The Mega Online Bookstore
Welcome Guest | Login | Home | Contact Us | Live Chat

An Introduction to Modern Economic Botany

by  R.K. Maiti, Ved Pal Singh
An Introduction to Modern Economic Botany,8177542729,9788177542721


$ 46.00

$ 15.59
Save $ 30.41

Enquire about this book


Usually Ships in 4 Days.

Ships From New York

Free Shipping within U.S.A

International Shipping?

Check Delivery Estimate and Shipping Cost for your country

Book Information

Publisher:Agrobios (India)
Published In:2009
Binding Type:Hardback
Weight:1.47 lbs
Pages:pp. xxv + 378, Tables, Index, References

The Title "An Introduction to Modern Economic Botany" is written by Ved Pal Singh. This book was published in the year 2009. The ISBN number 8177542729|9788177542721 is assigned to the Hardback version of this title. This book has total of pp. xxv + 378 (Pages). The publisher of this title is Agrobios (India). We have about 550 other great books from this publisher. An Introduction to Modern Economic Botany is currently Available with us.

About the Book

The existence of the human race has depended on plants to meet three necessities, mainly food, cloth and dwelling. In recent times, there exist a lot of vegetables which are not utilized for non-interest or poor knowledge about their possible uses. The main objective of this Book on ‘An Introduction to Modern Economic Botany’ is to provide knowledge on the utility of plant species, cultivated or in the wild stage, which are closely related with different aspects such as Taxonomy, Phylogeny, Plant Morphology and Anatomy, Plant Morphology and Anatomy, Plant Physiology, Evolution, Ecology, Food Science, Toxicology, Biotic resources, Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Agronomy and Horticulture.

Basically this book is based on the knowledge of principal food, industrial and textile products, food products, as well as a vista of the geographic distribution and the morphology of some vegetable species, Apart from Plants of economic importance, the book also pretends to include some useful plants found in mexico, which are considered most important globally on the basis of their derived products. An extensive review of literature has been made on the utilization of these resources, including the results of thesis submitted in the Biology and Agronomy Faculties of the ‘La Universodad Autonoma de Nuevo, Leon’ and the ‘Department of Chemistry and Biology, Universidad de las Americas, Puebla’. Mexico. Different themes have been described clearly and easily understandable form the readers. The second part of this book discusses the results of investigation and techniques of the investigation and techniques of the investigation on plants of economic importance.

Apart from these aspects, the book mentioned the different forms of the utilization of resources and the necessities of investigation required to achieve the preservation and a better utilization of the same. This book can serve as a text of economic importance for the students at graduation level in the areas of Biology and Food Science. This book can also be used as a reference book by the students of Agricultural Botany or Agriculture.

About the Author

Dr. Ratikanta Maiti is a renowned Botanist of international repute with specialisation Crop Physiology. He obtained Ph.D and D.Sc in Botany from Calcutta University, India. he worked for 9 years as a Senior Botanist in Jute Agricultural Research Institute, Barrackpore (I.C.A.R.), Calcutta. Then he worked for 10 years as a Senior Plant Physiologist in International Crop Research Institute for Semi-arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru, India. Then he worked as Professor and Research Scientist in two universities in Mexico for 10 years. He enjoyed Mexican Govt. sponsored Senior National Research Scientist for continuous 18 years. At present, he is an Honorary Consultant (seeds) in Vibha Agrotech Ltd., Hyderabad, India and working on different aspects of physiology of various crops mainly pearl millet, maize, sunflower, cotton, paddy, etc. He won several international awards such as International Scientist Award offered by IBC, Cambridge and Ethnobotanist Award-2003 sponsored by Friends University, U.S.A. and U.N.D.P. He has published over 350 research papers in more than 40 national and international scientific juornals. Also, Dr. Maiti has published more than 20 books namely Advances in Potato Science by Gaurav Society of ARIC, Hisar, India and Sorghum Science, Bean Science, Pearly Millet Science, Peanut Crop, Advances in Chickpea Science, World Fibre Crops by Oxford & IBH Book company, New Delhi and Science Publisher, U.S.A.

Dr. Ved Pal Singh is an Agronomist of international repute with specialization in crop production and irrigation management. Dr. Singh has obtained his Ph.D. degree in Agronomy during 1980 from Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University (CCS HAU), Hisar. He has worked as Assistant Professor and Associate Professor of Agronomy for about 9 and 8 years, respectively. Since 1996, Dr. Singh is working as Professor of Agronomy at CCS HAU, Hisar and teaching courses in crop production, soil-plant water relations, mineral nutrition of plants, irrigation management, etc. Dr. Singh has also worked for one year (August 2003-August 2004) as Visiting Professor of Plant Biology at the University of the Americas, Puebla, Mexico. He has guided 10 M.Sc. and 4 Ph.D. students for their thesis research. Dr. Singh has received several awards for significant contributions in Agronomy teaching and research namely, Best Teacher Award-2001-02 (ICAR Sponsored) of CCS HAU, Hisar; Rashtriya Vikas Jyoti Award-2000 of All India Business Development Associaiton, New Delhi and Agriculture Young Scientist Award 1995 of the Gaurav Society of Aric, Hisar. His writings include over 100 research papers published in national and international journals of repute. Also, he has published about 20 book chapters and 18 review articles and 9 books. Dr. Singh is Editor-in-Chief of two international journals namely, 'Crop Research' and 'Research on Crops" published by the Gaurav Society of ARIC, Hisar. He is also working as 'Regional Editor' of two international journals: 'Asian Journal of Plant Science' published by the ANSInet, Faisalabad, Pakistan and 'Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment' published by the International Society of Food, Agriculture and Environment, Helsinki, Finland, Dr. Singh has also served as Joint Secretary and Vice President of Indian Society of Agronomy, New Delhi. He is life member of several professional societies. Dr. Singh has traveled widely in USA, UK, Germany, France, China and Nepal for academic pursuits. Cover Design : Reena


1. Origin and Spread of Agriculture
a. Domestication
b. Centres of Origin

2. Emergence of Agriculture :
a. America :
i. Maize
ii. Beans
iii. Squash
iv. Quinoa
v. Potato

b. Asia and Europe

3. Green Revolution :
a. Introduction
b. Origin of Green Revolution
c. More Foods and Still more Hungers
d. Ecological Sustainability
e. Role of Fertilizer
f. Debate of Transgenic Food
g. Green Revolution, Agro-Toxics and Hunger
h. Extract of an Article of Norman E. Borlaug on the Green Revolution
i. Some Lessons of the Green Revolution
j. Conclusion

4. Genetic Diversity in Plants :
a. Introduction
b. Importance of Genetic Diversity
c. Wild and Cultivated Species
d. Maintenance of Genetic Diversity
e. Phytogenetic Resources
f. Conservation of Biodiversity
g. Genetic Diversity Registered

5. Forests, Wild and Cultivated Resources :
a. Forests
b. Wild and Cultivated Resources

6. Genetic Erosion :
a. Endangered Ecosystems and Species in Danger
b. Conclusion

7. Plants as a Source of Food :
a. Carbohydrates
b. Starch
c. Carbohydrate Derivatives

8. Major Sources of Carbohydrate and Protein :
a. Carbohydrate Producing Crops :
i. Principal Cereals
ii. Secondary Cereals
iii. Pseudo Cereals
iv. Tuber Crops
v. Sugar Crops

b. Protein Producing Crops :
i. Leguminous Crops

9. Crops as a Source of Carbohydrates :
a. Sugar Crops :
i. Sugarcane (Saccharum Officinarum L.)
ii. Beetroot (Seta Vulgaris L.)
iii. Maple Sugar "Arce de Aziicar"

b. Cereals
i. Maize (Zea Mays
ii. Wheat (Triticum Aestwum L.)
iii. Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolour L.)
iv. Oats (Avena Sativa L.)
v. Barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.)
vi. Jlye (Secale Cerale

c. Millets :
i. Horse Tail Millet (Setaria Italica)
ii. Millet for Bread (Panicum Miliaceuni)
iii. Cat Millet or Mijo Rabo de Gato (Pennisetum Glaucum)
iv. Ragi or Digitate Millet (Eleusine Coracana)
v. Pearl Millet (Pennisetum Glaucum)
vi. Wild Rice

d. Pseudo-Cereals :
i. Sarraceno Wheat or Alforfon
ii. Quinoa

10. Origin of Major Cereals :
i. Origin of Wheat
ii. Origin of Rice
iii. Origin of Pearl Millet
iv. Origin of Sorghum
v. Origin of Maize

11. Origin of Tuberous Plants
i. Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.)
ii. Sweet Potato (Ipomea Batatas)
iii. Manihot Esculenta (Yucca)

12. Major Sources of Sugar (Starch and Cellulose) :
i. Sugarcane
ii. Sugar Beet
iii. Sugar Maple

13. Recovery of Energy in Sugar Industry
14. Sources of Lipids and Oils :
i. Maize Oil
ii. Cotton Oil
iii. Olive Oil
iv. Oils of Mustard or Rye
v. Oil of Cartamo "Alazor"
vi. Sunflower Oil
vii. Soybean Oil
viii. Groundnut Oil (Peanut)

15. Sources of Protein (Legumes) :
a. Nutritive Properties of Legumes
b. Leguminous Crops
c. Genera Phaseolus :
i. Black Gram (Phaseolus Mungo L.)
ii. Phaseolus Trilobus (Mudgaparni)
iii. Phaseolus Aconitifolius (Wild Teparybean)
iv. Butter Bean (Phaseolus Lemensis')
v. Lima Bean (Phaseolus Lunatus L.)
vi. Runner Bean (Phaseolus Multiflorus)
vii. Green Chickpea (Phaseolus Aureus L.)

d. Genera Arachis
e. Genera Pisum :
i. Pisum Sativum L. ssp. Sativum var. Macrocarpon Ser
ii. Pisum Sativum L. ssp. Sativum var. Sativum
iii. Pisum Sativum L. ssp. Sativum var. Arvense (L.) Poir

f. Genera Cicer
g. Other Important Leguminous Crops :
i. Lens esculenta L
ii. Soybean (Glycine max L.)
iii. Broad Bean (Viciafaba L.)
iv. Broad Bean Pod
v. Fresh Habas
vi. Young Habas
vii. Matured Habas
viii. Dry Habas
ix. Labladojudiade Jacinto
x. Pea (Pisum sativwn L.)
xi. Peanut (Arachis Hypogea L.)
xii. Lablabo judia Jacinto (Dolichos Lablab L.)
xiii. Bayo Bean
xiv. Table Bean
xv. Kidney Bean (Vigna Acorritifolia L.)
xvi. Soybean (Glycine Max. L.)
xvii. Black Bean
xviii. Peruan Bean
xix. Pinto Bean
xx. Field Bean "Frijol de campo"
xxi. Pigeonpea (Cajanus Cajan L.)
xxii. Blackgram "Guisante de Pinta negra" (Vigna Sinensis L.)
xxiii. Canavalia (Canavalia Ensiformis)
xxiv. Judia terciopelo (Stizolobium Deeringianum)
xxv. Horse Gram (Dolichos Biflorus)

h. Leguminous Trees :
i. Mezquite (Prosopisjuliflora)
ii. Algarrobo (Ceratonia Siliqua)
iii. Common Bean?Frijol

16. Sources of Minerals and Vitamins :
a. Horticultural Crops :
i. Daucas Carota (Carrot)
ii. Allium Cepa (Onion)
iii. Allium Sativum (Garlic)
iv. Brassica Oleracea (Cabbage)
v. Lactuca Saliva (Lettuce)
vi. Persea Americana (Avocado)
vii. Sechium Edule (Squash)
viii. Cucumis Sativus (Cucumber)
ix. Cucurbita pepo (Calbacita)
x. Lycopersicum Esculentum L. (Tomato)

b. Research Needs

17. Fruits :
a. Introduction
b. Structure of Fruits
c. Classification of Fruits

18. Common Fruit Plants
a. Tropical Fruits
i. Banana (Musa paradisiacal)
ii. Lemon (Citrus Limon)
iii. Sweet Orange "Naranjo Dulce" (Citrus Sinensis)
iv. Mango (Mangifera Indica)
v. Sweet Plum "ciruela Dulce" (Spondias Cythered)
vi. Custard Apple "Chirimoya" (Annona Cherimold)
vii. Pineapple "Pifia" (Ananas Comosus)
viii. Papaya (Can'ca Papaya)
ix. Fig "Higo" (Ficus Can'ca)
x. Guava (Psidium Guava)
xi. Pomegranate "Granada" (Punica Granatum)

b. Temperate Fruits
i. Peach "Durazno" (Prunuspersica)
ii. Apple Tree "Manzano" (Pyrus malus)
iii. Grapes "Vid" (tis vimunis)
iv. Pear(Pyrus Communis)
v. Walnut "nogal" (Junglans regia)

19. Other Available Fruits

1. Plants as a Source of Vegetable Fibres :
a. Classification ofVegctable Fibres
b. Fibres of Different Plant Parts
i. Foliar Fibres
ii. Anatomical Origin of Fibres
iii. Chemistry of Fibres
iv. Fibres Obtained from Seeds
v. Fibres of Stem or Bark
vi. Leaf Fibres
vii. Fruit Fibres
viii. Textile Fibres
ix. Surface Fibres

2. Major Plant Species for Fibre Production :
a. Kenaf :
i. Morphology
ii. Anatomy
iii. Agronomy
iv. Growth
v. Insects and Diseases

b. Ramie :
i. Classification
ii. Morphology
iii. Anatomy
iv. Harvest
v. Extraction
vi. Quality

c. Flax(Linum)
d. Cannabis :
i. Distribution
ii. Classification
iii. Morphology
iv. Ecology
v. Agronomy
vi. Harvest and Extraction of Fibre

e. Jute :
i. Classification
ii. Morphology
iii. Anatomy
iv. Agronomy
v Nutrients
vi. Insect-Pests and Diseases
vii. Extraction

f. Leaf Fibres :
i. Distribution
ii. Classification
iii. Morphology
iv. Anatomy
v. Climate and Soil
vi. Harvest

g. Henequen (Agavefourcroydes L.) :
i. Areas of Production
ii. Classification
iii. Morphology
iv. Anatomy
v. Ecological Conditions
vi. Agronomy
vii. Harvest
viii. Extraction

h. Abaca :
i. Distribution
ii. Classification
iii. Morphology
iv. Anatomy
v. Agronomy
vi. Harvest
vii. Extraction of Fibre

i. Lechuguilla (Agave lecheguilla) :
i. Taxonomic Classification
ii. Morphology
iii. Distribution
iv. Ecological Conditions
v. Exploitation
vi. Harvest and Extraction of Fibre
vii. Anatomy
viii. Development of Fibre Initial

j. Zacaton [Muhlenbergia macroura (Beneth) Hitch] :
i. Classification
ii. Morphology
iii. Anatomy
iv. Ecological Conditions

3. Minor Plant Species for Fitjre Production
a. Cocus nucifera
b. Sunnhemp (Crotalariajuncea) :
i. Distribution
ii. Classification and Morphology
iii. Anatomy
iv. Agronomy
v. Extraction
vi. Quality

c. Sida Rhombifolia and Sida Cordifolia :
i. Distribution
ii. Quality

d. Sida Cordifolia :
i. Distribution
ii. Anatomy
iii. Quality

e. Abutilon :
i. Distribution
ii. Anatomy
iii. Quality

f. Malachra Capitata L :
i. Distribution
ii. Anatomy
iii. Quality

g. Urena :
i. Distribution
ii. Anatomy
iii. Quality

h. U. Sinuata L :
i Distribution
ii. Anatomy
iii. Quality

i. Hibiscus species
j. Hibiscus Surattensis
k. Hibiscus Radiatus :
i. Anatomy
ii. Growth
iii. Quality

l. Hibiscus Pcmduraelormis :
i. Anatomy
ii. Quality

4. Other Fibre Producing Plant Species
a. Sanseuieriaspp

1. Spices and Aromatic Plants :
a. Spices Obtained from Roots and Tubercles
i. Angelica
ii. Galanga
iii. Ginger
iv. Hot Radish "Rabano picante"
v. Zarzaparrilla
vi. Curcuma (Curcuma longa)

b. Spices Obtained from Barks :
i. Cinnamon "Casia"
ii. Cinnamon "Canela"
iii. Sasafras

c. Spices Obtained from Flowers or Floral Buds :
i. Vitriol "Alcaparrose"
ii. Clove
iii. Azafran (Crocus Safiuus)

d. Spices Obtained from Fruits :
i. English Pepper
ii. Peppers
iii. Pepper "Pimienta"
iv. Large Pepper
v. Anise "Estrellado"
vi. Vanilla

e. Spices Obtained from Seeds :
i Cardamom
ii. "Alholva": Trigonellafoenum-graecwn
iii. Grains of Paradise "Granos del Paraiso"
iv. Mustard
v. Indian Mustard (Brassicajuncea)
vi. Walnut "Nuez moscada" : Or Mace
vii. Broad Bean "Habatonka"

f Spices Obtained from Leaves :
i. Melisa
ii. Odmum "albahaca"
iii. Mcjorana
iv. Mentha : Mentha Piperita (Mentha of hierbabuena)
v. Salvia
vi. Savory"adrea"
vii. Green Mentha (Mentha spicata)
viii. Thyme "Tomillo"
ix. Laurel
x. Parsley "perejil"

2. Research Advances in Spices
3. Condiments :
a. Advantages
b. Disadvantages

4. Perfume Producing Plants :
i. Rose
iii. Acacia
iv. Lemon Grass
v. Carnation "Clavel"
vi. Jasmin
vii. Lavendar

5. Stimulants Producing Plants :
A. Plants Utilized for the Elaboration of Drinks :
a. Alcoholic Drinks
b. Other Non-Alcoholic Drinks

B. Types of Alcoholic Drinks :
a. Fermented Drinks
b. Distilled Drinks

C. Research Needs :
a. Spices
b. Drinks

6. Narcotic and Halogenic Plants
7. Medicinal Plants :
a. History of Medicinal Plants
b. How do the Medicinal Plants Act?
c. Active Substances in Medicinal Plants
d. Bitter Ingredients :
i. Essential Oils
ii. Flavonoids
iii. Tannins
v. Silicilic Acid
vi. Saponins
vii. Mucilage
viii. Vitamins, Minerals and Oligoelements

8. Drug Producing Lower Plants :
a. Antibiotics
b. Actinomycetes
c. Other Antibiotics Produced by Bacteria

1. Research Advances in Ethnobotany :
a. Asia :
i. Nepal
ii. Indonesia

b. America
i. Hawai
ii. Guatemala
iii. Paraguay
iv. Brazil

c. European Countries
i. Spain

d. Other Countries
e. Conclusion

2. Toxic and allergic plants :
a. Toxic Plants
b. Toxic or Probably Toxic Plant Species
c. Allergic Plants
d. Research Needs

3. Harmful Plants for Animals and Human Beings :
a. Harmful Plants for Animals
b. Harmful or Poisonous Plants for Human Beings

4. Use of Tannin :
a. Leather Industry
b. Leather Preparation Methods
c. Vegetable Tanning of Leather
d. Tanning Extracts
e. Use of Tannins in Medicines
f. Use of Tannins in Food

5. Tannin Producing Timbers :
a. Plant Barks :
i. Pine (Tsuga)
ii. Oak
iii. Mangle
iv. Acacia
v. Mimosa

b. Wood :
i. Chestnut
ii. Quebracho
iii. Method of Extraction

c. Plant Leaves :
i. Silician Sumache
ii. Gambir

d. Plant Fruits :
i. Microbalan
ii. Divi-Divi
iii. Tara
c. Tannin Producing Plants of Mexico :
d. Research Needs
6. Oil Producing Plants :
a. Oils :
i. Ricinus Oil (Ricinus Communis L.)
ii. Olive Oil

b. Essential Oils :
i. Classification of Essential Oils
ii. Distribution and Natural State
iii. Extraction and Isolation

c. Essential Oils Producing Plants :
i. Cinamom "Canela"
ii. Clove

7. Colour Producing Plants :
i. Heamatoxylon "Palo de Campechu"
ii. Chlorophora "Fustcte"
iii. Indigofera Tinctoria (Indigo)
iv. Isatis Tinctoria (Glasto)
v. Rubia Tinctoriwn (Rubia)
vi. Curcuma Longa (Curcuma)
vii. Crocus Sativus (Azafran)
viii. Bixa Orellana (Bija)
ix. Carthamus Tinctorius L

8. Wax Producing Plants :
i.Euphorbia Antisyphilitica (Candelilla)
ii. Cnpcrnicia Cerifera (Carnauba)
iii. Research Needs

9. Exudates and Vegetable Extracts :
a. Latex :
i. Normal Latex
ii. Residual Latex
iii. Centrifuged Latex
iv. Creamy Latex

b. Rubber Producing Plants :
i. Rubber Plant (Hevea brassiliensis)
ii. Panama Rubber (Castilloa)
iv. Lion Teeth (Taraxacum Officinales)
v. Fig "higo" (Fi'ci/s elasticd)
vi. Manihot "Mandioca"
vii. Mangabeira (Hancornia especiosa)
viii. Landolphia (L. Kirkii, L. Heudelotti and L. Owariensis)
ix. Palay Rubber (Cryptostegia Grandifolia)
x. Opium (Papaver Somniferuni)
xi. Gutapercha (Palaquim Gutta)
xii. Asclepias
xiii. Papaya
xiv. Zapote (Calocarpum Mammosiini)

c. Other Rubber Producing Plants :
i. Balatas
ii. Juletong Dyera
iii. D. Costulata
iv. Alstonia and Rauwolfia

d. Modern Processes of Fabrication of Rubber :
i. Ingredients
ii. Mastication Machines
iii. Mixing Machines
iv. Calendering
v. Expulsion
vi. Vulcanization
vii. Rubber Foam and Immersion

10. Chewing Gum "Chicle" Producing Plants :
a. Introduction
b. Benefits of Chewing Gum
c. Gum and Pectins :
i. Gum Karaya
ii. Pectins
iii. Carboximethyl Cclullose of Sodium or CMC

11. Gums and Resins Producing Plants :
i. Resins
ii. Trementine
iii. TarT
iv. Oleorresins
v. Copal
vi. Copaifera Demeussei
vii. Copal of Africa
viii. Copal of Oriental Africa
ix. Copal of South America
x. Copal of Manila
xi. Balsam
xii. Balsam of Peru
xiii. Balsam coraiba
xiv. Canada Balsam
xv. Amber
xvi. Damar Resins
xvii. Elemi
xviii. Elemi of Manila
xix. Elemi of Mexico
xx. Elemi of Brasil
xxi. Elemi de Las Antillas
xxii. African Elemi
xxiii. Incense
xxiv. Resin Kauri
xxv. Laccquer
xxvi. Laquer Exuded
xxvii. Almaciga (Tree)
xxviii. Mirra
xxix. Sandaraca
xxx. Estoraque
xxxi. Drago Blood
xxxii. Research Needs


1. Importance of Pharmacognosy and Classification of Drugs :
(a) Alphabetic
(c) Morphological
(d) Pharmacological or Therapeutic Use
(e) Chemical

2. Description of Anatomy and Morphology of Plants :
a. Stem :
i. Morphological Description of Stem
ii. Anatomical Description of Stem (Microscopic)

b. Bark :
i. Description
ii. Anatomy

c. Wood :
i. Description

d. Leaf :
i. Morphological Description
ii. Description of Anatomy

e. Epidermis
f. Mesophyll
g. Description of Vascular Bundle
h. Inflorescence and Flowers :
i. Anatomy

i. Fruits :
i. Anatomy

j. Seeds :
i. Anatomy

k. Subterranean Organs :
i. Anatomy

3. Microscopic Techniques :
a. Preparation of Drugs for Microscopic Observation
b. Quantitative Microscopy :
i. Methods of Lycopodium Spores
ii. Counting of Fragments
iii. Pallysade Ratio
iv. Number of Stomates
v. Stomatal index
vi. Number of Isletes
vii. Number of Veinlet Terminations
viii. Observation of Powder Drugs
c. Identification of Secondary Metabolites

4. Cellular Differentiation :
a. Reactions for Cellular Membranes
b. Reaction for Lignified Membranes
c. Reaction for Suberized and Cutinized Membranes
d Reaction for Chitinous Membranes
e. Determination of Callus in Sieve Plate

5. Distribution of Tissues and Utilization of the Reactives :
i. Phloroglucinc and HC1 Utilised for Staining Lignified Membranes
ii. Solution of Chlor-zinc-iodide
iii. Cleared, Disintegrated and Discoloured
iv. Mounting Reactives
v. Clearing and Discolouring Reactives
vi. Solution of Chloride Soda
vii. Disintegration and Isolation of the Tissues
viii. Potassium Chlorate and Nitric Acid
ix. Chromic Acid and Nitric Acid or Sulphuric Acid
x. Solution of Caustic Potash or Soda
xi. Separation of Cotton and Wool
xii. Preparation of Crude Fibre

6. Use of Different Reactives
7. Recent Research on Medicinal Plants