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College Practical Chemistry,8173715068,9788173715068

College Practical Chemistry

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Book Information

Publisher:Universities Press (India) Pvt. Ltd.
Published In:2008
ISBN-10:8173715068
ISBN-13:9788173715068
Binding Type:Paperback
Weight:1.75 lbs
Pages:xviii + 502 Pages, Figures, Tables, Graphs, Index, Appendix

is written by V.K. Ahluwalia. The publisher of this title is Universities Press (India) Pvt. Ltd..

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About the Book

This Book offers a complete treatment of practical Chemistry to meet the requirement of undergraduate students in Indian universities. The authors have endeavoured to present the basic theory and procedure for each experiment so as to make the student's work in the laboratory methodical and efficient.

College Practical Chemistry is divided into three sections-Inorganic Chemistry, Organic Chemistry and Physical Chemistry. In the Inorganic Chemistry Section, the qualitative analysis of mixtures containing interfering and insoluble ions is discussed in detail. This section also includes principles and experimental details of volumetric analysis including complexometric titrations and gravimetric estimations.

The Organic Chemistry Section provides detailed procedures for systematic identification of compounds including detection of extra elements, functional groups and preparation of derivatives. The structure, derivatives, preparation and isolation of some organic compounds are presented in tabular form for easy referral. Different chromatographic techniques have also been discussed.

The Physical Chemistry Section contains experiments on all topics in physical chemistry included in the syllabus of Indian universities.

About the Author

V K Ahluwalia is a Visiting Professor at the Dr B R Ambedkar Centre for Biomedical Research, University of Delhi. He has been teaching graduate and postgraduate students for over 30 years, and has also delivered a number of invited lectures in India and abroad. He has published a number of papers and is the author of Comprehensive Practical Organic Chemistry : Qualitative Analysis and Comprehensive Practical Organic Chemistry : Preparation and Quantitative Analysis, both published by Universities Press.

Sunita Dhingra and Adarsh Gulati are Readers at Miranda House, University of Delhi with about 20 years of teaching experience.

Contents

Preface

Part A : INORGANIC CHEMISTRY :
I. Qualitative Inorganic Analysis :
1. Introduction
2. Dry Tests :
i. Colour
ii. Odour
iii. Action of Heat
iv. Flame Test
v. Charcoal Cavity Test
vi. Borax Head Test

3. Anion Analysis :
Scheme I :
i. Group A Dilute Sulphuric Acid Group
ii. Group B Dilute Sulphuric Acid + KMnO4 Solution Group
iii. Group C Cone. Sulphuric Acid Group
iv. Group D Special Group

Scheme II :
i. Diphenyl Amine Group
ii. Barium Chloride Group
iii. Silver Nitrate Group
iv. Calcium Chloride Group
v. Special Group

4. Confirmatory Tests for Individual Anions :
i. Carbonate
ii. Acetate
iii. Sulphide
iv. Sulphite
v. Thiosulphate
vi. Nitrite
vii. Nitrate
viii. Chloride
ix. Bromide
x. Iodide
xi. Oxalate
xii. Fluoride
xiii. Tartrate
xiv. Chlorate
xv. Sulphate
xvi. Phosphate
xvii. Borate

5. Tests for Anions which Interfere in the Presence of Each Other :
i. Carbonate in the Presence of Sulphite and Thiosulphate
ii. Nitrate in the Presence of Nitrite
iii. Sulphide, Sulphite, Sulphate and Thiosulphate in the Presence of Each Other
iv. Chloride, Bromide and Iodide in the Presence of Each Other
v. Nitrate in the Presence of Bromide and Iodide
vi. Sulphate in the Presence of Fluoride
vii. Oxalate in the Presence of Carbonate

6. Cation Analysis :
i. Analysis of Cations of Zero Group
ii. Separation of Cations into Groups
iii. Analysis of Group I (Silver Group) Cations
iv. Analysis of Group II (IIA and II B)
v. Removal of Interfering Anions and Analaysis of Group III Cations
vi. Analysis of Group IV Cations
vii. Analysis of Group V Cations
viii. Analysis of Group VI Cations
ix. Analysis of the Insoluble Component of the Mixture

II. Volumetric Analysis :
1. Introduction :
i. Requirements of a Primary Standard Substance
ii. General Requirements of a Titration Reaction
iii. General Factors Influencing Titrametric Methods
iv. Strength of the Solution

2. Acidimetry and Alkalimetry :
i. Indicators
ii. Choice of an Acid-base Indicator in Titrations
iii. Determination of Equivalent Weights of Acids and Bases
iv. Determination of the Strength of Hydrochloric Acid Using Sodium Hydroxide
v. Determination of the Strength of Oxalic Acid Solution Using Sodium Hydroxide
vi. Determination of the Strength of Sodium Carbonate and Sodium Hydroxide Present in the Given Solution
vii. Determination of the Strength of Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 Present in the Given Solution Using Hydrochloric Acid

3. Redox Titrations :
i. Indicators
ii. Determination of Equivalent Weight
iii. Determination of the Strength of the Given Oxalic Acid Solution Using Potassium Permanganate Solution
iv. Determination of the Strength of Mohr's Salt Solution Using KMnO4
v. Determination of the Strength of Mohr's Salt Solution Using K2Cr2O7 (Diphenyl Amine as the Internal Indicator)
vi. Determination of the Strength of Mohr's Salt Solution Using Potassium Dichromate and Potassium Ferricyanide as the External Indicator
vii. Iodimetry and Iodometry
viii. Determination of the Strength of Copper Sulphate Solution Iodometrically Using Sodium Thiosulphate
ix. Determination of the Strength of Potassium Dichromate Solution Iodometrically Using Sodium Thiosulphate
x. Determination of the Strength of the Given Tartar Emetic Solution Iodimetrically Using Iodine Solution
xi. Determination of the Strength of the Given Arsenous Oxide Solution Iodimetrically Using Iodine Solution

4. Precipitation Titrations (Argentometry) :
i. Indicators
ii. Determination of Equivalent Weight
iii. Determination of the Strength of Sodium Chloride Solution Using Silver Nitrate and Fluorescein as the Indicator
iv. Determination of the Strength of Silver Nitrate Solution by Volhard's Method
v. Determination of the Strength of the Given Sodium Chloride Solution by Mohr's Method Using Potassium Chromate as the Indicator

5. Complexometric Titrations :
i. Types of EDTA Titrations
ii. Indicators
iii. Determination of the Strength of the Given Magnesium Sulphate Solution Using EDTA and Eriochrome Black T as the Indicator
iv. Determination of the Strength of the Given Zinc Sulphate Solution Using EDTA and Eriochrome Black T as the Indicator
v. Determination of the Strength of Calcium Carbonate Solution Using EDTA and Eriochrome Back T as the Indicator

III. Gravimetric Analysis :
1. Introduction :
i. Cleaning and Heating Of the Crucible
ii. Precipitation
iii. Digestion of the Precipitate
iv. Filtration and Washing of the Precipitate
v. Drying of the Precipitate
vi. Incineration and Heating of the Precipitate
vii. Calculations

2. Estimation of Copper :
i. Estimation of Copper as Cuprous Thiocyanate
ii. Estimation of Copper as Copper Oxide

3. Estimation of Iron as Oxide
4. Estimation of Barium as Barium Sulphate
5. Estimation of Sulphate as Barium Sulphate
6. Estimation of Zinc as Zinc Oxide
7. Estimation of Silver as Silver Chloride
8. Estimation of Chloride as Silver Chloride
9. Estimation of Lead :
i. Estimation of Lead as Lead Sulphate
ii. Estimation of Lead as Lead Chromate

10. Estimation of Nickel as Nickel Dimethyl Glyoximate
11. Estimation of Chromium as Oxide
12. Estimation of Aluminium as Oxide
13. Estimation of Magnesium :
i. Estimation of Magnesium as Pyrophosphate or as Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate Hexahydrate
ii. Estimation of Magnesium as 8-Hydroxyquinolate (Oxinate)

IV. Preparation of Inorganic Compounds :
1. Simple Salts :
i. Cuprous Oxide
ii. Cuprous Chloride
iii. Ferrous Sulphate (Green Vitriol)
iv. Lead Chromate (Chrome Yellow)
v. Magnesium Sulphate
vi. Manganese (III) Phosphate
vii. Potassium Dichromate
viii. Potassium Permanganate
ix. Sodium Chloride
x. Sodium Cobaltinitrite
xi. Sodium Peroxyborate
xii. Sodium Thiosulphate

2. Double Salts and Complexes :
i. Ammonium Copper (II) Sulphate Tetrahydrate
ii. Chrome Alum
iii. Cuprammonium Sulphate (Tetrammine Copper (II) Sulphate)
iv. Ferric Alum
v. Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate (Mohr's Salt)
vi. Potash Alum
vii. Potassium Trioxalatochromate (III)
viii. Sodium Ammonium Hydrogen Phosphate (Microcosmic Salt)
ix. Sodium Ferrioxalate (Sodium Trioxalatoferrate (III))
x. Chrome Red
xi. Prussian Blue

Part B : ORGANIC CHEMISTRY :
V. Qualitative Organic Analysis (Systematic Identification of Organic Compounds) :
Introduction
1. Preliminary Examination :
i. Physical State
ii. Colour
iii. Odour
iv. Flame Test
v. Solubility Test
vi. Detection of Extra Elements :
a. Test for Nitrogen
b. Test for Sulphur
c. Test for Nitrogen and sulphur Present Together
d. Test for Halogens

vii. Determination of Melting Point and Boiling Point :
a. Melting Point
b. Boiling Point

viii. Detection of Unsaturation :
a. Test with Bromine in Carbon Tetrachloride Solution
b. Baeyer Test : Reaction with Potassium Permanganate

2. Detection of Functional Groups :
i. Compounds Containing C, H and O :
a. Carbohydrates
b. Carboxylic Acids
c. Aldehydes and Ketones (Carbonyl Compounds)
d. Phenols
e. Alcohols
f. Esters
g. Hydrocarbons

ii. Compounds Containing Halogen :
a. Alkyl, Vinyl and Aryl Halides

iii. Compounds Containing Nitrogen :
a. Nitro Compounds
b. Amines (Primary, Secondary Arid Tertiary)
c. Amides

3. Preparation and Recrystallisation of Derivatives :
i. Derivatives of Compounds Containing Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen :
a. Derivatives of Carbohydrates
b. Derivatives of Carboxylic Acids
c. Derivatives of Carbonyl Compounds
d. Derivatives of Phenols
e. Derivatives of Alcohols
f. Derivatives of Esters
g. Derivatives of Hydrocarbons

ii. Compounds Containing Halogens :
a. Derivatives of Halogeno Hydrocarbons

iii. Compounds Containing Nitrogen :
a. Derivatives of Nitro Compounds
b. Derivatives of Amines
c. Derivatives of Amides

4. Tables of Organic Compounds and their Derivatives :
i. Carbohydrates
ii. Carboxylic Acids
iii. Carbonyl Compounds (Aldehydes and Ketones)
iv. Phenols
v. Alcohols
vi. Esters
vii. Hydrocarbons
viii. Halohydrocarbons
ix. Nitro Compounds
x. Primary Amines
xi. Secondary Amines
xii. Tertiary Amines
xiii. Amides

VI. Preparation and Isolation of Organic Compounds :
1. Acetylation :
i. Acetanilide
ii. Aspirin
iii. Hydroquinone Diacetate
iv. Hydroxyhydroquinone Triacetate
v. α-D-Glucose Penta-acetate
vi. β-D-Glucose Penta-acetate
vii. β-Naphthylacetate

2. Benzoylation :
i. Benzanilide
ii. Hippuric Acid
iii. Phenyl Benzoate

3. Bromination :
i. p-Bromoacetanilde
i. 2,4,6-Tribromoaniline
ii. 2,4,6-Tribromophenol

4. Diazotisation (Coupling/Substituion) :
i. Phenylazo-β-naphthol
ii. Methyl Orange
iii. Methyl Red
iv. p-Iodonitrobenzene
v. p-Chlorotoluene

5. Derivatives of Carbonyl Compounds :
i. 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazone
ii. Oxime
iii. Semicarbazone

6. Esterification :
i. Methyl Benzoate
ii. Isoamyl Acetate

7. Haloform Reaction :
i. Iodoform

8. Hydrolysis :
i. Hydrolysis of Esters :
a. Hydrolysis of Ethyl Benzoate to Benzoic Acid
b. Hydrolysis of Triglycerides

ii. Hydrolysis of Amides :
a. Hydrolysis of Benzamide to Benzoic Acid
b. Hydrolysis of p-bromoacetanilide to p-bromoaniline
c. Hydrolysis of p-nitroacetanilide to p-nitroaniline

9. Methylation :
i. Methyl-2-naphthyl Ether (Nerolin)

10. Nitration :
i. Nitrobenzene
ii. m-Dinitrobenzene
iii. p-Nitroacetanilide
iv. Picric Acid (2,4,6-Trinitrophenol)

11. Oxidation :
i. Benzoic Acid
ii. p-Benzoquinone
iii. Oxalic Acid

12. Reduction :
i. Aniline from Nitrobenzene
ii. m-Nitroaniline

13. Sublimation :
i. Phthalic Anhydride
ii. Succinic Anhydride

14. Miscellaneous Preparations :
i. S-benzylisothiouranium Chloride
ii. N, N-Diethyl-m-Toluamide
iii. Osazone
iv. Mucic Acid from Lactose
v. DDT
vi. Phenolpthalein

15. Isolation of Natural Products :
i. Isolation of Caffeine from Tea Leaves
ii. Isolation of Casein and Lactose from Milk
iii. Isolation of Piperine from Black Pepper

VII. Chromatography :
1. Introduction
2. Column Chromatography
3. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)
4. Paper Chromatography :
i. Ascending Paper Chromatography
ii. Descending Paper Chromatography
iii. Circular (or Radial) Paper Chromatography

5. Chromatographic Separations :
i. Separation of ס-nitro and p-nitroaniline by Column Chromatography
ii. Separation of Syn-and Anti-azobenzene by Column Chromatography
iii. Separation of Pigments Present in Spinach Leaves by Ascending Paper Chromatography
iv. Identification of the Number of Carbohydrates by Ascending Paper Chromatography
v. Separation of Cu2+and Cd2+in a Mixture
vi. Separation of Co2+ and Ni2+ by TLC
vii. TLC Separation of Aspirin, Phenacetin and Caffeine

6. Chromatography of Amino Acids
7. Chromatographic Separations :
i. Determination of the Number of Amino Acids Present in a Given-mixture

Part C : PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY* :
VIII : Physical Methods for Determining Molar Masses :
1. Determination of Molecular Masses of Volatile Substances by Victor Meyer's Method
2. Determination of the Molecular Masses of Non-Volatile Substances by Landsberger's Method
3. Determination of Molecular Masses of Naphthalene and Acetanilide by Rast's Method

IX. Measurement of Viscosities and Surface Tensions of Liquids :
1. Determination of the Relative and Absolute Viscosity of a Liquid
2. Determination of the Percentage Composition of a Liquid Mixture by Viscosity Measurement
3. A Viscometric Study of Formation of Compounds between Two Liquids
4. Determination of the Molar Masses of Polymers by Viscosity Measurement
5. Determination of the Surface Tension of Alcohol
6. Determination of Composition of a Solution by Surface Tension Measurement
7. Comparsion of the Cleansing Powers of Detergents

X. Measurement of Solubilities :
1. Solubility Curves for Potassium Chloride
2. Determination of the Heat of Solution of Benzoic Acid by Solubility Method

XI. Determination of Transition Temperatures :
1. Determination of the Transition Temperature of Sodium Sulphate by the Solubility Method
2. Determination of the Transition Temperature of Sodium Sulphate by the Thermometric Method
3. Determination of Transition Temperature by the Dilatometer Method

XII, Determination of Order of a Reaction :
1. Study of Hydrolysis of Methyl Acetate in the Presence of Hydrochloric Acid
2. Study of Saponification of Ethyl Acetate by Sodium Hydroxide Solution
3. Study of the Reaction between Potassium Iodide and Potassium Peroxodisulphate
4. Investigation of the Effect of Ionic Strength on the Reaction in Experiment 12.3
5. Study of the Kinetics of Iodination of Acetone
6. Study of the Kinetics of Iodine Clock Reaction

XIII. Adsorption Studies :
1. Verification of the Freundlich and Langmuir Isotherms for Adsorption of Acetic Acid on Active Charcoal
2. Study of the Adsorption of Oxalic Acid on Charcoal

XIV. Polyphase Heterogeneous Equilibria :
1. Determination of the Critical Solution Temperature for the Phenol-water System
2. Determination of Molar Masses by the Steam Distillation Method
3. Construction of a Phase Diagram of a Binary System by the Cooling Curves Method
4. Determination of the Partition Coefficient of Iodine between Carbon Tetrachloride and Water
5. Determination of the Equilibrium Constant for the KI2 Complex by the Distribution Method
6. Study of the Complex Formation between Ammonia and Metal Cations by the Distribution Technique

XV. Thermochemical Measurements :
1. Determination of the Heat of Neutralisation of Hydrochloric acid and Sodium Hydroxide
2. Determination of the Heats of Reactions
3. Determination of the Basicity of a Polybasic Acid by the Heat of Neutralisation Method
4. Determination of Heat of Solution of Potassium Nitrate in Water
5. Determination of the Integral Heat of Dilution of Sulphuric Acid

xvi. Conductance Measurements in Electrolytes :
1. Determination of Cell Constant
2. Acid-base Titrations
3. Titration of a Very Weak Base, p-toludine

XVII. Potentiometric Measurements in Chemical Systems :
1. Determination of pH Value with Indicators
2. Determination of pH Values Using Quinhydrone or Glass Electrodes
3. Titration of HCI with NaOH

XVIII. Polarography :
1. Plotting of Current-voltage Curves
2. Study of the Polarogram of the Solution of Supporting Electrolyte
3. Determination of the Half wave Potential
4. Plotting of a Polarogram for a Mixed Solution
5. Determination of the Formation Constant of Copper Glycinate Polarographically
6. Amperometric Titrations

XIX. Polarimetry and Photometry :
1. Determination of the Specific and Molecular Rotation of Sucrose
2. Determination of the Percentage of d-sugar and d-tartaric Acid
3. Determination of Iron in water Calorimetrically
4. Verification of Beer's Law
5. Determination of Concentration of KMnO4 and K2Cr2O7 in a Given Solution
6. Determination of the Composition of a Solution Containing Crystal Violet and Aurine
7. Determination of the Composition of a Complex Using Job's Method
8. Study of the Complex Formation between Ferric Ions and Thiocynate Ions Colorimetrically
9. Determination of the Dissociation Constant of Phenolphthalein Colorimetrically
10. Study of the Absorption of a Coloured Solute on Charcoal

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