Gopal G. Bhise, Assistant professor at Delhi College of Engineering, Delhi, obtained his Master's degree in Electrical Engineering from Delhi University and Ph.D degree in Electrical Engineering from Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi.
Dr. Bhise has more than 23 years experience in teaching undergraduate and post graduate classes in the areas of Basic Electrical Engineering, Electrical Machines, Power Systems, Network Analysis, Circuits and Systems, Control Systems, Non Linear Control Theory etc. He has also contributed several papers in national and international conference proceedings/journals. His current interest includes Automatic Generation Control and Power System Control.
Prem R. Chadha is currently an Assistant Professor in the Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Delhi College of Engineering, Delhi. He has over 23 years of experience in teaching various U.G. and P.O. courses in the area of Electronics and Communication Engineering. He has contributed large number of papers in national and international conferences/journals.
Having engineering education from BITS Pilani and IIT New Delhi with specialization in Electronics and Communication, he is actively associated with several National and International professional bodies. He is the author of some well renowned books in the area of Electronics and Communications. His current interest include Communications, Electrical and Computer Networks, Electromagnetics and Optical Fibres.
D.C. Kulshreshtha earned a B. Tech (with Honours) in Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering from IIT Kharagpur, and Masters Degree in Electrical Engineering from DCE, Delhi. He has taught for more than twenty five years in Delhi College of Engineering and Delhi Institute of Technology. He has authored many excellent Textbooks on Electronics, Instrumentation and Physics. His current interest includes Digital Signal Processing.
I. BASIC CONCEPTS :
l. Introduction
2. Electric Current
3. Sources of Energy
4. Lumped Circuit-parameters
5. The Resistance Parameter
6. The Capacitance Parameter
7. The Inductance Parameter
8. Sources of Energy :
i. Independent Sources
ii. Dependent or Controlled Sources
9. Conventions for Voltage and Current
10. Network
11. Classification of Networks :
i. Linearity
ii. Time-invariance
iii. Passivity
iv. Reciprocity
12. Other Network Components :
i. The Transformer
ii. The Gyrator
iii. The Negative Converter
13. The Nullator and the Norator
14. The Dot Convention for Coupled Coils
Problems
II. NETWORK EQUATIONS :
1. Introduction :
i. Kirchhoff s Current Law (KCL)
ii. Kirchhoff s Voltage Law (KVL)
2. Branch Currents and Mesh Currents
3. Positive Directions for Currents
4. The Number of Network Equations
5. Mesh Analysis :
i. Mesh Analysis Considering Sinusoidal Excitation
ii. Mesh Analysis for Circuits Having Coupled Coils
iii. Mesh Analysis Considering Controlled Sources
iv. The Concept of Supermeshes
6. Nodal Analysis :
i. Nodal Analysis Considering Sinusoidal Excitation
ii. Nodal Analysis Considering Controlled Sources
iii. The Concept of Supernodes
7. Source Transformations
8. Network Simplification Techniques
9. Mesh Equations by Inspection
10. Nodal Equations by Inspection
11. Duality :
i. The Dot Method
ii. Network Convention for Determining Source
iii. Orientation
Solved Examples
Problems :
III. TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF NETWORKS :
1. Introduction
2. General and Particular Solution
3. The Simple RL Network
4. The Time Constant
5. The Simple RC Network
6. Network Response with Dc Forcing Function
7. Initial Conditions in Networks :
i. Initial Conditions in Elements
ii. Graphical Interpretation of Derivatives
iii. A Procedure for Evaluating Initial Conditions
8. The RLC Network :
i. Second Order Homogeneous Differential Equation
ii. Networks Excited by External Energy Sources
Solved Examples
Problems
IV. THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM :
1. Introduction
2. Nature of a Mathematical Transform
3. Definition of Laplace Transform
4. Inverse Laplace Transform
5. Basic Properties of Laplace, Transforms
6. Use of Laplace Transform in Solving Electrical Networks
7. Partial Fraction Expansion
i. Heaviside's Expansion Theorem'
ii. Goldstone's Method
iii. Partial-Fraction of Functions with Complex Roots
8. The Concept of Complex Frequency
9. The Transformed Circuit-elements
10. Transform Methods in Network Analysis
Solved Examples
Problems
V. NETWORK Topology :
1. Introduction
2. History and Importance
3. The Graph of a Network :
i. The Oriented Graph
ii. The Subgraph
iii. Planar Graph
iv. The Tree
4. The Incidence Matrix :
i. The Reduced Incidence Matrix
ii. The KCL Equations
5. Fundamental Loops of a Graph :
i. 'The KVL Equations for f-loops
ii. Rank of Fundamental Loop Matrix
iii. The Mesh Matrix
6. Cut-set :
i. Orientation of a Cut-set
ii. The KCL Equations for Cut-sets
7. Fundamental Cut-sets (f Cut-sets)
i. Fundamental Cutset Matrix
ii. Rank of f Cutset Matrix
iii. Relation between Branch Voltages and Tree-Twig Voltages
8. Inter-relation Among the Matrices :
i. Inter-relation between Incidence Matrix and/loop Matrix
ii. Inter-relation between Incidence Matrix and/-cut set Matrix
iii. Inter-relation between f-loop Matrix and f-cut set Matrix
9. Voltage and Current Transformations :
i. Twig Voltage Transformation
ii. Node Voltage Transformation
iii. Link Current Transformation
iv. Mesh Current Transformation
10. Generalized Element
11. Formulation of Network Equations :
i. Loop Equations
ii. Cut-set Equations
iii. Mesh Equations
iv. Node Equations
12. Network Equations by Inspection
13. Network with Mutual Inductance
14. Network with Controlled Sources
15. Duality
Solved Examples
Problems
VI. NETWORK THEOREMS :
1. Introduction
2. Star Delta Transformation :
i. Delta to Star Conversion
ii. Star to Delta Conversion
3. Superposition Theorem
4. Thevenin's Theorem
5. Norton's Theorem
6. Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
7. Millman's Theorem
8. Reciprocity Theorem
9. Tellegen' s Theorem
10. Substitution Theorem
Solved Examples
Problems
VII. TWO PORT NETWORKS :
1. Introduction
2. Open Circuit or Impedance or z-parameters :
i. Equivalent Circuit using z-parameters
ii. Condition for Reciprocity and Symmetry
3. Short Circuit or Admittance or y-parameters :
i. Equivalent Circuit using y-parameters
ii. Condition for Reciprocity and Symmetry
4. Hybrid or h-parameters :
i. Equivalent Circuit using h-Parameters
ii. Condition for Reciprocity and Symmetry
5. Inverse-h or g-parameters :
i. Equivalent Circuit using g-Parameters
ii. Condition for Reciprocity and Symmetry
6. Transmission or ABCD Parameters :
i. Condition for Reciprocity and Symmetry
7. Inverse Transmission or abed Parameters :
i. Condition for Reciprocity and Symmetry
8. Conversion of Parameters
9. Image Parameters :
i. Image Parameters in Terms of ABCD Parameters
ii. Image Impedances for Symmetrical Network
iii. Open and Short Circuit Impedances in Terms of ABCD Parameters
iv. Image Impedances in Terms of Open Circuit and Short Circuit Impedances
v. Summary of Image Impedances
10. Parameters of Some Important Networks :
i. Lattice Network
ii. Star or T-Network
iii. Delta or ∏-Network
iv. T-∏ Network Transformation
11. Terminated 2-port Networks :
i. Output Impedance of a Terminated 2-Port Network
12. Interconnection of Two-port Networks :
i. Validity Tests for Interconnections
ii. Twin-T and Bridged-T Networks
Solved Examples
Problems
VIII. APPLICATIONS OF LAPLACE TRANSFORMS :
1. Introduction
2. The Shifted Unit Step Function
3. Some Important Properties of Laplace Transforms
4. The Ramp and Unit Impulse Function :
i. Laplace Transform of Unit Impulse Functions
ii. Sampling Property of Unit Impulse Function
5. Waveform Synthesis :
i. The Gate Function
ii. Periodic Functions
6. The Convolution Integral
7. The Impulse Response of a Network
8. The Superposition Integral
9. Inverse Laplace Transform of Some Irrational Functions
Solved Examples
Problems
IX. NETWORK FUNCTIONS :
1. Introduction
2. Network Functions for One and Two-port Networks :
i. One-Port Networks
ii. Two-Pork networks
3. Network Functions of Some Typical Networks :
i. Ladder Networks
ii. Non-ladder Networks
4. Pole-zero Plot of a Network Function :
i. Important Features of Poles and Zeros of N(s)
5. Restrictions on Poles and Zeros Locations :
i. Restriction on Poles and Zeros of Driving Point Immittance Functions
ii. Restriction on Poles and Zeros of Transfer Functions
6. Time Domain Behaviour from Pole-zero Plot
7. Finding Inverse Laplace Transform from Pole-zero Plot
8. Transfer Function of Active Networks
Solved Examples
Problems
X. RESONANCE :
1. Introduction
2. Series Resonance :
i. The Quality Factor
3. Pole-zero Configuration of Series Resonant Circuit
4. Plot of Various Parameters
5. Features of Series Resonance
6. Important Relations in Series Resonance
7. General Parallel Resonant Circuit
8. Parallel Resonating Circuit with RC = Q
9. Parallel RLC Resonant Circuit :
i. The Quality Factor
10. Features of Parallel Resonance
11. Important Relations in Parallel Resonance
12. Other Resonant Circuits
Solved Examples
Problems
XI. FOURIER SERIES AND FOURIER TRANSFORM :
1. Introduction
2. Basic Concepts :
i. Some Useful Integrals
3. Trigonometric Fourier Series :
i. Evaluation of Fourier Coefficients
4. Waveform Symmetries
5. Representation of any Function in Even and Odd Parts
6. Exponential Fourier Series
7. Response to Periodic Forcing Functions
8. Fourier Transform
9. Fourier Transforms of Some Useful Functions
10. Properties of the Fourier Transform
11. Fourier Transform of a Periodic Function
12. Applications to Electric Networks
Solved Examples
Problems
XII. ANALOGOUS SYSTEMS :
1. Introduction
2. Linear Mechanical Elements :
i. Translational System
ii Systems
3. D'Alembert's Principle
4. Force-Voltage Analogy
5. Force-Current Analogy
6. Mechanical Coupling Devices :
i. Friction Wheels or Gears
ii. Levers
7. Electromechanical Systems
Solved Examples
Problems
XIII. STATE VARIABLE ANALYSIS :
1. Introduction
2. The Concept of State
3. Order of Complexity of a Network
4. State Equations
5. Formulation of State Equations :
i. Equivalent Source Method
ii. Network Topological Method
6. Time Domain Solution of the State Equations :
i. Solution of Homogeneous State Equation
ii. State Transition Matrix
iii. Solution of Non Homogeneous State Equation
7. Evaluation of Matrix Exponential :
i. Series Evaluation
ii. Evaluation using Cayley-Hamilton Technique
iii. Evaluation using Similarity Transformation
iv. Evaluation using Laplace Transform
Solved Examples
Problems
XIV. DISTRIBUTED PARAMETERS : TRANSMISSION LINES :
1. Introduction
2. Equivalent Circuit of Transmission Line :
i. The Line at Radio Frequencies
ii. The Line at Power Frequencies
3. Transmission Line Equation :
i. Steady State Sinusoidal Solution
4. Terminated Transmission Line :
i. Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR)
5. Input Impedance of Transmission Line
6. Measurement of Various Parameters on Lossless Transmission Line
7. Transmission Line Matrices :
i. Matrices for Lossless Transmission Line
8. Paired Telephone Cables
9. Distortions in Transmission Lines :
i. Distortionless Transmission Line
10 Open Wire and Coaxial Cables :
i. Parameters at Radio Frequencies
ii. Characteristic Impedance
11. Impedance Transformation and Matching :
i. Single Shunt Stub Matching
ii. Single Series Stub Matching
Solved Examples
Problems
XV. SYNTHESIS OF ONE PORT NETWORKS :
1. Introduction
2. Causality and Stability
3. Hurwitz Polynomial
4. Routh's Criterion
5. Positive Real Functions
6. Sturm's Theorem
7. Elementary Synthesis Procedures
8. Synthesis of One-port Networks with Two Kinds of Elements :
i. Properties of L-C Immittance Functions
ii. Synthesis of L-C Driving Point Immittance Functions
9. RC Impedance Function :
i. Properties of R-C Driving Point Impedance Functions
ii. Synthesis of RC Impedances or RL Admittances
10 RL Impedance Function :
i. Properties of RL Driving Point Impedance Functions
ii. Synthesis of RL Impedances or RC Admittances
Solved Examples
Problems
XVI. PASSIVE FILTERS AND ATTENUATORS :
1 Introduction
2 Classification of Filters :
i. Mathematical Representation of Attenuation
3. General Relations in Filters :
i. Characteristic Impedance for T and ∏ Sections
ii. Attenuation and Phase Constant
iii. Cutoff Frequency
iv. Summary of Relations for Filter Sections
4. Constant-Low Pass Filters (LPF) :
i. Analysis of Constant-k-LPF
5. Constant-High Pass Filters (HPF) :
i. Analysis of Constant-k-HPF
6. Constant-k Band Pass Filters (BPF) :
i. Analysis of Constant-k-BPF
7. Constant-k Band Stop Filter (BSF) :
i. Analysis of Constant-k-BSF
ii. Drawbacks of Constant-k Filters
8. m-derived Filters :
i. Principle of m-derived Filters
9 The m-derived T and ∏ Section :
i. m-derived T-section Network
ii. m-derived ∏-section Network
10 m-derived Low Pass Filters (LPF) :
i. m-derived T-section LPF
ii. m-derived ∏-section LPF
iii. Composite Filters
iv. Attenuation and Phase Constant
v. Summary of m-derived LPF
11. m-derived High Pass Filters (HPF) :
i. m-derived T-section HPF
ii. m-derived ∏-section HPF
iii. Summary of m-derived HPF
12. m-derived Band Pass Filters (BPF) :
i. Summary of m-derived BPF
13. Terminating m-derived Half Sections : Composite Filters :
i. Design of Composite/Filter
14. Attenuators
15. Symmetrical Attenuators :
i. Symmetrical ∏-Attenuator
ii. Symmetrical T-Attenuator
iii. Symmetrical Bridged T-Attenuator
iv. Symmetrical Lattice Attenuator
16. Asymmetrical Attenuators :
i. Asymmetrical L-Attenuator
ii. Asymmetrical T-Attenuator
iii. Asymmetrical ∏-Attenuator
iv. Asymmetrical L-Attenuator between Two Equal Impedances
v. Summary of Design Equations of Attenuators
Solved Examples
Problems
XVII. ACTIVE AND DIGITAL FILTERS :
1. Introduction
2. Filter Function Definitions :
i. Filter Specifications
ii. The Biquadratic Filter Function
3. Second Order Sallen-key Filters :
i. Second Order Active Low-pass Filter
ii. Second Order Active High-Pass Filter
iii. Second Order Active Band-Pass Filter
iv. Modified Version of Low-Pass, High-Pass and Band-Pass Filters
4. Cascading of Active Filters
5. Butterworth Filters :
i. First Order Low-Pass Butterworth Filter
ii. Second Order Low Pass Butterworth Filter
iii. Second Order Band-Pass Butterworth Filter
iv. High Pass and Other Butterworth Filters
6. Switched-capacitor Filters :
i. Resistance Simulation
ii. Switched-Capacitor Realization of Integrator
iii. Realization of Gain Stages
iv. Realization of One Pole Sections
7. Digital Filters (DF) :
i. Digital Filter as a System
ii. Digital Filter Networks
iii. Discrete-time Elementary Functions
iv. Convolution of Discrete-time Signals
8. Realization of Digital Filters :
i. Direct Realization of DF
ii. Direct Canonic Realization of DF
iii. Cascade Realization
iv. Parallel Realization of DF
v. Ladder Realization of DF
9. Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT)
10 Realization of Various Elements in Active and Digital Filters
Solved Examples
Problems
Answers for Some Selected Problems