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Electrical Substation Engineering and Practice EHV-AC, HVDC and SF -GIS; Principles, Practice, Design and Reference Data 8th Reprint,8174091394,9788174091390

Electrical Substation Engineering and Practice EHV-AC, HVDC and SF -GIS; Principles, Practice, Design and Reference Data 8th Reprint

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Book Information

Publisher:Khanna Publishers
Published In:2009
ISBN-10:8174091394
ISBN-13:9788174091390
Binding Type:Paperback
Weight:1.36 lbs
Pages:pp. [xiv] + 568, Figures, Charts, Tables, Index, Biblio.

The Title "Electrical Substation Engineering and Practice EHV-AC, HVDC and SF -GIS; Principles, Practice, Design and Reference Data 8th Reprint" is written by S. Rao. This book was published in the year 2009. The ISBN number 8174091394|9788174091390 is assigned to the Paperback version of this title. The book displayed here is a 8th Reprint edition. This book has total of pp. [xiv] + 568 (Pages). The publisher of this title is Khanna Publishers. We have about 438 other great books from this publisher. Electrical Substation Engineering and Practice EHV-AC, HVDC and SF -GIS; Principles, Practice, Design and Reference Data 8th Reprint is currently Not Available with us.You can enquire about this book and we will let you know the availability.

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About the Book

This Book covers several useful aspects regarding the Principals design aspects, practical aspects installation, testing and commissioning of EHV-AC, HVDC and SF Gas Insulated substations. The vast data has been presented in a systematic manner along with illustrations, reference tables, specifications, ratings, product and plant description etc.

Each substation is tailor-made for particular specifications, terms and conditions, the guidelines for substation design have been evolved by CIGRE working groups and relevant International and National Standards.

This book Outlines the basic procedures and will serve as a useful reference book for Substation Designers, Project Managers and Operation & Maintenance Staff. It covers every practical topic from conceptual design, installation, commissioning, to operation and maintenance. Every major substation equipment including Power ^Transformers, SF Breakers, Electrical Auxiliaries & subsystems etc. have been covered.
It will be a useful material for HRD courses for Power Engineers and Students of Engineering Colleges enrolled in courses of Power Systems.

Contents

I. ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION :
1. General Background
2. Functions of a Substation
3. Substation Layouts, Busbar Schemes
4. Voltage Levels in AC Substations and HVDC Substations
5. Types of Substations
6. Essential Features of a Substation
7. Substation Equipment
8. Substation Earthing System : (Grounding System)
9. Insulation Co-ordination and Surge Arresters
10. Protective Systems in Substations
11. Clearances (Insulation Distance) and Creepage Distance (Leakage Distance)
12. Power Line Carrier Communication (PLCC)
13. Substation Structures
14. Busbar design, Clamps and Connectors
15. Special Requirements of EHV AC Substations and HVDC Substations
16. Voltage Control Equipment and Reactive Power Compensation Equipment in Substation
17. Project Planning
18. Testing and Commissioning at Site
19. Operation and Control
20. Protection, Monitoring and Control by Microprocessors and Computers
21. Scope of the Subject

II. SUBSTATION EQUIPMENT :
1. Introduction
2. Electrical Equipment in the Main Current
3. Busbars
4. Circuit-Breakers
5. Isolators and Earthing Switches
6. Power Transformers
7. Current Transformers and Voltage Transformers
8. Rated Characteristics of VT's
9. Surge Arresters (Lightning Arresters)

III. TYPES OF SUBSTATIONS AND TRANSFORMER SUBSTATIONS :
1. Introduction
2. Classification of Substations
3. Classification Based on Configuration
4. Classification of Indoor and Outdoor
5. Classification Based on Application
6. Specifications of a Substation
7. Transformer Substation
8. Roads and Route for Transportation
9. Connections between Transformer and Busbars on HV and LV Sides
10. Earthing Grid
11. Surge Arrester Protection of Transformers
12. Power Transformer Connections in the Unit System of Generator Connections
13. Scheme Employing Generator Circuit-Breakers
14. Auxiliary Power Transformers
15. Isolated Phase Bus-ducts for Connections between Generator and Main Transformer and Unit Auxiliary Transformer

VI. BUSBAR SYSTEMS AND LAYOUTS :
1. Introduction
2. Configuration Concept
3. Requirements of a Busbar System
4. Technical Requirements
5. Busbar Systems (Busbar Layouts)
6. Single Busbar Scheme
7. Single Sectionalized Busbar
8. Double Busbar Scheme (Duplicate Bus)
9. Bus-coupler
10. Duplicate Bus Scheme with Double Circuit-breaker
11. Breaker and a Half Schema (1 1/2 Breaker Scheme)
12. Duplicate Bus and a Transfer Bus : (Two Main and One Transfer Bus)
13. Ring Bus (Mesh Scheme)
14. Three Switch Busbar System for a Through Feeder
15. Basis of Comparison of Busbar Schemes
16. Use of Load Break Switches
17. Outage-Possibility Factor (OPF)
18. Selection of Busbar Schemes
19. Recommended Busbar System
20. Busbar System not Preferred for Large Substations
21. Evaluation of Outage Possibility Factor (OPF)
22. Layout of Indoor Metal-clad Switchgear Substations
23. Civil Drawings

V. PRINCIPLE OF SUBSTATION DESIGN :
1. Introduction
2. Terms and Definitions
3. Stresses on Substation Equipment
4. Clearance (Insulating Distances)
5. Maintenance Zones
6. Developing a Substation Layout

VI. SUBSTATION STRUCTURES :
1. Introduction
2. Structural Form
3. Materials for Construction of Structures
4. Galvanised Steel Structures
5. Galvanishing and Painting
6. R.C.C. Structures
7. Dimensioning
8. Main Factors in Desiging Support Structures

VII. BUSBARS, CONNECTORS AND CLAMPS :
1. Introduction
2. Forms of Busbars
3. Configuration of Busbars in Outdoor Substation
4. Definitions
5. Ratings of Busbars
6. Design Aspects
7. Thermal Expansion
8. Method of Jolting
9. Clamp and Connectors
10. Oxidation Layer
11. Design Considerations for Clamp and Connectors

VIII. DESIGN OF BUSBARS :
1. Introduction
2. Steps in Busbar Design
3. Materials for Busbars
4. Current Carrying Capacity
5. Temperature Rise During Short Circuit Conditions
6. Force Between Main Conductors due to Short Circuit Current
7. Bending Load on Insulators
8. Spacing of Support Insulators
9. Insulation Requirements of Busbars
10. Clearances between Phase and between Phase and Earth
11. Creepage Distance

IX. INSULATORS :
1. Introduction
2. Types pf Insulators Used in Substations
3. Materials
4. Leakage Distance or Creepage Distance
5. Corona Rings (Voltage Grading Rings)
6. Types of Insulators
7. Disc Insulators for Insulator Strings, Strain Insulators, Suspenion Insulators
8. Special Features of EHV-AC Insulator Strings
9. Solid-core Insulators
10. Hollow Porcelains for Apparatus (Bushing Type)
11. Bushings
12. Special Features for HVDC String Insulators
13. Testing of Insulators
14. Special Features for Insulators in SF6 Gas Insulated Substations

X. INSULATION CO-ORDINATION AND SURGE ARRESTERS :
1. Introduction
2. Overvoltages and their Significance
3. Standard Voltage Levels
4. Insulation Level of an Equipment
5. Insulation Co-ordination of a Substation
6. Terms and Definitions
7. Lighting Overvoltages and Protection of Substation Equipment
8. Switching Overvoltages and Protection of Substation Equipment
9. Switching Overvoltages is EHV Substations
10. Switching Overvoltage Factor
11. Switching Overvoltage in Medium Voltage Substations
12. Surge Arresters (Lightning Arrester)
13. Rated Voltage of Surge Arrester
14. Ratings of Surge Arrester
15. Calculation of Discharge Current for Shielded Substations
16. Installation as Surge Arresters
17. Protection of Substation Transformers by Surge Arresters
18. Overhead Shielding Screen
19. Protective Angle
20. Insulation Coordination between New ZnO Arresters and Old Gapped Sic Arresters in Adjucent Substations

XI. SUBSTATION EARTHING SYSTEMS :
1. Introduction
2. Functional Requirements of Earthing System
3. Description of an Earthing System
4. Equipment Earthing (Body Earthing)
5. Neutral Point Earthing
6. Substation Earthing System
7. Dimensioning of Earth Conductors
8. Step Pontential and Touch Potential
9. Earth Mat
10. Resistance of Earthing System
11. Values of Soil Resistivity
12. Fencing
13. Procedure of Laying Earthing-Mat
14. Measurement of Earthing Resistance

XII. FIRE-FIGHTING SYSTEMS IN SUBSTATIONS :
1. General
2. The System Desciption
3. Fire-Alarm Systems
4. Detectors
5. Transformer Water Spray System
6. Precautions Against Starting of Fire
7. Protection Against Spreading of Fire
8. Oil Sump for Transformers and Reactors

XIII. POWER CABLES AND CONTROL CABLES :
1. Introduction
2. Power Cables
3. Types of Conventional Power Cables
4. Laying of Power Cables
5. Field Quality Tests on Power Cables
6. Control Cables
7. Principles of Control Cable Installation
8. The Sensitivity of Various Loads to Interference
9. Definitions
10. Laying of Control Cables and Measuring Cables
11. Grounding of Cable Trays, Ducts
12. Electrical Noise
13. Protection of Static Relay Circuit and Control Circuits
14. Techniques of Protecting Sensitive Measuring, Protection and Control Equipment from Over-voltages
15. Pre-commissioning Checks

XIV. AUXILIARY SUPPLIES AND BATTERY SYSTEMS :
1. Auxiliary Supplies
2. Low Voltage D.C. Source and Distribution System
3. Description of D.C. Distribution System
4. Number of Battery Cells
5. Ampere Hour Capacity
6. Specifications of a Battery Systems
7. Battery-Room and Battery-charging System
8. Auxiliary A.C. System

XV. PROTECTION, CONTROL AND AUTOMATION IN SUBSTATIONS :
1. Introduction
2. Control Room and Control Panels
3. Protective Relaying in Substations
4. Power Transformer Protection
5. Bus Zone Protection
6. Protection of Transmission Lines
7. Carrier Assisted Distance Protection
8. Introduction to Substation Control
9. Programmable Equipment for Protective Relaying Measurements and Control (PPRMC)
10. Microprocessor Based Relays & Integrated Protection, Control and Automation
11. Fault Dignostics, Expert Systems

XVI. POWER LINE CARRIER COMMUNICATION AND TELECONTROL OF SUBSTATIONS :
1. Introduction
2. Coupling Capacitor
3. Line Trap Unit
4. Protection and Earthing of Coupling Equipment
5. Electronic Equipment
6. Applications of Power Line Carrier
7. Fibre Optic Data Transmission

XVII. SF6 GAS INSULATED SUBSTATIONS (CIS) AND GAS INSULATED CABLES (GIC) :
1. Introduction
2. Applications
3. Application and Range of Ratings
4. Demerits of GIS
5. Configuration of GIS
6. Circuit Arrangements and Single Line Diagrams of GIS
7. Design Aspects
8. Earthing Switches in GIS
9. Compressed Gas Insulated Cable (CGIC), Compressed SF6 Gas insulated Transmission Lines (CGIT) for EHV and UHV Power Transmission
10. Hybrid Substations

XVIII. HVDC SUBSTATIONS :
1. Introduction
2. Typical Bipolar HVDC Link
3. Layout of a HVDC Substation
4. A.C. Switchyard
5. A.C. Harmonic Filter Area
6. Converter-transformers
7. Valve Hall and Control Room
8. HVDC Yard
9. D.C. Smoothing Reactors
10. Earth Return
11. D.C. Breaker and Load-Break Switches
12. Operating Modes of HVDC Transmission System
13. Electrical and Mechanical Auxiliaries
14. Auxiliary Power
15. Operating Principle of a HVDC Transmission Link
16. Control of a HVDC Link
17. Convertnor Characteristics
18. Converter Valves, Thyristors and their Functioning
19. Protection and Control in HVDC Substations
20. Surge Arrester Protection
21. Control of HVDC Tranmission System
22. Hierarchical Levels in Control System
23. Merits of HVDC Transmission System
24. HVDC Back-to-Back Coupling Stations
25. HVDC Simulator
26. Power Flow Modulation for AC Network Damping
27. Load-Frequency Control

XIX. ENGINEERING ASPECTS Of EHV-AC SUBSTATION :
1. Introduction
2. Busbars for Outdoor Yards
3. Corona Rings and Corona Bells
4. Mechanical Stresses and Factor of Safety for Support Insulators
5. Clamps and Connectors for EHV Conductors
6. Bundled Conductors
7. Pollution Behaviour of Insulators
8. Insulation Levels
9. Clearances
10. Station Earthing System
11. Earthed Screens
12. Power Transformers
13. Shunt Reactors
14. Compensation of Reactive power
15. Additional Compensating Equipments in EHV-AC Substations
16. Configuration of EHV-AC Transmission System
17. Corona
18. Audible Noise
19. Electric Field at Working Level
20. Circuit Breakers
21. Present and Future

XX. PROJECT PLANNING INSTALLATION, COMMISSIONING AND SAFETY PROCEDURES :
1. Project Planning
2. Preparation
3. Documentation
4. Receiving and Storage at Site
5. Civil Activities
6. Installation (Erection)
7. Safety Procedures
8. Installtion of Earthing System
9. Erection of Yard Equipment
10. Installation of outdoor Circuit Breakers
11. Installation of Drawout Type Indoor Switchgear
12. Installation of Transformers
13. Drying of Electical Equipment
14. Measurement of Insulation Resistance and Polarisation Index of transformers
15. Commissioning of Substations
16. Commissioning Tests
17. Equipment Tests
18. Sub-Systems Tests
19. Tests on Protection Systems
20. Phasing Tests
21. On Load Test
22. Handing-Over to the Customers Operating Staff

XXI. SINGLE PRESSURE PUFFER TYPE Sf6 CIRCUIT BREAKERS :
1. Historical Background
2. SF6 Gas as a Dielectric and Arc Quenching Medium
3. Transportation and Handling of SF6
4. Medium Voltage Metatcald Switchgear with SF6 C.B.
5. HV and EHV Outdoor Puffer Type Single Pressure SF6 Circuit-Breakers
6. Ratings and Range
7. Operating Mechanisms
8. Reasons for Preferance of SF6 Breaker
9. Breaker Control and Operating System
10. Compressed-air System for Pneumatic Mechanism
11. Spring Mechanism Alternative
12. Dead Tank Type Single Pressure SF6 Circuit Breaker

XXII. MAINTENANCE OF EHV-AC AND HVDC SUBSTATIONS AND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT :
1. Introduction
2. Breakdown Maintenance Versus Preventive Maintenance
3. Inspection, Servicing, Overhaul
4. Maintenance Schedule
5. Skilled Personnel for Maintenace
6. Preventive Maintenance of Substations
7. Maintenance of Power Transformer
8. Maintenance of Switchgear
9. Maintenace of Circuit Breakers
10. Insulation Resistance Measurement
11. Maintenance of SF6 Circuit-Breaker
12. Maintenace of SF6CB inG.I.S.
13. Maintenance of Air-Blast Circuit Breakers
14. Maintenance of Vacuum Circuit-Breaker
15. Maintenance of Oil Circuit Breaker (BOCB, MOCB)
16. Maintenace of Dielectric Oil
17. Drying-out of Power Transformers
18. Preventive Maintenance of HVDC Substation and Equipment
19. Live Line (Hot Line) Maintenance

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