# Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1st Edition, Reprint

by Durgaiah D. RamaPaperback

## Book Information

Publisher: | New Age International (P) Ltd. |

Published In: | 2011 |

ISBN-10: | 8122413862 |

ISBN-13: | 9788122413861 |

Binding Type: | Paperback |

Weight: | 2.57 lbs |

Pages: | pp. xxviii + 884, Figures, Tables, Graphs, Index, Appendices, Biblio., Abbreviations |

The Title "Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1st Edition, Reprint" is written by Durgaiah D. Rama. This book was published in the year 2011. The ISBN number 8122413862|9788122413861 is assigned to the Paperback version of this title. The book displayed here is a 1st Edition, Reprint edition. This book has total of pp. xxviii + 884 (Pages). The publisher of this title is New Age International (P) Ltd.. We have about 2519 other great books from this publisher. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1st Edition, Reprint is currently Available with us.

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## About the Book

This Book presents a thorough and comprehensive treatment of both the basic as well as the more advanced concepts in Fluid Mechanics. The entire range of topics comprising fluid mechanics has been systematically organised and the various concepts are clearly explained with the help of several solved examples.

Apart from the fundamental concepts, the book also explains Fluid Dynamics, Flow Measurement, Turbulent and Open Channel Flows and Dimensional and Model Analysis. Boundary Layer Flows and Compressible Fluid Flows have been suitably highlighted.

Turbines, pumps and other hydraulic systems including circuits, valves, motors and Ram have also been explained. The book provides 225 fully worked out examples and more than 1600 questions including numerical problems and objective questions. The book would serve as an exhaustive text for both undergraduate and post- graduate students of Mechanical, Civil and Chemical Engineering. AMIE and competitive examination candidates as well as practising engineers would also find this book very useful.

## About the Author

D. Rama Durgaiah is a B. E. in Civil Engineering, S. V. University, M. Tech in Hydraulics Engineering from IIT, Kharagpur and Ph. D. in Ground Water Engineering from IIT, Madras. He has 38 years of professional experience that includes teaching undergraduate, graduate and pre-Ph. D. students. He has close to 30 years of experience in setting question papers and valuation of B. Tech, M. Tech and pre-Ph. D. answer papers.

Prof. Rama Durgaiah led the setting up of a new Fluid Mechanics lab at Engineering College, Anantapur in 1967 and a new Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machinery lab at JNTU, Hyderabad in 1978. He was awarded Best Teacher of Andhra Pradesh State in 1991 and Gold Medal for the best paper published in 1984 by the Institution of Engineers. He has to his credit 11 papers published in international journals and 10 in Indian journals.

Prof. Rama Durgaiah is a fellow of Institution of Engineers, India and a member of several professional associations.

## Contents

Preface

Symbols and Units

Chap. I : PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS :

1. Introduction

2. Fluid Characteristics

3. Significance of Fluid Properties

4. Density and Related Properties

5. Viscosity

6. Compressibility

7. Surface Tension

8. Capillarity

9 Vapour Pressure

Objective Questions

Short Answer Questions

Descriptive Questions

Numerical Questions

Answers of Exercise

Chap. II : FLUID STATICS :

1. Introduction

2. Characteristics of Fluid Pressure

3. Absolute. Gauge and Vacuum Pressures

4. Measurement of Atmospheric Pressure

i. Mercury Barometer

ii. Aneroid Barometer

5. Measurement of Gauge Pressure by Bourdon Gauge

6. Manometers :

i. Piezometer

ii. Open U-tube Manometer

iii. Inclined Manometer

iv. Differential Manometer

v. Inverted Differential Manometer

vi. Micromunometcr

7. Hydrostatic Force on Plane Areas :

i. Hydrostatic Force on a Horizontal Plane

ii. Hydrostatic Force on a Vertical Plane

iii. Hydrostatic Force on an Inclined Plane

8. Hydrostatic Force on Curved Surfaces :

i. Liquid above the Curved Surface

ii. Liquid below the Curved Surface

9. The Phenomena of Buoyancy

10. Stability of Floating Bodies

11. Metacentric Height of a Floating Body :

i. Analytical Determination of Metacentric Height

ii. Experimental Determination of Metacentric Height

Objective Questions

Short Answer Questions

Descriptive Questions

Numerical Questions

Answers

Chap. III : FLUID KINEMATICS :

1. Introduction

2. Methods of Describing Motion

i. Lagrangian Method

ii. Eulerian Method

3. Basic Definitions of Fluid Kinematics :

i. Stream Line

ii. Path Line

iii. Streak Line

iv. Stream Tube

4. Classification of Fluid Flows :

i. Laminar and Turbulent Flows

ii. Steady and Unsteady Flows

iii. Uniform and Non-Uniform Flows

iv. Compressible and Incompressible Flows

v. One-Two-and Three-Dimensional Flows

vi. Rotational and Irrotational Flows

5. Mean Velocity and Discharge

6. Equation of Continuity :

i. Equation of Continuity for One-dimensional Flow

ii. Equation of Continuity for Two-dimensional Flow

iii. Equation of Continuity for Three-dimensional Flow

7. Stream Function :

i. Properties of Stream Function

8. Velocity Potential Function :

i. Properties of Velocity Potential Function

ii. Stream and Velocity Potential Function in Terms of Cylindrical Polar Coordinates

9. Flownets :

i. Uses of Flownets

ii. Methods of Construction of Flownets

iii. Limitations of Flownets

10. Accelerations in Fluid Flow :

i. Accelerations in Steady Flow

ii. Accelerations in Unsteady Flow

iii. Cartesian Components of Acceleration

11. Two-dimensional Potential Flows :

i. S.F and V.P.F for Basic Flow Types

ii. S.F and V.P.F for Flow Combinations

12. Conformal Mapping :

i. Principles of Complex Variable Theory

ii. Complex Potential

iii. Analytic Functions

iv. Examples of Singular Points

v. Discussion on Conditions to be Satisfied by Analytic Functions

vi. Complex Velocity

13. Examples of Conformal Transformations :

i. Uniform Flow

ii. Source at (z = a)

iii. Source and Sink

iv. Doublet at (z = a)

v. Doublet in Uniform Flow

vi Flow at Wall Angle

Objective Questions

Short Answer Questions

Descriptive Questions

Numerical Questions

Answers

Chap. IV : FLUID DYNAMICS :

1. Introduction

2. Types of Forces in Fluid Motion

3. Euler’s and Bernouli's Equations :

i. Euler’s Equation for One-dimensional Flow

ii. Bernouli's Equation by Integration of One-dimensional Euler's Equation

iii. Euler's Equation for Three-dimensional Flow

iv. Bernouli's Equation by Integration of Three-dimensional Euler's Equations

v. Bernouli's Theorem and Its Limitations

vi. Application of Bernouli's Equation to Real Fluid Flows

4. Importance of Momentum Equation

5. Derivation of Momentum Equation

6. Application of Momentum Equation to Fluid Flow Problems

7. Energy and Momentum Correction Factors :

i. Energy Correction Factor

ii. .Momentum Correction Factor

8. Vortex Motions :

i. Dynamic Equation for Fluid Motion in a Curved Path

9. Forced Cylindrical Vortex :

i. Surfaces of Constant Pressure in a Forced Cylindrical Vortex

ii. Forced Cylindrical Vortex in a Closed Vessel

10. Free Cylindrical Vortex :

i. Surfaces of Constant Pressure in a Free Cylindrical Vortex

11. Linear Acceleration of a Fluid

12. Jet Propulsion :

i. Inlet Orifices located Amidships

ii. Inlet Orifices located in Bow

Objective Questions

Short Answer Questions

Descriptive Questions

Numerical Questions

Answers to Exercise

Chap. V : FLOW MEASUREMENT :

1. Introduction

2. Pilot Tube :

i. Stagnation Point

ii. Pilot Tube Equation

iii. Pilot-Static Tube

iv. Pitomeler

3. Hoi-wire Anemometer

4. Current Meter

5. Venluri Meler :

i. Venluri Meler Equation

ii. Evaluation of Venluri Head using a Manometer

iii. Loss of Head in a Venluri Meler

iv. Points to be Noted in the Design, Installation and Operation of Venluri Meters

6. Orifice Meter

7. Flow-Nozzle Meter

8. Elbow Meter

9. Rotameter

10. Flow through Orifices :

i. Classification of Orifices

ii. The Phenomenon of Jet Contraction

iii. Discharge Equation of a Free Orifice

iv. Loss of Head in Orifice Flow

v. Discharge Equation of a Submerged Orifice

vi. Discharge Equation of a Large Orifice

11. Hydraulic Coefficients of an Orifice :

i. Coefficient of Contraction

ii. Coefficient of Velocity

iii. Coefficient of Discharge

iv. Coefficient of Resistance

v. Values of Cc, Cv and Cd

vi. Factors Affecting the Orifice Coefficients

12. Experimental Evaluation of Orifice Coefficients :

i. Evaluation of Cc

ii. Evaluation of Cv

iii. Evaluation of Cd

13. Unsteady Flow through a Small Orifice :

i. Time of Emptying a Prismatic Tank

ii. Flow from one Tank to Another

iii. Unsteady Flow from a Tank with Inflow

14. Flow through a Mouthpieces :

i. External Cylindrical Mouthpiece

ii. Internal Cylindrical Mouthpiece

15. Notches and Weirs :

i. Classification of Weirs

16. Flow Over a Sharp-Crested Rectangular Weir :

i. Discharge Formula

ii. Effect of Velocity of Approach

iii. Effect of End Contractions

17. Flow Over a Sharp-Crested Triangular Weir (V-Notch) :

i. Comparison Between Rectangular and Triangular Weirs

ii. Effect of Error in Head Measurement on Discharge

18. Flow Over a Sharp-Crested Trapezoidal Weir :

i. Cippolitte Weir

19. Flow Over a Broad Crested-Rectangular Weir

Objective Questions

Short Answer Questions

Descriptive Questions

Numerical Questions

Answers

Chap. VI : FLOW THROUGH PIPES :

1. Introduction

2. Reynolds’s Experiment

3. Analysis of Flow through Pipes :

i. Velocity Distribution in Pipe Flow

ii. Variation of Frictional Head Loss with Velocity in Pipe Flow

iii. Hydraulic Gradient

4. Laminar Flow through a Circular Pipe :

i. Alternative Derivation of Hagen-Poiseuille Equation

5. Turbulent Flow through Pipes :

i. Darcy-Weisbach Equation for Friction Head Loss

ii. Evaluation of Friction Factor using Moody's Chart

6. Minor Losses :

i. Loss due to Sudden Expansion

ii. Loss due to Sudden Contraction

iii. Loss in Pipe Fittings

7. Practical Pipeline Problems :

i. Single Pipeline Problems

ii. Pipes Connected in Series

iii. Equivalent Pipe

iv. Pipes Connected in Parallel

v. Three Reservoir Problem

8. Hydraulic Transmission of Power :

i. Condition for Maximum Power Transmission

ii. Optimum Nozzle Diameter

9. Water Hammer :

i. Gradual Complete Valve Closure

ii. Rapid Complete Valve Closure

iii. Partial Value Closure

Objective Questions

Short Answer Questions

Descriptive Questions

Numerical Questions

Answers

Chap. VII : VISCOUS FLOWS :

1. Introduction

2. Navier-Stokes Equations of Motion :

i. Exact solutions to Navier-Strokes Equations

ii. Approximate Solutions to Navier-Stokes Equations

3. Relation between Pressure Gradient and Shear stress in Laminar Flow

4. Laminar Flow between Parallel Plates :

i. Plane Poiseuille Flow

ii. Alternate Derivation for Plane Poiseuille Flow

iii. Couette Flow

iv. Alternate Derivation for Couette Flow

v. Oil Flow in a Dashpot

5. Creeping Flow Past a Sphere :

i. Alternate Derivation for Stokes Flow

6. Mechanics of Oil Flow in Lubricated Bearings :

i. Journal Bearing

ii. Collar Bearing

iii. Footstep Bearing

Objective Questions

Short Answer Questions

Descriptive Questions

Numerical Questions

Answers

Chap. VII : BOUNDARY LAYER FLOWS :

1. Introduction

2. General Description of Boundary Layer

3. Boundary Layer Thicknesses :

i. Disturbance or Nominal Thickness

ii. Displacement Thickness

iii. Momentum Thickness

4. Prandtl's Boundary Layer Equations

5. (Carman's Momentum-Integral Equation

6. Characteristic Properties of Laminar Boundary Layer :

i. Boundary Layer Thickness

ii. Boundary Shear Stress

iii. Friction Drag of Laminar Boundary Layer

7. Characteristic Properties of Turbulent Boundary Layer :

i. The Phenomenon of Turbulence in Boundary Layer

ii. Use of Pipe Analogy in Boundary Layer Analysis

iii. Boundary Layer Thickness

iv. Boundary Shear Stress

v. Friction Drag in Turbulent Boundary Layer

vi. Friction Drag when both Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layers are Present

vii. Critical Roughness

8. Boundary Layer Separation :

i. The Phenomenon of Separation

ii. Wake

iii. Form Drag

iv. Distinction between Bluff and Stream-lined Bodies

9. Profile Drag :

i. Computation of Profile Drag

10. Flow Past a Circular Cylinder

11. Circulation :

i. Potential Flow Past a Circular Cylinder with Circulation

ii. Circulation around an Aerofoil

12. Drag and Lift of an Aerofoil

13. Boundary Layer Control

Objective Questions

Short Answer Questions

Descriptive Questions

Numerical Questions

Answers

Chap. IX : TURBULENT FLOWS :

1. Introduction

2. Basic Definitions of Turbulent Flow

3. Classification of Turbulence

4. Theories of Turbulence :

i. Reynolds Theory of Turbulence

ii. Boussinesqs Theory of Turbulence

iii. Prandtl's Mixing Length Theory of Turbulence

iv, Karman's Similarity Hypothesis for Turbulence

5. Turbulent Flow near Solid Boundaries :

i. Laminar Sublayer

ii. Distinction between Smooth and Rough Boundaries

6. Turbulent Flow through Pipes :

i. Karman-Prandtl Universal Velocity Distribution Law

ii. Velocity Distribution in Smooth Pipes

iii. Velocity Distribution in Rough Pipes

iv. Velocity Distribution in terms of Mean Velocity

v. Relation between Mean and Maximum Velocities in Turbulent Flow

7. Pipeline Resistance :

i. Relation between Boundary Shear Stress and Friction Factor

ii. Friction Factor for Laminar Flow

iii. Resistance of Smooth Pipes in Turbulent Flow

iv. Resistance of Rough Pipes in Turbulent Flow

v. Resistance of Commercial Pipes

Objective Questions

Short Answer Questions

Descriptive Questions

Numerical Questions

Answers

Chap. X : COMPRESSIBLE FLUID FLOW :

1. Introduction

2. Notation and Basic Definitions :

i. Enthalpy

ii. Entropy

iii. Thermodynamic Processes

iv. Distinction between Reversible and Irreversible Processes

v. Distinction between Adiabatic and Isentropic Process

v. Distinction between a Flow and Non-Flow Process

3. Continuity Equation for Compressible Flow

4. Law of Conservation of Energy :

i. Work Done in an Isothermal Process

ii. Work Done in an Adiabatic Process

iii. Pressure, Temperature and Density Relations in an Adiabatic Process

5. General Energy Equation for Compressible Flow :

i. Energy Equation for an Isothermal System

ii. Energy Equation for an Adiabatic System

6. Sonic or Acoustic Velocity :

i. Sonic Velocity in an Isothermal System

ii. Sonic Velocity in an Adiabatic System

iii. Mach Number

iv. Regimes of Flow in a Compressible Fluid

v. Mach Line, Mach Angle and Mach Cone

7. Stagnation Point Parameters in Compressible Flow :

i. Stagnation Pressure

ii. Stagnation Temperature

iii. Stagnation Density

iv. Stagnation Enthalpy

v. Velocity Measurement using Pilot Tube

8. Discharge Measurement of a Compressible Flow using Venturi Meter and Orifice Meter

9. Area-Velocity Relation in Isentropic Flow

10. Flow through a Convergent Nozzle

11. Flow through A De Laval Nozzle

12. Normal Compression Shock :

i. Shock Analysis using Momentum Equation (Rayleigh Flow)

ii. Shock Analysis using Energy Equation (Fanno Flow)

iii. Relation between Mach Numbers Across the Shock

iv. Shock Strength and Shock Efficiency

13. Rayleigh and Fanno Lines

i. Temperature-Entropy Relation :

ii. Equation of Rayleigh Line

iii. Equation of Fanno Line

iv. Momentum Equation for Fanno Flows

14. Oblique Shock

15. Compression and Expansion Shocks

16. Supersonic Wave Drag

17. Adiabatic Flow through Long Ducts

18. Isothermal Flow in Long Ducts :

i. Isothermal Flow Regimes

ii. Relations between Pressures, Velocities and Densities

iii. Duct Lengths Required to Accelerate the Flow

Objective Questions

Short Answer Questions

Descriptive Questions

Numerical Questions

General Problems

Answers

Chap. XI : Flow THROUGH OPEN CHANNELS :

1. Introduction

2. Classification of Open Channel Flow :

i. Types of Flow

ii. States of Flow

iii. Regimes of Flow

3. Velocity and Pressure Distributions in Open Channel Flow :

i. Velocity Distribution in a Channel Section

ii. Pressure Distribution in a Channel Section

4. Specific Energy in Open Channel Flow :

i. Properties of Specific Energy for a Rectangular Section

ii. Properties of Specific Energy for a Non-rectangular Section

iii. Relation between Discharge and Critical Depth

5. Specific Force in an Open Channel Flow

6. Critical Flow and Control Sections :

i. Section Factor for Critical Flow Computations

7. Uniform Flow in Open Channels :

i. Chezy's Formula

ii. Other Uniform Flow Formulae

iii. Factors Affecting Chezy's C and Manning's n

iv. Conveyance and Section Factor for Uniform Flow

v. Limit Slope

8. Economical Open Channel Sections :

i. Basic Rectangular Section

ii. Best Triangular Section

iii. Best Trapezoidal Section

iv. Best Circular Section

9. Steady Gradually Varied Flow :

i. Other Forms of Dynamic Equation of Gradually Varied Flow

ii. Classification of Channel Bottom Slopes

iii. Gradually Varied Flow Profiles

v. Computation of GVF Profiles

10. Steady Spatially Varied Flow (SVF) :

i. Dynamic Equation for SVF of Increasing

ii. Discharge Type Dynamic Equation for SVF of Decreasing Discharge Type

11. Steady Rapidly Varied Flow (Hydraulic Jump) :

i. Relation between Initial and Sequent Depths in a Hydraulic Jump

ii. Loss of Head in a Hydraulic Jump

iii. Relation between Initial and Final Froude Numbers

iv. Relative Loss in a Hydraulic Jump

v. Efficiency of a Hydraulic Jump

vi. Types of Hydraulic Jump

vii. Applications of a Hydraulic Jump

12. Venturi Flume :

i. Venturi Flume without Hump

ii. Venturi Flume with Hump

iii. Standing Wave Flume without Hump

iv. Standing Wave Flume with Hump or Critical Depth Meter

v. Other Measuring Flumes

13. Unsteady Rapidly Varied Flow or Uniformly Progressive Flow

14. Types of Surges in Unsteady Rapidly Varied Flow

15. Gravity Waves

Objective Questions

Short Answer Questions

Descriptive Questions

Numerical Questions

Answers

Chap. XII : DIMENSIONAL AND MODEL ANALYSIS :

1. Introduction

2. Dimensional Homogenity

3. Dimensional Analysis :

i. Rayleigh's Method

ii. Buckingham's Pi-Theorem

4. Hydraulic Model Analysis :

i. Objectives of Model Analysis

ii. Situations that Require Model Studies

5. Model to Prototype Similarity Conditions :

6. Laws of Similitude :

i. Froude's Law of Similitude

ii. Reynolds' Law of Similitude

iii. Weber's Law of Similitude

iv. Mach's or Cauchy's law of Similitude

v. Euler's law of Similitude

7. Selection of Model Scale

8. Distorted Models

9. Movable Bed Models

10. Scale Effect

Objective Questions

Short Answer Questions

Descriptive Questions

Numerical Questions

General Problems

Answers

Chap. XIII : HYDRAULIC TURBINES :

1. Introduction

2. Application of Impulse-Momentum Principle to a Curved Vane

3. Basic Theory of Turbo machines (Impact of Jet on Vanes) :

i. Stationary Normal Flat Vane

ii. Moving Normal Flat Vane

iii. Series of Moving Normal Flat Vanes

iv. Stationary Inclined Flat Vane

v. Moving Inclined Flat Vane

vi. Stationary Curved Vane

vii. Impact of Jet on a Series of Moving Curved Vanes

4. Hydropower Development :

i. Early Hydraulic Turbines

ii. Chronological Development of Hydraulic Turbines

iii. Impact of Advances in Electrical Technology on Hydropower Development

iv. Advantages of a Hydraulic Turbine

v. Components of a Typical Hydropower Plant

vi. Classification of Hydraulic Turbines

vii. Heads on a Turbine

viii. Power of a Turbine

ix. Efficiencies of a Turbine

5. General Concepts of Operation of Impulse Turbines

6. Component Parts of a PELTON Wheel Installation :

i. Guide Mechanism

ii. Buckets and Runner

iii. Casing

iv. Hydraulic Brake

7. Pelton Wheel Design Factors

8. Operational Theory of Reactive Turbines

9. Component Parts of a Francis Turbine Installation :

i. Spiral Casing or Scroll Casing

ii. Guide Vanes or Wicket Gates

iii. Runner and Shaft

iv. Draft Tube

v. Efficiency of Draft Tube

10. Francis Turbine Design Factors

11. Working of A Kaplan Turbine

12. Kaplan Turbine Design Factors

13. Cavitation in Hydraulic Turbines :

i. Protection against Cavitation

ii. Thoma's Cavitation Number

14. Distinction between Impulse and Reaction Turbines

15. Some Particulars of Hydro-electric power Generation Units :

i. Notable Hydro - electric Power Generation Installations in India and Abroad

ii. Operating Speed

iii. Runaway Speed

iv. Critical Speed

v. Turbine Runner Diameter

vi. Shaft Diameter

vii. Weights of Hydraulic Turbo-generator Components

viii. Hydraulic Thrust

16. Governing of Hydraulic Turbines :

i. Requirements of A Good Governor

ii. Governing of Impulse Turbines

ii. Governing of Reaction Turbines

17. Model Analysis of Turbo-machines :

i. Model to Prototype Ratio of Heads

ii. Model to Prototype Ratio of Discharges

iii. Model to Prototype Ratio of Powers

iv. Other Model to Prototype Ratios

v. Scale Effect of Turbo-machine Modeling

18. Unit Quantities :

i. Unit Speed

ii. Unit Discharge

iii. Unit Power

19. Equation of Specific Speed of a Turbine :

i. Specific Speed of Turbines in Terms of Dimensionless Ratios

20. Performance of Turbines :

i. Operation at Variable Speed

ii. Operation at Constant Speed

iii. Power and Efficiency at Variable Speed and Discharge

21. Factors Involved in Selection of a Hydraulic Turbine :

i. Specific Speed

ii. Head

iii. Rotational Speed

iv. Operational Requirements and Efficiency

v. Cavitation

vi. Disposition of Turbine Shaft

vii. Overall Economy

viii. Number of Units

Objective Questions

Short Answer Questions

Descriptive Questions

Numerical Questions

General Problems

Answers

Chap. XIV : PUMPS :

1. Introduction

2. Installation and Operation of a Centrifugal Pump

3. Classification of Centrifugal Pumps :

i. Diffuser or Turbine Pump

ii. Multistage Pump

iii. Double-Suction Pump

iv. Semi-open and Open Impeller Pumps

v. Vertical Shaft Pumps

vi. Radial, Mixed and Axial Flow Pumps

4. Head Developed by a Centrifugal Pump :

i. Manometic, Grass and Static Heads

5. Losses and Efficiencies

6. Design Factors of Centrifugal Pumps :

i. Rim Diameter

ii. Eye Diameter and Outlet Width

iii. Pipeline Diameters

iv. Discharge

v. Net Positive Suction Head

vi. Minimum Starting Speed

7. Cnvitation in Centrifugal Pumps

8. Specific Speed of a Centrifugal Pump

9. Performance of Centrifugal Pumps :

i. Variable Speed Performance

ii. Constant Speed Performance

iii. Relation between Specific Speed and Efficiency

10. Operational Problems in Centrifugal Pumps and Remedial Measures :

i. Piston, Plunger and Bucket Pumps

ii. Single acting and Double acting Pumps

iii. Two-throw and Three-throw Pumps

11. Principle of Operation of a Reciprocating Pump

i. Discharge of a Single acting Pump

ii. Discharge of a Double acting Pump

iii. Coefficient of Discharge and Slip

iv. Output Power

12. Effect of Acceleration of Pump

13. Effect of Pipe Friction :

i. Instantaneous Pressure Meads

ii. Work done by Pump

14. Instantaneous and Mean Discharges of Reciprocating Pump :

i. Single acting Pump

ii. Double acting Pump

15. Air Vessels :

i. Rate of Flow into and from Air Vessels

ii. Work done by Pump fitted with Air Vessels

iii. Work saved in fitting an Air Vessel

16. Comparative Study of Centrifugal and Reciprocating Pumps

17. Deep Well Pumps :

i. Jet Pump

ii. Air Lift Pump

iii. Submersible Pump

iv. Vertical Shaft Turbine Pump

Objective Questions

Short Answer Questions

Descriptive Questions

Numerical Questions

General Problems

Answers

Chap. XV : HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS :

1. Introduction

2. Hydraulic Circuits :

i. Meter-in Circuit

ii. Meter-cut Circuit

iii. Bleed-off Circuit

3. Pumping Units Used in Hydraulic Systems :

i. Gear Pump

ii. Vane Pump

iii. Screw Pump

iv. Axial Piston Pump

v. Radial Piston Pump

4. Hydraulic Valves :

i. Check or Non-return Value

ii. Relief Valve

iii. Speed Control Valve

iv. Pressure Compensating Valve

v. Direction Control Valve

5. Hydraulic Filters

6. Tanks Used in Hydraulic Systems

7. Hydraulic Piping

8. Hydraulic Fluids

9. Receiving Units or Hydraulic Motors :

i. Hydraulic Accumulator

ii. Hydraulic Intensifier

iii. Hydraulic Press

iv. Hydraulic Crane

v. Hydraulic Lift

10. Hydrokinetic Systems :

i. Fluid Coupling

ii. Torque Converter

11. Hydraulic Ram :

Objective Questions

Short Answer Questions

Descriptive Questions

Numerical Questions

Answers