diagram :
i. Ideal Indicator Diagram
ii. Effect of Acceleration in Suction and Delivery Pipes on Indicator Diagram
Solved Problems 20.4-20.9

iii. Effect of Friction in Suction and Delivery Pipes on Indicator Diagram
iv. Effect of Acceleration and Friction in Suction and Delivery Pipes on Indicator Diagram
Solved Problems 20.10-20.12

v. Maximum Speed of a Reciprocating Pump
Solved Problem 20.13

9. Air Vessels
Solved Problems 20.14-20.18

10. Comparison between Centrifugal Pumps and Reciprocating Pumps
Highlights
Exercise-20

Chap. XXI : FLUID SYSTEM :
1. Introduction
2. The Hydraulic Press :
i. Mechanical Advantage
ii. Leverage of the Hydraulic Press
iii. Actual Heavy Hydraulic Press
Solved Problems 21.1-21.5

3. The Hydraulic Accumulator :
i. Capacity of Hydraulic Accumulator
Solved Problems 21.6-21.11

ii. Differential Hydraulic Accumulator

4. The Hydraulic Intensifier
Solved Problems 21.12-21.13

5. The Hydraulic Ram
Solved Problems 21.14-21.15

6. The Hydraulic Lift :
i. Direct Acting Hydraulic Lift
ii. Suspended Hydraulic Lift
Solved Problems 21.16-21.17

7. The Hydraulic Crane
Solved Problems 21.18-21.20

8. The Fluid or Hydraulic Coupling
9. The Hydraulic Torque Converter
10. The Air Lift Pump
11. The Gear-wheel Pump
Highlights
Exercise-21

Objective Type Questions
Answers to Objective Type Questions

Preface

The popularity of the eighth edition and reprints of the text book Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines amongst the students and the teachers of the various Universities in the country, has prompted the bringing out of the ninth edition of the book so soon. The ninth edition has been thoroughly revised and brought up-to-date. A large number of problems from different B.E. degree examinations of Indian Universities and other examining bodies such as Institution of Engineers and U.P.S.C. upto Summer 2002 examinations have been selected and have been solved at proper places on this edition. Most of these problems have been worked out in S.I. units. All of the text along with existing problems have been converted into S.I. Units.

In the ninth edition, a new chapter entitled Ideal Flow (or Potential Flow) has been added. Potential flow has been included in most of Indian Universities. This chapter has been written in a simple and easy-to-follow language so that even an average student can grasp the subject matter by self-study. Also a few new topics such as "Liquids in Relative Equilibrium" and "Pipe Network" have been added in this edition. The topic of Pipe Network has been included in the chapter of Flow Through Pipes. The pipe network is mostly used in city water supply system, Laboratory supply system or house hold supply of water and gas.

The objective type multiple-choice questions are often asked in the various competitive examinations. Hence a large number of objective type questions with answers have been added in the end of the book.

With these additions, it is hoped that the book will be quite useful for the students of different branches of Engineering at various Engineering Institutions.

I express my sincere thanks to my colleagues, friends, students and the teachers of different Indian Universities for their valuable suggestions and recommending the book of their students.

Suggestions for the improvement of this book are most welcome and would be incorporated in the next edition with a view to make the book more useful.

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