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A Textbook of Power System Engineering For Students of B.E./B.Tech.; U.P.S.C. (Engg. Services); Section-B of A.M.I.E. (India) in S.I. Units Reprint

by  R.K. Rajput
A Textbook of Power System Engineering For Students of B.E./B.Tech.; U.P.S.C. (Engg. Services); Section-B of A.M.I.E. (India) in S.I. Units Reprint,8170089166,9788170089162


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Book Information

Publisher:Laxmi Publications Pvt. Ltd.
Published In:2008
Binding Type:Paperback
Weight:3.75 lbs
Pages:pp. [xxiv] + 1085, Figures, Tables, Graphs, Index

The Title "A Textbook of Power System Engineering For Students of B.E./B.Tech.; U.P.S.C. (Engg. Services); Section-B of A.M.I.E. (India) in S.I. Units Reprint" is written by R.K. Rajput. This book was published in the year 2008. The ISBN number 8170089166|9788170089162 is assigned to the Paperback version of this title. The book displayed here is a Reprint edition. This book has total of pp. [xxiv] + 1085 (Pages). The publisher of this title is Laxmi Publications Pvt. Ltd.. We have about 1542 other great books from this publisher. A Textbook of Power System Engineering For Students of B.E./B.Tech.; U.P.S.C. (Engg. Services); Section-B of A.M.I.E. (India) in S.I. Units Reprint is currently Not Available with us.You can enquire about this book and we will let you know the availability.

About the Book

This Book on "Power System Engineering" has been written for students preparing for B.E., B.Tech., A.M.I.E.(I) Section B, U.P.S.C., and other Competitive Examinations. It comprises three parts : Part-I deals with "Generation", Part-II with "Transmission and Distribution" while Part-III includes "Switchgear and Protection". The book contains 28 chapters in all, at the end "Objective Type Question Bank" has also been added.

About the Author

Solar Energy Society of India "r-k">R.K. href="/books/institution-of" Title="institution-of">Institution of t, born on 15th September, 1944 (coincident with Engineer's Day) is a multi-disciplinary engineer. He obtained his Master degree in Mechanical Engineering (with Hons-Gold Medal) from Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala. He is also a Graduate Engineer in Electrical Engineering. Apart from this he holds memberships of various professional bodies like Member Institution of Engineers (MIE); Member Indian Society of Technical Education (MISTE) and Member Solar Energy Society of India (MSESI). He is also a Chartered Engineer (India). He has served for several years as Principal of "Punjab College of Information Technology", Patiala and "Thapar Polytechnic, Patiala".

He has more than 35 years of experience in teaching different subjects of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering disciplines. He has published/presented a large number of technical papers. He is author of several books on the important subjects of Mechanical as well as Electrical Engineering disciplines.

He has earned, by dint of hard work and devotion to duty, the following awards/honours :
1. Best Teacher (Academic) Award
2. Jawahar Lal Nehru Memorial Gold Medal for an outstanding research paper (Institution of Engineers)
3. Distinguished Author Award
4. Man of Achievement Award.


I. Introduction :
1. Energy
2. Power
3. Sources of Energy :
i. Fuels
ii. Energy Stored in Water
iii. Nuclear Energy
iv. Wind Power
v. Solar Energy
vi. Tidal Power
vii. Geothermal Energy
viii. Thermo-electric Power

4. Power Systems' Structure

Theoretical Questions

II. Steam Power Plant :
1. Introduction
2. Classification of Steam Power Plants
3. Layout of a Modern Steam Power Plant
4. Essential Requirements of Steam Power Station Design
5. Selection of Site for Steam Power Station
6. Capacity of Steam Power Plant
7. Choice of Steam Conditions
8. Fuel Handling :
i. Introduction
ii. Requirements of Good Coal Handling Plant
iii. Coal Handling Systems
iv. Coal Handling
v. Layout of a Fuel Handling Equipment

9. Combustion Equipment for Steam Boilers :
i. General Aspects
ii. Combustion Equipment for solid Fuels-selection Considerations
iii. Burning of Coal
iv. Burners

10. Fluidised Bed Combustion (FBC)
11. Ash Handling :
i. Ash Handling Equipment
ii. Ash Handling Systems

12. Dust Collection :
i. Introduction
ii. Removal of Smoke
iii. Removal of Dust and Dust Collectors
iv. Uses of Ash and Dust
v. General Layout of Ash Handling and Dust Collection System

13. Boilers :
i. Introduction
ii. Classification of Boilers
iii. Comparison between 'Fire-tube and Water Tube' Boilers
iv. High Pressure Boilers

14. Steam Turbines :
i. Introduction
ii. Classification of Steam Turbines
iii. Advantages of Steam Turbine Over the Steam Engines
iv. Description of Common Types of Turbines
v. Methods of Reducing wheel or Rotor Speed
vi. Difference between Impulse and Reaction Turbines
vii. Steam Turbine Governing and Control

15. Steam Condensers :
i. Introduction
ii. Vacuum
iii. Organs of a Steam Condensing Plant
iv. Classification of Condensers
v. Jet Condensers
vi. Surface Condensers
vii. Comparison between Jet and Surface Condensers

16. Feed Water Treatment :
i. Classification of Impurities in Water
ii. Troubles Caused by the Impurities in Water
iii. Methods of Feed Water Treatment

17. Advantages and Disadvantages of Steam Power Plants
18. Miscellaneous :
i. Useful Life of Steam Power Plant Components
ii. Steam Power Plant Pumps
iii. Cost of Steam Power Plant
iv. Comparison of Various Types of Power Plants
v. Thermal Power Stations in India

Theoretical Questions

III. Diesel Engine Power Plant :
1. Introduction
2. Advantages and Disadvantages of Diesel Power Plants
3. Applications of Diesel Power Plant
4. Site Selection
5. Heat Engines
6. Classification of I.C. Engines
7. Comparison between a Petrol Engine and a Diesel Engine
8. Essential Components of a Diesel Power Plant :
i. Engine
ii. Air Intake System
iii. Exhaust System
iv. Fuel System

9. Operation of a Diesel Power Plant
10. Types of Diesel Engines Used for Diesel Power Plants
11. Layout of a Diesel Engine Power Plant

Theoretical Questions

IV. Gas Turbine Power Plants :
1. Gas Turbines-general Aspects
2. Applications of Gas Turbine Plants
3. Advantages and Disadvantages of Gas Turbine Power Plants Over Diesel and Thermal Power Plants
4. Site Selection
5. The Simple Gas Turbine Plant
6. Energy Cycle for a Simple-Cycle Gas Turbine
7. Performance Terms
8. Classification of Gas Turbine Power Plants
9. Classification of Gas Turbines
10. Combination Gas Turbine Cycles :
i. Combined Turbine and Steam Power Plants
ii. Combined Gas Turbine and Diesel Power Plants
iii. Advantages of Combined Cycle

11. Operation of a Gas Turbine
12. Gas Turbine Power Plant Layout
13. Components of a Gas Turbine Power Plant
14. Various Arrangements of Gas Turbine Power Plants
15. Effect of Thermodynamic Variables on Air Rate

Theoretical Questions

V. Hydro-Electric Power Plant :
1. Introduction
2. Application of Hydro-electric Plants
3. Advantages and Disadvantages of Hydro-electric Plants
4. Selection of Site for a Hydro-electric Plant
5. Essential Features/Elements of Hydro-electric Power Plant
6. Classification of Hydro-electric Power Plants :
i. High Head Power Plants
ii. Medium Head Power Plants
iii. Low Head Power Plants
iv. Base Load Plants
v. Peak Load Plants
vi. Run-of-river Plants Without Pondage
vii. Run-of-river Plants with Pondage
viii. Storage Type Plants
ix. Pumped Storage Plants
x. Mini and Microhydel Plants

7. Hydraulic Turbines :
i. Classification of Hydraulic Turbines
ii. Description of Various Types of Turbines
iii. Specific Speed of a Turbine
iv. Efficiencies of a Turbine
v. Cavitation
vi. Performance of Hydraulic Turbines
vii. Governing of Hydraulic Turbines
viii. Selection of Turbines

8. Plant Layout
5.9. Hydro-plant Auxiliaries
5.10. Cost of Hydro-plant
5.11. Average Life of Hydro-plant Components
5.12. Hydro-plant Controls
5.13. Electrical and Mechanical Equipment in a Hydro-plant
5.14. Combined Hydro and Steam Power Plants
5.15. Comparison of Hydro-power Station with Thermal Power Stations
16. Underground Hydro-plants
17. Automatic and Remote Control of Hydro-station
18. Safety Measures in Hydro-electric Power Plants
5.19. Preventive Maintenance of Hydro-plant
5.20. Calculation of Available Hydro-power
5.21. Cost of Hydro-power
5.22. Hydrology :
i. Introduction
ii. The hydrologic cycle
iii. Measurement of run-off
iv. Hydrograph
v. Flow Duration Curve
vi. Mass Curve

23. Hydro-power Development in India

Theoretical Questions
Unsolved Examples

VI. Nuclear Power Plant :
1. General Aspects of Nuclear Engineering :
i. Nuclear Structure
ii. Atomic Mass Unit
iii. Isotopes
iv. Radioactivity
v. Nuclear Radiation
vi. Binding Energy
vii. Radioactive Decay
viii. Nuclear Reactions
ix. Nuclear Cross-sections
x. Fertile Materials
xi. Fission of Nuclear Fuel
xii. Nuclear Fusion
xiii. Comparison of Fission and Fusion Processes

2. Nuclear Power Systems
3. Nuclear Reactors :
i. Introduction
ii. Classification of Nuclear Reactors
iii. Essential Components of a Nuclear Reactor
iv. Power of a Nuclear Reactor

4. Main Components of a Nuclear Power Plant
5. Description of Reactors :
i. Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR)
ii. Boiling water Reactor (BWR)
iii. CANDU (Canadian-Deuterium-uranium) Reactor
iv. Gas-cooled Reactor
v. Liquid Metal Cooled Reactors
vi. Breeder Reactor

6. Selection of Materials for Reactor Components
7. Advantages and Disadvantages of Nuclear Power Plants
8. Nuclear-plant Site Selection
9. Nuclear Power Plants in India

Theoretical Questions

VII. Non-Conventional Power Generation and-Direct Energy Conversion :
1. Introduction
2. Wind Power Plants :
i. Introduction
ii. Wind Availability and Measurement
iii. Types of Wind Mills
iv. Wind-electric Generating Power Plant
v. Types of Wind Machines
vi. Wind-powered Battery Chargers
vii. Wind Electricity in Small Independent Grids
viii. Wind Electricity Economics
ix. Problems in Operating Large Wind Power Generators

3. Tidal Power Plants :
i. Introduction
ii. Components of Tidal Power Plants
iii. Classification and Operation of Tidal Power Plants
iv. Advantages and Limitations of Tidal Power Generation

4. Solar Power Plants :
i. Solar Energy-general Terms and Introduction
ii. Collectors in Various Ranges and Applications
iii. Flat Plate Collectors
iv. Focusing (or Concentrating) Collectors
v. Solar Pond Technology
vi. Low Temperature Thermal Power Generation
vii. Medium Temperature Systems Using Focusing Collectors
viii. High Temperature Systems-solar Farm and Solar Tower Plant

5. Geothermal Power Plants :
i. Geothermal Energy
ii. Geothermal Sources
iii. Geothermal Power Estimates
iv. Environmental Problems
v. Applications of Geothermal Energy
vi. Advantages and Disadvantages of Geothermal Energy Over Other Energy Forms

6. Direct Energy Conversion Systems :
i. Thermoelectric Conversion System
ii. Thermionic Conversion System
iii. Photovoltaic Power System
iv. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) System
v. Electrostatic Mechanical Generators
vi. Electro Gas-dynamic Generators (EGD)
vii. Fuel Cells
viii. Nuclear Batteries

Theoretical Questions

VIII. Combined Operation of Different Power Plants :
1. General Aspects
2. Advantages of Combined Operation of Plants
3. Load Division between Power Stations
4. Hydro-electric (Storage Type) Plant in Combination with Steam Plant
5. Run-of-river Plant in Combination with Steam Plant
6. Pump Storage Plant in Combination with Steam or Nuclear Power Plant
7. Co-ordination of Hydro-electric and Gas Turbine Stations
8. Co-ordination of Different Types of Power Plants

Theoretical Questions
Unsolved Examples

IX. Economics of Power Generation :
1. Introduction
2. Terms and Definitions
3. Principles of Power Plant Design
4. Location of Power Plant
5. Layout of Power Plant Building
6. Cost Analysis
7. Selection of Type of Generation
8. Selection of Power Plant Equipment :
i. Selection of Boilers
ii. Selection of Prime-movers
iii. Selection of Size and Number of Generating Units

9. Economics in Plant Selection
10. Factors Affecting Economics of Generation and Distribution of Power
11. How To Reduce Power Generation Cost?
12. Power Plant-useful Life
13. Economics of Hydro-electric Power Plants
14. Economics of Combined Hydro and Steam Power Plants
15. Performance and Operating Characteristics of Power Plants
16. Economic Load Sharing
17. Tariff for Electrical Energy :
i. Introduction
ii. Objectives and Requirements of Tariff
iii. General Tariff Form

Theoretical Questions
Unsolved Examples

X. Interconnected Systems :
1. Introduction
2. Advantages and Limitations of Interconnected System
3. Parallel Operation of Alternators :
i. Requirements for Paralleling
ii. Alternator Synchronising Procedure
iii. Synchronising Current, Power and Torque
iv. Effect of Reactance
v. Effect of Increasing the Excitation of One of the Alternators
vi. Effect of Increasing the Driving Torque of One of the Alternators
vii. Effect of Changes in Speed of One of the Alternators
viii. Effect of Unequal Voltages
ix. Distribution of Load
x. Load Sharing between Two Alternators
xi. Hunting of Alternators
xii. Synchronous Machines on Infinite Bus-bars

4. Interconnected Stations :
i. General Aspects
ii. Load Sharing
iii. Power Limit of Interconnectors
iv. Voltage, Frequency and Load Control
v. Load Dispatching

Theoretical Questions
Unsolved Examples

XI. Electric Power Systems :
1. Introduction
2. Electric Supply System
3. Comparison between B.C. and A.C. Systems of Transmission and Distribution
4. Advantages and Limitations of High Transmission Voltage
5. Systems of Power Transmission
6. Comparison of Volume of Conductor Material :
i. Overhead System
ii. Underground System

7. Choice of Transmission Voltage
8. Conductor Size and Kelvin's Law

Theoretical Questions
Unsolved Examples

XII. Mechanical Design of Overhead Lines :
1. Introduction
2. Main Component of Overhead Lines
3. Conductors
4. Line Supports
5. Overhead Line Insulators :
i. Introduction
ii. Insulating Materials
iii. Types of Insulators
iv. Causes of Failure of Insulators
v. Testing of Insulators
vi. Potential Distribution Over a String of Suspension Insulators

6. Sag in Overhead Lines
7. Stringing Chart
8. Vibration and Vibration Dampers
9. Corona :
i. General Aspects
ii. Theory of Corona Formation
iii. Factors Affecting Corona
iv. Advantages and Disadvantages of Corona
v. Corona Loss and its Control
vi. Important Terms Relating to Corona

Theoretical Questions
Unsolved Examples

XII. Constants of Overhead Transmission Lines :
1. Introduction
2. Inductance of a Transmission Line :
i. Concept of Inductance
ii. Flux Linkages
iii. Inductance of 2-wire (1-phase) Transmission Line
iv. Inductance of a 3-Phase Overhead Transmission Line
v. Self-GMD and Mutual-GMD

3. Resistance of a Transmission Line
4. Skin Effect and Proximity Effect
5. Capacitance of Transmission Lines :
i. Concept of Capacitance
ii. Electric Potential
iii. Capacitance of a Single-phase Two-wire Overhead Transmission Line
iv. Capacitance of a 3-Phase Overhead Transmission Line
v. Capacitance of a Double-circuit 3-phase Overhead Line
vi. Effect of Earth on the Capacitance of a Transmission Line

Theoretical Questions
Unsolved Examples

XIV. Performance of Transmission Lines :
1. Introduction
2. Classification of Transmission Lines
3. Regulation and Efficiency of a Transmission Line
4. Short Transmission Lines :
i. Single-phase Lines
ii. Three-phase Lines
iii. Effect of Load Power Factor on Efficiency and Regulation of a Transmission Line

5. Medium Transmission Lines :
i. End Condenser Method
ii. Nominal-T Method
iii. Nominal-л Method

6. Generalised Circuit Constants
7. Long Transmission Lines :
i. General Aspects
ii. Analysis of Long Transmission Line-rigorous Method
iii. Evaluation of A, B, C, D Constants
iv. Surge Impedance and Surge Impedance Loading of Transmission Lines
v. Transmission Line with Series Impedance at Receiving End
vi. Transmission Line with Series Impedance at the Sending End
vii. Transmission Line with Series Impedance at Both Ends
viii. Transmission Line With Transformers at Both Ends
ix. Equivalent T-network of a Long Transmission Line
x. Equivalent л-network of a Long Transmission Line
xi. Constant Voltage Transmission
xii. Power Circle Diagram
xiii. Synchronous Phase Modifiers

8. Ferranti Effect
9. Charging Current and Losses in an Open-circuited Line

Theoretical Questions
Unsolved Examples

XV. Interference of Power Lines With Neighbouring Communication Circuits :
1. Introduction
2. Electromagnetic Effect
3. Electrostatic Effect
4. Transposition

Theoretical Questions
Unsolved Examples

XVI. Underground Cables :
1. Introduction
2. General Construction of Cable
3. Insulating Materials for Cables
4. Classification of Cables :
i. Low Voltage (or L.T.) Cables
ii. High Voltage (H.T.) Cables upto 11 kV
iii. Super Tension/Screened Cables
iv. Extra High Tension (E.H.T.) Cables

5. Laying of Underground Cables
6. Insulation Resistance of a Single-core Cable
7. Capacitance of a Single-core Cable
8. The Most Economical Conductor Size in a Cable
9. Grading of Cables
10. Capacitance of 3-core Cables
11. Heating of Cables
12. Thermal Resistance of Cables
13. Permissible Current Loading
14. Types of Cable Faults and Their Location :
i. Types of Cable Faults
ii. Location of Cable Fault

15. Causes of Failure of Underground Cables
16. Operating Problems with Cables
17. Direct Current (D.C.) Cables
18. Cryogenic Cables
19. Comparison between Overhead Lines and Underground Cables

Theoretical Questions
Unsolved Examples

XVII. Power System Stability :
1. Introduction
2. Classification of Stability Conditions
3. Steady State Stability :
i. Maximum Steady State Power
ii. Power-angle Diagram
iii. General Aspects of Steady State Stability

4. Transient Stability :
i. General Aspects
ii. The Swing Equation
iii. Equal Area Criterion
iv. Critical Clearing Angle
v. Transient Stability in a Multi-machine System
vi. Transient Stability Improvement

Theoretical Questions
Unsolved Examples

XVIII. Control of Reactive Power, Voltage and Load Frequency Transmission Systems :
1. Generation and Absorption of Reactive Power
2. Effect of Reactive Power on Voltage and Voltage Regulation
3. Relations between 6Q, 8P and V at a Node
4. Reactive Compensation in Power System
5. Types of Compensators
6. Methods of Voltage Control in Transmission System
7. Relations between Voltage and Reactive Power, Frequency and Active Power
8. Control of Load Frequency

Theoretical Questions

XIX. Power Distribution Systems :
1. Distribution Systems-General Aspects :
i. Classification of distribution Systems
ii. Requirements of a Distribution System
iii. Overhead Versus Underground System

2. B.C. Distribution :
i. Types of Distributors
ii. Types of Loading
iii. D.C. Distributor Fed at One End
iv. D.C. Distributor Fed at Both Ends
v. Ring Distributor
vi. Three-wire D.C. System

3. A.C. Distribution :
i. Introduction
ii. A.C. Distribution Calculations
iii. A.C. Distributors With Concentrated Loads
iv. Three-phase Unbalanced Loads

Theoretical Questions
Unsolved Examples

XX. Extra High Voltage Transmission :
1. Introduction
2. Extra High Voltage A.C. Transmission :
i. Advantages of E.H.V. Transmission
ii. Limitations/Problems Involved in E.H.V. Transmission

3. High Voltage Direct Current (H.V.D.C) Transmission :
i. Classification of H.V.D.C. Transmission Systems
ii. Advantages, Limitations and Applications of H.V.D.C. Transmission Systems

Theoretical Questions

XXI. Symmetrical Components and Fault Calculations :
1. Introduction
2. Types of Faults
3. Symmetrical Fault Calculations :
i. Percentage Reactance
ii. Reactances of Synchronous Machines
iii. Reactor Control of Short-circuit Currents
iv. Steps for Symmetrical Fault Calculations

4. Unsymmetrical Fault Calculations :
i. Unsymmetrical Faults
ii. Symmetrical Components
iii. Sequence Impedances
iv. Analysis of Unsymmetrical Faults
v. Sequence Networks
vi. Open Conductor Faults

Theoretical Questions
Unsolved Examples

XXII. Switches, Fuses and Circuit Breakers :
1. Switchgear-general Aspects :
i. Definition of Switchgear
ii. Functions of Switchgear
iii. Essential Features of Switchgear
iv. Principles of Layout of Switchgear
v. Types of Switchgear
vi. Short-circuits in Electrical Installations and Limiting Methods

2. Switches
3. Fuses :
i. Definition of Fuse
ii. Advantages and Disadvantages of a Fuse
iii. Desirable Characteristics of Fuse Element
iv. Fuse Element Materials
v. Important Terms Relating to Fuses
vi. Types of Fuses
vii. Fuse Selection
viii. Difference between Sub-circuit Fuses, Main Circuit Fuses, Meter Board Fuses and Pole Fuses in an Electrical Installation
ix. Difference between Fuse and Circuit Breaker

4. Circuit Breakers :
i. Introduction
ii. Function of a Circuit Breaker
iii. Principle of Circuit Breaker
iv. Arc Phenomenon
v. Methods of arc Extinction
vi. Arc, Restriking and Recovery Voltages
vii. Current Chopping
viii. Resistance Switching
ix. Classification of Circuit Breakers
x. Oil Circuit Breakers
xi. Water Type Circuit Breaker
xii. Air Blast Circuit Breakers
xiii. Sulphur Hexafluoride (SFB) Circuit Breakers
xiv. Vacuum Circuit Breakers
xv. Low Voltage Circuit Breakers
xvi. Ratings of Circuit Breakers
xvii. Testing of Circuit Breakers
xviii. Autoreclosing
xix. Maintenance of Circuit Breakers
xx. Switchgear Components
xxi. Bus-bar Arrangements

5. Control Room-power Station

Theoretical Questions
Unsolved Examples

XXIII. Protective Relays :
1. Protective System-General Aspects
2. Protective Relays-Introduction
3. Classification of Relays
4. Electromagnetic Attraction Relays :
i. Attracted Armature Type Relay
ii. Solenoid Type Relay
iii. Balanced Beam Type Relay

5. Thermal Relay
6. Buchholz Relay
7. Electromagnetic Induction Relays
8. Induction Type Non-directional Over-current Relay
9. Induction Type Directional Power Relay
10. Induction Type Directional Overcurrent Relay
11. Differential Relays :
i. Current Differential Relay
ii. Voltage Balance Differential Relay

12. Translay Relay
13. Distance or Impedance Relays :
i. Definite-distance Type Impedance Relay
ii. Time-distance Impedance Relay

14. Reactance Type Distance Relay
15. Mho Type Distance Relay
16. Universal Torque Equation
17. Static Relays :
i. Introduction
ii. Merits and Demerits of Static Relays
iii. Applications of Static Relays
iv. Electronic Circuits Commonly Used in Static Relays
v. Analog Circuits Used in Static Relay
vi. Different Static Relays

Theoretical Questions

XXIV. Protection of Alternators and Transformers :
1. Protection of Alternators/Synchronous Generators :
i. Types of Faults in alternators
ii. Protection Against Stator Faults by Percentage Differential Relays (Merz-Price Protection System)
iii. Balanced Earth-fault protection
iv. Stator Inter-turn Protection
v. Unbalanced Loading of the Alternator
vi. Overload (or Overcurrent) Protection
vii. Failure of Prime-mover
viii. Overvoltage Protection
ix. Restricted Earth Fault Protection of Alternator
x. Stand-by Earth Fault Protection
xi. Rotor Fault Protection

2. Protection of Transformers :
i. Buchholz Protection
ii. Core-balance Leakage Protection
iii. Combined Leakage and Overload Protection
iv. Differential Protection for Transformers
v. Interlocked Overcurrent Protection in the Transformer Protection Scheme

Theoretical Questions
Unsolved Examples

XXV. Protection of Bus-Bars and Lines/Feeders :
1. Introduction
2. Bus-bar Protection :
i. Differential Protection
ii. Fault Bus Protection

3. Protection of Lines/Feeders :
i. Requirements of Line Protection
ii. Protection Schemes for Line/Feeder Protection

Theoretical Questions

XXVI. Protection Against Overvoltages and Insulation Co-ordination :
1. Introduction
2. Causes of Overvoltages
3. Internal Causes of Overvoltages
4. External Causes of Overvoltages-lightning :
i. Process of Lightning Discharge
ii. Types of Lightning Strokes
iii. Protection Against Overvoltages and Lightning
iv. Types of Lightning Arresters
v. Surge Absorber
vi. Rating of Lightning Arrester
vii. Tests on Lightning Arresters Insulation Co-Ordination

Theoretical Questions

XXVII. Neutral Earthing (Grounding) :
1. Introduction
2. Objects of Earthing
3. Advantages of Earthing
4. Necessity of Neutral Earthing
5. Methods of Neutral Earthing
6. Earthed Transformer
7. Specifications Required for Earthing as Per I.S.I.
8. Sizes of Earth Wire and Earth Plate for Domestic and Motor Installations
9. Measurement of Earth Resistance by Earth Tester
10. Indian Electricity Rules

Theoretical Questions
Unsolved Examples

XXVIII. Sub-Stations :
1. Introduction
2. Functions of Sub-stations
3. Classification of Sub-stations
4. Indoor Sub-stations
5. Outdoor Sub-stations
6. Transformer Sub-stations
7. Symbols for Circuit Elements/Equipment in Sub-stations
8. Equipment for Sub-stations and Switchgear Installations
9. Key Diagram of 11 kV/400 V Indoor Sub-station
10. Earthing

Theoretical Questions

Objective Type Questions Bank-With Answers