List of Tables
List of Figures
A Note from the Co-ordinator/Ashish Vachhani
1. Editors' Introduction/R.S. Deshpande and Saroj Arora
2. Economic Reforms, Small Farmer Economy and Agrarian Crisis/D. Narasimha Reddy and Srijit Mishra
3. Contextualising the Agrarian Suicides/A.R. Vasavi
4. Poor Indian Fanners' Plight and Liberalisation : An Overview/A.K. Singhal
5. Path of Development and Politics in Karnataka/Muzaffar Assadi
6. Globalisation, Agrarian Crisis and Farmers' Suicides : Illusion and Reality/R.S. Deshpande and Khalil Shah
7. Globalisation vis-a-vis Agrarian Crisis in India/M.S. Sidhu
8. Cotton Growers : Experience from Vidarbha/Neelima Deshmukh
9. Economic Reforms and Regional Disparities/E. Revathi and Shaik Galab
10. The Drought Prone Anantapur District of Andhra Pradesh/G. Sreedhar
11. Distress and Deceased in Andhra Pradesh : An Analysis of Causes of Farmers' Suicide/T. Prabhakara Reddy
12. Indebtedness and Fanners' Suicides/K. Copal Iyer and Saroj Arora
13. Punjab Peasantry : A Question of Life and Debt/Anita Gill
14. Agrarian Crisis in Punjab and Policy Options/G.S. Kalkat
15. Credit through Participatory Management : The Way for Rural Smile/Ravikesh Srivastava
16. Way Out : Short-term and Long-term Measures for Sustainable Agriculture/Srinivasan Santhanam
17. Farmers' Suicide : Behavioural and Social Dimensions/Gyanmudra
18. Providing a Level Playing Field for the Small Farmer/Meeta Rajivlochan and M. Rajivlochan
19. Way Forward/R.S. Deshpande and Saroj Arora
About the Editors and Contributors
2.1. Certain Key Characteristics of Operational Holdings : 1960-61 to 2002-03
2.2. Changes in the Size Distribution of Operational Holdings and Operated Area : 1960-61 to 2003
2.3. Incidence, Amount and Source of Indebtedness by Size and Class of Holding : 2003
2.4. Distribution of Scheduled Commercial Banks', Outstanding Credit to Farmer Households According to Size of Holdings
2.5. Number of Poor and Undernourished Persons in Various Farm Categories in Rural India
2.6. Returns to Cultivation, Farm Animals and Non-farm Business for Farmer Households, 2002-03
2.7. Trends in Crude Death Rates and Suicide Mortality Rates in India : 1981-2006
2.8. Male Suicide Mortality Rates in Selected States and for India
2.9. Suicide Mortality Rate for Male Farmers and Male Non-farmers in Selected States and India, 1995-2006
5.1. Suicide Cases Reported under Farming and Agricultural Activity, 1996-2002 (Police Report)
5.2. Fanners' Suicide between 1 April 2003 and 1 January 2007 in Karnataka
53. Number of Suicide Cases Reported and Rejected by the State Government
6.1. Growth Performance over Five Decades : 1949-50 to 2006-07
6.2. Growth Rates in Suicide Mortality Rates of Farmers and Non-farmers : 1996-2005
6.3. Average Suicide Rates for Male Farmers across States : 2001-2005
6.4. Incidents and Events in the Life of the Victims
6.5. Social and Political Relationship of the Victim Families
6.6. Social Support as Reflected from the Members of the Victim Family
6.7. Sector-wise Credit Row of Priority Sector in Karnataka
6.8. Ground Level Credit Disbursements to Priority Sector in Karnataka
6.9. Per 1000 Distribution of Indebted Farmer Households by Size Class of Land Possessed in Karnataka State and India
6.10. Estimated Percentage of Rural Households and Total and Indebted Farmer Households in Karnataka State and India
6.11. Number of Banks Achieving the 18 percent Target
6.12. Sources of Credit for Small and Marginal Farmers
6.13. Per 1000 Distribution of Outstanding Loans by Source of Loan for Each Size Class of Land Possessed (in Ha) by Farmer Households in Karnataka (Jan-Dec 2003)
7.1. Export and Import of Agricultural Commodities-vis-a-vis Total National Exports and Imports during 1991-92 to 2005-06
7.2. Share of India's Total Exports and Imports and Agricultural Exports and Imports in Gross Domestic Product at Factor Cost (at current prices), 1991-92 to 2005-06
7.3. Percentage Change in World Price due to India's Trade in Rice and Wheat
7.4. Net Availability of Cereals and Pulses in India, 1991-2005
7.5. Distribution of Operational Holdings in India, 1990-91 to 2000-01
7.6. Net Area Sown and Gross Cropped Area per Agricultural Worker in India, 1951 to 2001
7.7. Gross Capital Formation in Agriculture Sector of India, 1990-91 to 2005-06
7.8. Compound Growth Rates of Area, Production and Yield of Principal Crops in India during 1980-90, 1990-2000 and 2000-06 (Base : TE 1981-82=100)
7.9. Estimated Number of Rural Households, Total and Indebted Farmer Households in States
7.10. Total and Per-holding Amount of Debt of the Farmers of Harkishanpura Village (Bhatinda District) of Punjab, 2001-02
7.11. Per Holding Sources of Outstanding Debt of the Farmers of Harkishanpura Village (Bhatinda District) of Punjab, 2001-02
8.1. Number of Farmers Committing Suicide in Vidarbha Region (2000-07)
8.2. District-wise Farmers Suicide in Maharashtra
8.3. Value of the Quantity of the Cotton Destroyed (2005)
8.4. Sources of Selling Cotton
9.1. Growth Trend of Overall GSDP and that of Agriculture, on Agriculture and Per Capita GSDP
9.2. Method of Organising Agriculture Activity and Expenditure on Education, Health and Life-cycle Events in the Sample Districts and Different Categories of Farmers
9.3. Deviation between Expected Price (EP) and Actual Price (AP)
9.4. Distribution of Deceased Farmers according to Type of Risks
10.1. Risk Factors Identified with the Sample Deceased Farmers
10.2. Major Reasons for the Indebtedness of Sample Deceased Farmers
11.1. The Sample Size
11.2. Availability of Institutional and Non-institutional Credit to Farmers
11.3. Disbursement of Agricultural Credit in Andhra Pradesh
11.4. Distribution of Operational Holdings and Area Under Holdings by Class Size
11.5. Trends in Public Expenditure on Agriculture and Allied Activities in Andhra Pradesh
11.6. Public Expenditure on Agricultural Research, Education and Extension in Andhra Pradesh
11.7. Source of Loan and Extent of Farmers' Indebtedness
11.8. Short-and Long-term Loans for Agriculture and Allied Activities by Formal Financial Institutions
12.1. Suicide Rate based on Police/IDS Empirical Data
12.2. Causes Responsible for Suicide
12.3. District-wise Number of Suicide Cases in Punjab
12.4. Number of Suicides Committed in Different Districts of Punjab between 1990 and 2006
12.5. The Trends of Suicides in Punjab
12.6. Suicides Committed by Farmers of Punjab between 1990 and 2006
12.7. Year-wise Number and Percentage of Suicides in the State of Punjab from 1990 to 2006
12.8. List of Villages where more than 20 Suicides were Committed
12.9. Subsidy/Grant/Loan Released by Four States
13.1. Average Annual Growth Rates of NSDP and Agricultural NSDP of Punjab at 1999-2000 Prices
13.2. Sectoral Distribution of NSDP at Factor Cost in Punjab
13.3. Changing Structure of Workforce in Punjab
13.4. Terms of Trade between Agricultural and Non-agricultural Sector
13.5. Minimum Support Prices for Wheat and Paddy
13.6. Per Hectare Return in Rupees on Land at A, B2 and C2 Costs
13.7. Extent of Indebtedness (2002-03)
13.8. Indebtedness According to Land Size
13.9. Purpose of Loan
13.10. Land Size Wise Source of Loan (Punjab)
13.11. Magnitude of Indebtedness among The Victims, Indebted Fanners and Punjab Farmers
14.1. Decadal Growth Rates beginning 1980-81 to 1990-91 to 1994-95 to 2004-05 at Constant Prices
14.2. Present Growth Rates of Important Crops in Punjab
14.3. Trends in Profitability of Punjab (wheat) Agriculture, 2000-01 to 2007-08
14.4. Trends in Profitability of Rice in Punjab, 2000-01 to 2007-08
14.5. Share of Institutional Loans and Indebtedness of Punjab Farmers
14.6. Degree of Indebtedness in Relation to Income, Punjab, 2005-06
15.1. Indebtedness in Farmer Households
15.2. Indebtedness and Farmers' Suicides
15.3. Status of Groups
15.4. Households taking Loan
15.5. Households taking Loan from Formal and Informal Sources
15.6. Credit taken for Different Purposes
15.7. Average Amount (Rs/household) Credited by the Sources
15.8. Percentage of Amount of Credited by the Sources
15.9. Loans taken by Households
15.10. Households taking Loan from Different Sources
15.11. Credit by the Purposes
15.12. Average Amount (Rs/household) Credited by the Sources
16.1. Financial Components of Prime Minister's Package
16.2. Long-term Investment Credit Plans Prepared by NABARD-Sector-wise Details
16.3. Organic and Inorganic Cultivation of Cotton under Rain-fed and Irrigated Conditions (Local Variety)
1. Muzaffar Assadi is a Professor of Political Science, University of Mysore. He has written four books including more than 100 articles on varied issues such as communalism, social movements, agrarian crisis, and so on. His books include Politics of Peasant Movement in Karnataka (1997), Identity Politics (2009), Innodu Mukha (Another face) (2009), Gandhi's Hind Swaraj (2010) (ed). He is the editor of journals such as the Indian Journal of Human Rights and Social Justice, My Society and the Karnataka Journal of Politics. Earlier he was a Rockefeller Post-Doctoral Fellow at the University of Chicago.
2. Neelima Deshmukh is an eminent social worker of the Vidarbha region, and a Professor and Head of Post-Graduate Teaching Department of Public Administration and Local Government. A scholar of international repute with 24 years of teaching experience, she is also a Director of Centre for Women's Studies and Development in RTM, Nagpur University, Nagpur. She is the recipient of the Best Teacher's award for Higher and Technical Education, Ministry (2008) and Punyashlok Ahilya Devi Holkar award of Ministry of Women and Child, Government of Maharashtra for women's welfare, capacity building and all-round Development (2007). With 78 research papers to her credit she is presently working as a principle investigator on the major UGC research project on Farmers' Suicide and the role of Panchayati Raj Institutions (2010).
3. Shaik Galab, a Development Economist, is a Professor at Centre for Economic and Social Studies, Hyderabad, India. He was trained at Waltair School of Economics (M. A., 1978 and Ph. D. 1985) and Department of Statistics (M. Sc., 1980) of Andhra University. His initial research interest at the University was efficiency in resource utilisation in agriculture. At the Centre for Economic and Social Studies, he has carried out research on effectiveness of public policies related to poverty alleviation; rehabilitation and resettlement of project affected families; natural resource management; handloom sector; solid waste management in urban areas; and agrarian distress. He has also conducted research on the welfare impact of public sector reforms apart from teaching and guiding M. Phil, and Ph. D. students. His recent work focuses on social capital, women empowerment, child labour and livelihoods. He was a member of Farmers Welfare Commission-a commission appointed by the Government of Andhra Pradesh in response to the Agrarian Crisis in the State leading to a large incidence of suicides among the farmers; permanent invitee on the expert group on agricultural indebtedness constituted by Government of India, and co-opted member on the sub group to study on poverty constituted by the Planning Commission, Government of India. He is one of the co-authors of the book On Joint Forest Management in Andhra Pradesh. Presently he is leading the Young Lives Project India on childhood poverty, as Principal Investigator.
4. Anita Gill is currently serving as Professor of Economics in the Department of Distance Education at Punjabi University, Patiala (Punjab). Her teaching and research initiatives focus on areas of money and banking and agrarian credit markets. She has one book and more than 15 research papers published in reputed national and international journals. She is at present working on a project related to Agrarian Distress and Farmers' Suicides in Punjab.
5. Gyanmudra is Associate Professor and Head, Centre for Human Resource Development, National Institute of Rural Development, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. Her areas of specialisation are behavioural issues : stress management, group dynamics and team building, attitude and behaviour change, personality assessment, interpersonal relationship, transactional analysis, communication skills, leadership and motivation, participatory approaches and capacity building. She has to her credit two books, four articles in international journals, 19 articles in reputed publications and 12 research reports.
6. K. Gopal Iyer worked as part of the sociology faculty in some of the distinguished academic institutions like Patna University, National Labour Institute (under Labour Ministry, Government of India), Allahabad University, Punjab University and LBS, National Academy of Administration, Mussorrie. His papers have been published in reputed national and international journals. He has also published over 10 books. His areas of specialisation include agrarian issues, farmers movement, farmers suicides, agriculture labour, migrant labour, tribal studies, dalit studies, watershed management and environment, panchayati raj and rural development, sociological theories, methodology and social research.
7. G. S. Kalkat did his B. Sc. Agriculture from Punjab Agriculture College, Lyallpur and M. Sc. Agriculture from Punjab University. He did his Ph. D. from Ohio State University, USA (1958). He served as Director of Agriculture, Punjab (1971-73), Agriculture Commissioner/Additional Secretary, Government of India, New Delhi (1973-78) and the World Bank (1978-89). He also remained Vice Chancellor, PAU, Ludhiana (1998-2001) and now he is Chairman, Punjab State Farmers Commission.
8. Srijit Mishra researches on development related issues and teaches a course on Human Development and Policy at the Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research (IG1DR), Mumbai. Some of his recent works are on the agrarian crisis. He is also working on a refinement of the Human Development Index. Earlier he worked at Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics (GIPE), Pune and Nabakrushna Choudhury Centre for Development Studies (NCOS), Bhubaneswar, Orissa. His M. Phil, and Ph. D. theses on tribal agrarian economies of Orissa were done at the Centre for Development Studies (CDS), Thiruvananthapuram and awarded by the Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), New Delhi. He is an Associate Professor in the Indira Gandhi Institute for Development Research, Mumbai, Maharashtra.
9. M. Rajivlochati is a Professor. He teaches Contemporary Indian History at the Punjab University, Chandigarh.
10. Meeta Rajivlochan is an Indian Administrative Service (IAS) Officer of Maharashtra cadre 1990 batch. She is the author of Farmers Suicide : Facts and Possible Policy Interventions (YASHADA, Pune, 2006). She works for the Government of India.
11. D. Narasimha Reddy is a former Professor in Economics and Dean, School of Social Sciences, University of Hyderabad. Labour Economics and Political Economy of Development have been his areas of research interest. During the last decade he has done extensive work on globalisation, WTO and agrarian crisis. Presently, he is visiting Professor, Institute for Human Development, New Delhi. Presently, he is working as Research Officer with the Mission for Elimination of Poverty in Municipal Areas (MEPMA), Govt. of Andhra Pradesh.
12. T. Prabhakara Reddy received his M. EC. (Hons) from Sydney University in 1994. He obtained his doctoral degree in Economics from Osmania University for the thesis 'Agrarian Surpluses and Economic Change'; A Study with reference to Sri Ram Sagar Project Command Area in Telangana Region of Andhra Pradesh, India.
13. E. Revathi is currently Professor in the Department of Economics, Kakatiya University, Warangal. She was on lien at the Centre for Economic and Social Studies (CESS), Hyderabad, during 2004-09. She completed her M. A., M. Phil, and Ph. D. from Kakatiya University. She received doctoral fellowship under Women's Studies programme from ICSSR. She worked on 'Women, Work and Technology in Agriculture' for her Ph. D. which has been published as a book. She visited few European countries and had interactions with scholars at various institutions in 2000. At CESS she carried research on the issues of the agrarian crisis in Andhra Pradesh, farmers and weavers suicides. She was involved in research projects on Rural Indebtedness and National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme, in association with other scholars. She also worked in the area of regional inequalities. She contributed to the Subgroup on Gender and Agriculture for the Eleventh Five Year Plan. She is presently working on 'State Policies, Women's Access to Land and Women Empowerment', a collaborative project with National Institute of Agricultural Extension Management sponsored by the Ministry of Agriculture, New Delhi. She teaches Macro Economic theory and policy, and Agricultural Economics.
14. Srinivasan Santhanam is a freelance consultant in Development Finance and the General Manager, NAB ARD, Maharashtra Regional Office, Pune. With over 30 years of experience in commercial and development banking sector, he has proven capability in planning, coordinating and monitoring implementation of projects in banking, natural resource management, micro-finance and so on.
15. M. S. Sidhu is Professor and Head in the Department of Economics and Sociology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. He has about 32 years of experience in teaching and research at the Punjab Agricultural Univeristy. He did his graduation, post-graduation and Doctorate from Punjab University, Patiala. He has about 150 research publications in reputed journals and has edited books.
16. A. K. Singhal is Professor in the Department of Agricultural Economics, in GBPUA and T. Pant Nagar Uttarakhand.
17. G. Sreedhar is a professor having 30 years of experience in Rural Development. He worked as a full-time researcher in the Council for Social Development, New Delhi/Hyderabad for about five years before taking to a career of teaching and research at S. K. University, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh. Besides offering courses for post-graduate students in rural development and social work and guiding doctoral students, he has conducted independent sponsored and funded research for nearly 20 years. He has published refereed articles and books, besides completing several research projects. His areas of interest include Natural Resource Management, Irrigation, Rural Poverty Reduction, Micro Finance, Self-help Promotion and so on.
18. Ravikesh Srivastava, Ph. D., is presently working as Professor in the area of Economics and Business Policy, Head, Centre of Research and Program Director, Working Managers at FORE School of Management, New Delhi. He has academic experience of more than 20 years in teaching, research, consultancy and training (MDP), including five years at IIM Lucknow. He has conducted several management development programmes for senior/middle level corporate professionals, government officials and for faculty mainly in the area of strategy management, business forecasting tools, project management, project planning and strategy. He has worked as a consultant for leading companies like Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd., Gujarat Heavy Chemicals Ltd., Hindware Sanitaryware and Industries Ltd. and Maruti Suzuki. He has also worked for several World Bank funded social sector development projects. He has co-authored a book entitled, Managerial Economics-Principles and Worldwide Applications, 2008 and has published 20 Research papers in leading journals. He was a Recipient of Merit Scholarship and UGC Senior Fellow for his Ph. D. work.
19. A. R. Vasavi is fellow, National Institute of Advanced Studies and is interested in issues related to the sociology of India, agrarian studies and sociology of education. She is the author of Harbingers of Rain: Land and Life in South India and a co-editor of In an Outpost of the Global Economy and Work and Workers in India's IT Industry.
20. Khalil Shah is working as a Data Bank in-charge at the Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bangalore. He has a Master's Degree in Economics and is likely to complete his Doctoral Dissertation soon. He has published his work in important Indian journals.