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Comprehensive Practical Organic Chemistry Preparation and Quantitative Analysis,8173714754,9788173714757

Comprehensive Practical Organic Chemistry Preparation and Quantitative Analysis

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Publisher:Universities Press (India) Pvt. Ltd.
Published In:2008
ISBN-10:8173714754
ISBN-13:9788173714757
Binding Type:Paperback
Weight:1.39 lbs
Pages:pp. xix + 312, Figures, Tables, Index

The Title "Comprehensive Practical Organic Chemistry Preparation and Quantitative Analysis" is written by V.K. Ahluwalia. This book was published in the year 2008. The ISBN number 8173714754|9788173714757 is assigned to the Paperback version of this title. This book has total of pp. xix + 312 (Pages). The publisher of this title is Universities Press (India) Pvt. Ltd.. We have about 815 other great books from this publisher. Comprehensive Practical Organic Chemistry Preparation and Quantitative Analysis is currently Available with us.

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About the Book

This Book describes the preparations of organic compounds which are normally included in the syllabi of Indian universities for undergraduate and postgraduate courses. It covers the name reactions, some special procedures for acetylation, methylation, esterification, halogenation, nitration, oxidation, reduction and sulphonation, as well as some special types of compounds such as dyes and drugs.

A special feature of the book is that the preparations have been described along with their mechanisms.

Quantitative analysis and estimations of most of the compounds and groups as prescribed in the syllabi of Indian universities for undergraduate and postgraduate courses are given.

The book also describes the different techniques of chromatography.

About the Author

Dr B R Ambedkar rd/v-k-ahluwalia" Title="v-k-ahluwalia">V K Ahluwalia ef="/books/k" Title="k">K Ahluwalia is visiting Professor at the Dr B R Ambedkar Centre for Biomedical Research, University of Delhi. He has been teaching graduate and postgraduate students for over three decades, and has also delivered a number of invited lectures in India and abroad. He has published over 300 research papers and has authored three books.

Renu Aggarwal is Senior Lecturer at Gargi College, New Delhi. She has been teaching graduate students for seven years and has so far published about eight research papers and one review article. Cover : Osdata

Contents

Preface

Section I : PREPARATIONS :
1. Acetylation :
i. Aspirin (Acetyl Salicyclic Acid) :
a. Acetic anhydride-concentrated Sulphuric Acid Method
b. Acetyl Chloride-pyridine Method

ii. Hydroquinone Diacetate
iii. β-Naphthyl Acetate
iv. p-Acetylaminophenol
v. α and β-Glucose Pentaacetate :
a. α Glucose Pentaacetate (l, 2, 3, 4, 6-penta-O-acetyl- α -D-glucopyranose)
b. β-Glucose Pentaacetate, (1, 2, 3, 4, 6-penta-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranose)

vi. D-Mannitol Hexaacetate
vii. Hydroxyhydroquinone Triacetate
viii. Acetanilide

2. Acids (Carboxylic Acids) :
i. Hydrolysis of Nitriles :
a. Phenylacetic Acid
b. P-Toluicacid

ii. Carbonation of Grignard Reagent :
a. Benzoic Acid

3. Acid Anhydrides :
i. Acetic Anhydride
ii. Phthalic Anhydride
iii. Succinic Anhydride
iv. Maleic Anhydride
v. Benzoic Anhydride (Thionyl Chloride-Pyridine Method)

4. Acid Chlorides (Carboxylic Acid Chlorides) (Acyl Halides) :
i. Phosphorus Pentachloride Method :
a. 3, 5-Dinitrobenzoyl Chloride

ii. Phosphorus Trichloride Method :
a. Acetyl Chloride

iii. Thionyl Chloride Method :
a. Benzoyl Chloride
b. Butyryl Chloride

5. Alkyl Halides :
i. Alkyl Chlorides :
a. N-Hexyl Chloride (1-Chlorohexane)
b. Isobutyl Chloride (l-Chloro-2-methylpropane)
c. Sec. Butyl Chloride (2-Chlorobutane)
d. Allyl Chloride (3-Chloropropene)
e. Tert, Butyl Chloride (2-Chloro-2-methyipropane)

ii. Alkyl Bromides :
a. Isopropyl Bromide (2-Bromopropane)
b. n-Butyl Bromide
c. 1, 4-Dibromobutane
d. Isobutyl Bromide (Phosphorus-bromine Method)

iii. Alkyl Iodides :
a. Isopropyl Iodide (2-Iodopropane)
b. 1, 4-Diiodobutane
c. n-Butyl Iodide

6. Algar-Flynn-Oyamada Oxidation (AFO) :
i. 3-Hydroxyflavone

7. Arndt-Eistert Synthesis :
i. α-Naphthyl Acetic Acid

8. Baeyer-villiger Oxidation :
i. 3, 4-Dimethoxyphenol

9. Benzoin Condensation :
i. Benzoin

10. Baker-venkataraman Rearrangement :
i. Flavone

11. Beckmann Rearrangement :
i. Benzanilide from Benzophenone Oxime
ii. Acetanilide from Acetophenone Oxime

12. Blanc Reaction (Chloromethylation) :
i. 1, 2-Bis (Chloromethyl)-4, 5-dimethylbenzene

13. Benzidine Rearrangement :
i. Benzidine

14. Benzil-benzilic Acid Rearrangement :
i. Benzilic Acid

15. Bouveault-blanc Reduction :
i. Pentan-l-ol (Amyl Alcohol)

16. Bucherer Hydantoin Synthesis :
i. 5, 5-Dimethylhydantoin

17. Carbene Addition :
i. 7, 7-Dibromobicyclo (4.1.0) Heptane

18. Cannizzaro Reaction :
i. Benzyl Alcohol and Benzole Acid from Benzaldehyde

19. Chlorosulphonation
20. Claisen Condensation :
i. Ethyl Acetoacetate

21. Claisen Rearrangement :
i. 2-Allyl Phenol

22. Claisen-Schmidt Condensation :
i. Benzalacetophenone, (Chalcone, Benzylidene Acetophenone)
ii. Benzalacetone, (Benzylideneacetone)
iii. Dihenzalacetone (Dibenzylideneacetone)

23. Clemmensen Reduction :
i. Ethyl Resorcinol from Resacetophenone
ii. Dihenzyl from Benzil

24. Combes Quinoline Synthesis :
i. 2, 4, 6-Trimethyl Quinoline

25. Coupling :
i. Coupling Via Radical Species :
a. 1, 1'-Binaphthyl
b. Biphenyl-2, 2'-dicarboxylic Acid (Diphenic Acid)

ii. Reductive Coupling :
a. Benzpinacol

iii. Photochemical Method
iv. Ullmann's Coupling

26. Dakin Reaction :
i. 2, 3-Dihydroxy Anisole (Pyrogallol Monomethyl Ether)
ii. Catechol

27. Dehydration :
i. Dehydration of Alcohols :
a. Cyclohexene
b. Maleic Acid

ii. Dehydration of Amides :
a. Benzonitrile

iii. Dehydration of Oximes :
a. Veratronitrile

28. Dehydrogenation :
i. Naphthalene

29. Dele'pine Reaction
30. Diazo Reaction (Griess Diazo Reaction) :
i. Replacement of Diazo Group by Hydrogen :
a. 1, 3, 5-Tribromobenzene

ii. Replacement of Diazo Group by Hydroxyl :
a. Phenol
b. M-nitrophenol

iii. Replacement of Diazo Group by Iodine :
a. Iodobenzene

iv. Replacement of Diazo Group by Chlorine or Bromine (Sandmeyers' Reaction) :
a. P-chlorotoluene
b. P-bromotoluene

V. Reactions Not Involving Loss of Nitrogen (Reduction of Diazonium Salts) :
a. Phenylhydrazine

vi. Coupling Reactions :
a. Phenylazo-β-Naphthol
b. 4-(4'-Nitrobenzeneazo)-1-naphthol (Magneson II)
c. Diazoaminobenzene
d. P-aminoazobenzene
e. Methyl Orange
f. Orange II (β-naphthol Orange)
g. Methyl Red
h. P-nitrosodimethylaniline

31. Drugs :
i. Acetylsalicyclic Acid (Aspirin) : (Analgesic Drug)
ii. P-aminobenzenesulphonamide (Sulphanilamide)
iii. Sulphaguanidine (Antibacterial Drug)
iv. P-ethoxyacetanilide (Phenacetin) : Analgesic Drug

32. Duff Reaction :
i. P-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde

33. Dyes :
i. Azo Dyes
ii. Dyes Obtained by Other Methods :
a. Fluorescein
b. Eosin (Tetrabromo Fluorescein)
c. Malachite Green
d. Crystal Violet (Hexamethyl Pararosaniline)

34. Dienes Synthesis
35. Doebener Modification of Knoevenagel Condensation
36. Diels-alder Reaction :
i. 9, 10-dihydroanthracene-endo α, β-succinic Anhydride (Anthracene-maleic Anhydride Adduct)

37. Doebner Reaction :
i. 2-phenylquinoline-4-carboxylic Acid (Atophan)

38. Dieckmann Condensation :
i. 2-ethoxycarbonylcyclopentanone (Ethyl 2-oxocyclopentanecarboxylate)

39. Elbs Persulphate Oxidation :
i. 2, 5-dihyciroxybenzaldehyde (Gentisic Aldehyde)

40. Enamine Reaction :
i. 2-acetylcyclohexanone

41. Erlenmyer-plochl Azlactone and Amino Acid Synthesis :
i. DL-Phenylalanine (2-amino-3-phenylpropionic Acid)
ii. 3-Hydroxycoumarin

42. Esterification :
i. Concentrated Sulphuric Acid Method :
a. N-Butyl Acetate
b. Ethyl Benzoate
c. Methyl Salicylate

ii. Hydrogen Chloride Method :
a. Sec. Butyl Acetate
b. Ethyl P-aminobenzoate

iii. Azeotropic Mixture Method :
a. Diethyl Adipate

iv. Esterification Using P-toluene Sulphonic Acid and 2, 2-dimethoxypropane :
a. Dimethyl Adipate

v. Alcoholysis of Cyanides :
a. Ethyl Phenylacetate

43. Etard Reaction :
i. O-Chlorobenzaldehyde

44. Favorskii Rearrangement :
i. Methyl Cyclopentane Carboxylate

45. Fischer Indole Synthesis :
i. 2-Phenylindole
ii. 2-Methylindole
iii. 1, 2, 3, 4-Tetrahydrocarbazole

46. Friedel-Crafts Reaction :
i. Alkylation :
a. Tert. Butylbenzene
b. Triphenylmethane

ii. Acylation :
a. Acetophenone
b. β-Benzoyl Propionic Acid
c. O-Benzoylbenzoic Acid
d. P-Methylacetophenone
e. 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone

47. Fries Rearrangement :
i. 2, 5-Dihydroxyacetophenone
ii. 2-Hydroxy-5-methylbenzophenone

48. Gattermann Formylation :
i. 2, 4-Dihydroxy Benzaldehyde (β-resorcylaldehyde)
ii. P-Methoxybenzaldehyde (Anisaldehyde)

49. Gabriel Synthesis :
i. Benzylamine

50. Grignard Reaction :
i. Triphenylcarbinol

51. Halogenation :
i. Chlorobenzene
ii. Bromobenzene
iii. Iodobenzene
iv. 2, 4, 6-Tribromoaniline
v. 2, 4, 6-Tribromophenol
vi. P-Bromoacetanilide
vii. 1-Bromo-2-naphthol
viii. Benzyl Chloride
ix. P-Nitrobenzyl Bromide
x. Ethyl Bromide
xi. Ethyl Iodide
xii. Chloroform

52. Hantzsch Pyridine Synthesis :
i. 2, 6-Dimethylpyridine

53. Haloform Reaction :
i. Iodoform

54. Heterocyclic Compounds :
i. 2, 3-Dimethyl-1-phenylpyrazol-5-one (Antipyrin)
ii. Indigo
iii. 5, 5-Diphenylhydantoin
iv. Benzimidazoles :
a. Benzimidazole
b. 2-Methylbenzimidazole
c. 2-Benzylbenzimidazole

v. Benzotriazole
vi. 4-Methylcarbostyril (2-Hydroxy-4-methylquinoline)
vii. Barbituric Acid
viii. 2, 3-Diphenylquinoxalines (Quinoxalines) :
a. 2, 3-Diphenylquinoxaline

ix. Piperazine-2, 5-dione (Diketopiperazine)
x. Furans :
a. 2, 5-Dimethylfuran
b. Benzofuran

xi. Pyrones :
a. Coumalic Acid

xii. Benzo Pyrones :
a. Coumarin
b. 4-Methyl-7-hydroxy Coumarin
c. 2-Methyl-7-hydroxychromone
d. 7-Hydroxyflavone

xiii. Anthraquinone
xiv. Acridone
xv. 2, 5-Dialkylthiophen :
a. 2, 5-Dimethylthiophen

xvi. Benzothiophens :
a. 5-Chloro-3-methylbenzothiophen

55. Hofmann Reaction (Hofmann Rearrangement) :
i. Methylamine Hydrochloride
ii. Anthranilic Acid
iii. 3-Aminopyridine

56. Houben-Hoesch Reaction :
i. 2, 4-Diphydroxyacetophenone (β-Resacetphenone)
ii. 2, 4-Trihydroxyacetophenone (Phloroacetophenone)

57. Indicators :
i. Congo Red
ii. Methyl Orange
iii. Phenolphthalein

58. Jones Oxidation :
i. Cinnamaldehyde from Cinnamyl Alcohol

59. Knoevenagel Condensation :
i. Cinnamic Acid
ii. 3, 4-Methylenedioxycinnamic Acid (Doebner Modification)

64. Kolbe-Schmitt Reaction :
i. Salicylic Acid
ii. 2, 4-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid (β-Resorcyclic Acid)

61. Kostanecki-Robinson Acylation :
i. 7 Hydroxy-2-methylchromone

62. Mannich Reaction :
i. Dimethylaminopropiophenone Hydrochloride
ii. 3-Indolylacetic Acid

63. Madelung Indole Synthesis :
i. Indole

64. Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley Reduction :
i. But-2-en-l-ol (Crotyl Alcohol)

65. Methylation :
i. β-Naphthyl Methyl Ether (Nerolin)
ii. Resorcinol Dimethyl Ether (1, 3-Dimethoxybenzene)
iii. 1, 2, 4-Trimethoxybenzene
iv. 3, 4-Diinethoxybenzaldehyde (Veratraldehyde)
v. 4-Methyl-7-methoxycoumarin

66. Michael Condensation :
i. Dimedone

67. Natural Products-Isolation :
i. Isolation of Caffeine from Tea Leaves
ii. Isolation of Casein and Lactose from Milk
iii. Isolation of Piperine from Black Pepper

68. Nencki Reaction :
i. β-Resacetophenone (2, 4-Dihydroxyacetophenone)

69. Nitration :
i. Nitrobenzene
ii. 1-Nitronaphthalene
iii. P-Bromonitrobenzene
iv. O-and P-Nitrophenols
v. P-Nitroacetanilide
vi. M-Dinitrobenzene
vii. 2, 4-Dinitrochlorobenzene
viii. Picric Acid (2, 4, 6-Trinitrophenol)

70. Oxidation :
i. Potassium Permanganate :
a. Veratric Acid (3, 4-dimethoxybenzoic Acid)
b. O-Chlorobenzoic Acid
c. Terephthalic Acid
d. Benzoic Acid

ii. Chromium Trioxide :
a. Anthraquinone
ii. P-Nitrobenzaldehyde

iii. Potassium Dichromate :
a. N-Butyraldehyde
b. Cyclohexanone
c. Adipic Acid
d. P-Nitrobenzoic Acid
e. Phenanthraquinone
f. Terephthalic Acid

iv. Concentrated Nitric Acid :
a. Adipic Acid
b. Oxalic Acid

v. Hydrogen Peroxide :
a. Diphenic Acid (biphenyl-2, 2'-dicarboxylic Acid)

vi. Selenium Dioxide :
a. Benzil

vii. Mercuric Oxide :
a. Tolan (Diphenylethyne)

viii. Potassium Bromate :
a. P-Benzoquinone
b. Benzilic Acid

ix. Sodium Hypobromite :
a. 2, 2-Dimethylpropionic Acid (Trimethyl Acetic Acid)
b. 3, 3-Dimethylacrylic Acid
c. 2-Naphthoic Acid

x. Potash Fusion :
a. Vanillic Acid (3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzoic Acid)
b. 3, 4-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid (Protocatechuic Acid)

xi. Potassium Persulphate
xii. Peracids
xiii. Iodine-pyridine :
a. 2-Hydroxy-4-Methoxybenzoic Acid

xiv. Chromyl Chloride

71. Paal-Knorr Synthesis :
i. 2, 5-Dimethyl Pyrrole
ii. 3, 5-Diethoxycarbonyl-2, 4-dimethyl Pyrrole
iii. 3, 5-Dimethylpyrazole
iv. 3-Methyl-l-Phenylpyrazol-5-one

72. Pechmann Condensation :
i. 7-Hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin

73. Perkin Reaction :
i. Cinnamic Acid
ii. Coumarin

74. Photochemical Reactions :
i. Benzopinacol
ii. Conversion of Trans-azobenzene into Cis-azobenzene
iii. 1, 4-Naphthaquinone Photodimer

75. Pinacol-Pinacolone Rearrangement :
i. Pinacolone

76. Polymerisation :
i. Polystyrene
ii. Nylon-66
iii. Phenol-formaldehyde Resin (Bakelite)
iv. Thiokol Rubber

77. Reduction :
i. Aluminium Isopropoxide
ii. Diimide :
a. Hydrocinnamic Acid (β-phenylpropionic Acid)

iii. Feirous Sulphate-ammonia :
a. P-Aminobenzoic Acid

iv. Iron-hydrochloric Acid
v. Hydrazine
vi. Lithium Aluminium Hydride, LiAlH4 :
a. Benzylamine

vii. Sodium-ethyl Alcohol
viii. Sodium Amalgam :
a. Piperonylamine

ix. Sodium Borohydride :
a. M-Nitrobenzyl Alcohol

x. Sodium Hydrogen Sulphide :
a. M-Nitroaniline

xi. Sodium Dithionite, Na2S2O4
xii. Sodium Sulphite
xiii. Magnesium-alcohol :
a. Hydrazobenzene (Sym. Diphenylhydrazine)
b. Azobenzene

xiv. Magnesium Amalgam
xv. Photochemical Reduction
xvi. Tin-hydrochloric Acid :
a. Aniline
b. Anthrone

xvii. Stannous Chloride-dry hydrogen Chloride :
a. P-Aminodimethylaniline

xviii. Zinc-acetic Acid :
a. Benzopinacol

xix. Zinc-sodium Hydroxide :
a. Azobenzene
b. Hydrazobenzene (Sym. Diphenylhydrazine)
c. Benzhydrol (Diphenylcarbinol)

xx. Zinc-amalgam
xxi. Catalytic Hydrogenation :
a. Hydrocinnamic Acid
b. Catalytic Reduction of Acid Chlorides
c. Catalytic Reduction of Alkenes
d. Catalytic Reduction of Alkynes

78. Reformatsky Reaction :
i. Ethyl 3, 3-diphenyl-3-hydroxypropionate

79. Reimer-Tiemann Reaction :
i. Salicylaldehyde
ii. β-Hydroxynaphthaldehyde

80. Riley Oxidation (Selenium Dioxide Oxidation)
81. Rosenmund Reduction :
i. 2-Naphthaldehyde

82. Sandmeyer Reaction (Gattermann Reaction, Kdrner-Contardi Reaction) :
i. P-Chlorotoluene
ii. P-Bromotoluene
iii. P-Tolunitrile

83. Sarett Oxidation :
i. Cinnamaldehyde from Cinnamyl Alcohol

84. Schotten-Baumann Reaction :
i. Hippuric Acid (Benzoyl Glycine)

85. Skraup Synthesis :
i. Quinoline
ii. 8-Hydroxyquinoline (Oxine)

86. Sommelet Reaction :
i. Naphthaldehyde

87. Schiemann Reaction (Balz-Schiemann Reaction) :
i. 4, 4'-Difluorobiphenyl

88. Stephen Reaction :
i. Hexanal

89. Strecker Amino Acid Synthesis :
i. A-Phenylglycine (DL-2-Aminophenylacetic Acid)

90. Ullmann's Reaction :
i. 2, 2'-Dipyridyl
ii. 2, 2'-Dinitrobiphenyl

91. Vilsmeier-Haack Reaction :
i. 2, 4-Dimethoxybenzaldehyde
ii. 2, 4, 5-Trimethoxybenzaldehyde (Asarlaldehyde)
iii. 9-Formylanthracene

92. Willgerodt-Kindler Reaction :
i. P-Methoxyphenylacetic Acid

93. Wittig Reaction :
i. Trans-Stilbene

94. Wolff-Kishner Reduction :
i. Ethyl Benzene

95. Miscellaneous Preparations :
i. P-Nitroaniline
ii. P-Bromoaniline
iii. P-Dinitrobenzene
iv. P-Nitrophenylhydrazine
v. 2, 4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine
vi. Anthraquinone
vii. 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid
viii. S-Benzylisothiouronium Chloride
ix. 1, 1-Bis(P-chlorophenyl)-2, 2, 2-trichloroethane (D.D.T.)
x. N-Phenyl-2, 4-dinitroaniline
xi. Hydantoin
xii. W-Nitrostyrene
xiii. Acetamide
xiv. Benzamide
xv. Oxamide
xvi. Phthalolylglycine
xvii. Phthaloylglycylglycine

96. Multi-step Preparations :
i. Acetanilide
ii. P-Aminoazobenzene
iii. Acridone
iv. Adipic Acid
v. Anthraquinone
vi. Benzalacetophenone
vii. Benzanilide
viii. Benzidine
ix. Benzilic Acid
x. P-Bromoaniline
xi. Dibenzyl
xii. 2, 5-Dihydroxyacetophanone
xiii. Diphenylacetylene (Tolan)
xiv. P-Dinitrobenzene
xv. 2, 4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine
xvi. Ethyl Resorcinol
xvii. Flavone
xviii. Hydantoin
xix. 7-Hydroxyflavone
xx. Methyl Orange
xxi. M-Nitroaniline
xxii. P-Nitrophenylhydrazine
xxiii. N-Phenyl-2, 4-dinitroaniline
xxiv. Phthalylglycylglycine
xxv. 2, 4, 5-Trimethoxybenzaldehyde (Asarlaldehyde)

97. Questions

Section II : QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS :
1. Estimation of Elements :
i. Estimation of Nitrogen
ii. Estimation of Sulphur
iii. Estimation of Halogens

2. Estimation of Functional Groups :
i. Estimation of Hydroxyl Group (Alcohols and Phenols)
ii. Estimation of Acetyl Group (O-acetyl)
iii. Estimation of Methoxyl Group-Zeisel's Method
iv. Estimation of C-Methyl Group
v. Estimation of Carbonyl Group
vi. Estimation of Carboxyl (-COOH) Group
vii. Estimation of Esters
viii. Estimation of Amines
ix. Estimation of Amide Group
x. Estimation of Urea
xi. Estimation of Nitro Group

3. Estimation of Sugars
4. Estimation of Unsaturation
5. Estimation of Oils and Fats :
i. Saponification Value of the given Oil or Fat Sample
ii. Iodine Value of an Oil or Fat

6. Estimation of Amino Acids :
i. Sorensen Formol Titration Method
ii. Percentage Purity of Amino Acid

7. Estimation of Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) :
i. Determination of Ascorbic Acid Concentration in Fruit Juice

8. Estimation of Active Hydrogen-Zerevitinoff's Method
9. Molecular Weight Determination :
i. Rast's Method

10. Questions

Section III : CHROMATOGRAPHY :
1. Column Chromatography
2. Thin Layer Chromatography
3. Gas Chromatography
4. Paper Chromatography :
i. Ascending Paper Chromatography
ii. Descending Paper Chromatography
iii. Radial Chromatography
iv. Representation of Adsorbing Power

5. Ion-exchange Chromatography
6. High Performance Column Chromatography

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