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Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1st Edition, Reprint,8122413862,9788122413861

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1st Edition, Reprint



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Book Information

Publisher:New Age International (P) Ltd.
Published In:2011
Binding Type:Paperback
Weight:2.57 lbs
Pages:pp. xxviii + 884, Figures, Tables, Graphs, Index, Appendices, Biblio., Abbreviations

The Title "Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1st Edition, Reprint" is written by Durgaiah D. Rama. This book was published in the year 2011. The ISBN number 8122413862|9788122413861 is assigned to the Paperback version of this title. The book displayed here is a 1st Edition, Reprint edition. This book has total of pp. xxviii + 884 (Pages). The publisher of this title is New Age International (P) Ltd.. We have about 2519 other great books from this publisher. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1st Edition, Reprint is currently Available with us.

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About the Book

This Book presents a thorough and comprehensive treatment of both the basic as well as the more advanced concepts in Fluid Mechanics. The entire range of topics comprising fluid mechanics has been systematically organised and the various concepts are clearly explained with the help of several solved examples.

Apart from the fundamental concepts, the book also explains Fluid Dynamics, Flow Measurement, Turbulent and Open Channel Flows and Dimensional and Model Analysis. Boundary Layer Flows and Compressible Fluid Flows have been suitably highlighted.

Turbines, pumps and other hydraulic systems including circuits, valves, motors and Ram have also been explained. The book provides 225 fully worked out examples and more than 1600 questions including numerical problems and objective questions. The book would serve as an exhaustive text for both undergraduate and post- graduate students of Mechanical, Civil and Chemical Engineering. AMIE and competitive examination candidates as well as practising engineers would also find this book very useful.

About the Author

D. Rama Durgaiah is a B. E. in Civil Engineering, S. V. University, M. Tech in Hydraulics Engineering from IIT, Kharagpur and Ph. D. in Ground Water Engineering from IIT, Madras. He has 38 years of professional experience that includes teaching undergraduate, graduate and pre-Ph. D. students. He has close to 30 years of experience in setting question papers and valuation of B. Tech, M. Tech and pre-Ph. D. answer papers.

Prof. Rama Durgaiah led the setting up of a new Fluid Mechanics lab at Engineering College, Anantapur in 1967 and a new Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machinery lab at JNTU, Hyderabad in 1978. He was awarded Best Teacher of Andhra Pradesh State in 1991 and Gold Medal for the best paper published in 1984 by the Institution of Engineers. He has to his credit 11 papers published in international journals and 10 in Indian journals.

Prof. Rama Durgaiah is a fellow of Institution of Engineers, India and a member of several professional associations.


Symbols and Units

1. Introduction
2. Fluid Characteristics
3. Significance of Fluid Properties
4. Density and Related Properties
5. Viscosity
6. Compressibility
7. Surface Tension
8. Capillarity
9 Vapour Pressure

Objective Questions
Short Answer Questions
Descriptive Questions
Numerical Questions
Answers of Exercise

1. Introduction
2. Characteristics of Fluid Pressure
3. Absolute. Gauge and Vacuum Pressures
4. Measurement of Atmospheric Pressure
i. Mercury Barometer
ii. Aneroid Barometer

5. Measurement of Gauge Pressure by Bourdon Gauge
6. Manometers :
i. Piezometer
ii. Open U-tube Manometer
iii. Inclined Manometer
iv. Differential Manometer
v. Inverted Differential Manometer
vi. Micromunometcr

7. Hydrostatic Force on Plane Areas :
i. Hydrostatic Force on a Horizontal Plane
ii. Hydrostatic Force on a Vertical Plane
iii. Hydrostatic Force on an Inclined Plane

8. Hydrostatic Force on Curved Surfaces :
i. Liquid above the Curved Surface
ii. Liquid below the Curved Surface

9. The Phenomena of Buoyancy
10. Stability of Floating Bodies
11. Metacentric Height of a Floating Body :
i. Analytical Determination of Metacentric Height
ii. Experimental Determination of Metacentric Height

Objective Questions
Short Answer Questions
Descriptive Questions
Numerical Questions

1. Introduction
2. Methods of Describing Motion
i. Lagrangian Method
ii. Eulerian Method

3. Basic Definitions of Fluid Kinematics :
i. Stream Line
ii. Path Line
iii. Streak Line
iv. Stream Tube

4. Classification of Fluid Flows :
i. Laminar and Turbulent Flows
ii. Steady and Unsteady Flows
iii. Uniform and Non-Uniform Flows
iv. Compressible and Incompressible Flows
v. One-Two-and Three-Dimensional Flows
vi. Rotational and Irrotational Flows

5. Mean Velocity and Discharge
6. Equation of Continuity :
i. Equation of Continuity for One-dimensional Flow
ii. Equation of Continuity for Two-dimensional Flow
iii. Equation of Continuity for Three-dimensional Flow

7. Stream Function :
i. Properties of Stream Function

8. Velocity Potential Function :
i. Properties of Velocity Potential Function
ii. Stream and Velocity Potential Function in Terms of Cylindrical Polar Coordinates

9. Flownets :
i. Uses of Flownets
ii. Methods of Construction of Flownets
iii. Limitations of Flownets

10. Accelerations in Fluid Flow :
i. Accelerations in Steady Flow
ii. Accelerations in Unsteady Flow
iii. Cartesian Components of Acceleration

11. Two-dimensional Potential Flows :
i. S.F and V.P.F for Basic Flow Types
ii. S.F and V.P.F for Flow Combinations

12. Conformal Mapping :
i. Principles of Complex Variable Theory
ii. Complex Potential
iii. Analytic Functions
iv. Examples of Singular Points
v. Discussion on Conditions to be Satisfied by Analytic Functions
vi. Complex Velocity

13. Examples of Conformal Transformations :
i. Uniform Flow
ii. Source at (z = a)
iii. Source and Sink
iv. Doublet at (z = a)
v. Doublet in Uniform Flow
vi Flow at Wall Angle

Objective Questions
Short Answer Questions
Descriptive Questions
Numerical Questions

1. Introduction
2. Types of Forces in Fluid Motion
3. Euler’s and Bernouli's Equations :
i. Euler’s Equation for One-dimensional Flow
ii. Bernouli's Equation by Integration of One-dimensional Euler's Equation
iii. Euler's Equation for Three-dimensional Flow
iv. Bernouli's Equation by Integration of Three-dimensional Euler's Equations
v. Bernouli's Theorem and Its Limitations
vi. Application of Bernouli's Equation to Real Fluid Flows

4. Importance of Momentum Equation
5. Derivation of Momentum Equation
6. Application of Momentum Equation to Fluid Flow Problems

7. Energy and Momentum Correction Factors :
i. Energy Correction Factor
ii. .Momentum Correction Factor

8. Vortex Motions :
i. Dynamic Equation for Fluid Motion in a Curved Path

9. Forced Cylindrical Vortex :
i. Surfaces of Constant Pressure in a Forced Cylindrical Vortex
ii. Forced Cylindrical Vortex in a Closed Vessel

10. Free Cylindrical Vortex :
i. Surfaces of Constant Pressure in a Free Cylindrical Vortex

11. Linear Acceleration of a Fluid
12. Jet Propulsion :
i. Inlet Orifices located Amidships
ii. Inlet Orifices located in Bow

Objective Questions
Short Answer Questions
Descriptive Questions
Numerical Questions
Answers to Exercise

1. Introduction
2. Pilot Tube :
i. Stagnation Point
ii. Pilot Tube Equation
iii. Pilot-Static Tube
iv. Pitomeler

3. Hoi-wire Anemometer
4. Current Meter
5. Venluri Meler :
i. Venluri Meler Equation
ii. Evaluation of Venluri Head using a Manometer
iii. Loss of Head in a Venluri Meler
iv. Points to be Noted in the Design, Installation and Operation of Venluri Meters

6. Orifice Meter
7. Flow-Nozzle Meter
8. Elbow Meter
9. Rotameter
10. Flow through Orifices :
i. Classification of Orifices
ii. The Phenomenon of Jet Contraction
iii. Discharge Equation of a Free Orifice
iv. Loss of Head in Orifice Flow
v. Discharge Equation of a Submerged Orifice
vi. Discharge Equation of a Large Orifice

11. Hydraulic Coefficients of an Orifice :
i. Coefficient of Contraction
ii. Coefficient of Velocity
iii. Coefficient of Discharge
iv. Coefficient of Resistance
v. Values of Cc, Cv and Cd
vi. Factors Affecting the Orifice Coefficients

12. Experimental Evaluation of Orifice Coefficients :
i. Evaluation of Cc
ii. Evaluation of Cv
iii. Evaluation of Cd

13. Unsteady Flow through a Small Orifice :
i. Time of Emptying a Prismatic Tank
ii. Flow from one Tank to Another
iii. Unsteady Flow from a Tank with Inflow

14. Flow through a Mouthpieces :
i. External Cylindrical Mouthpiece
ii. Internal Cylindrical Mouthpiece

15. Notches and Weirs :
i. Classification of Weirs

16. Flow Over a Sharp-Crested Rectangular Weir :
i. Discharge Formula
ii. Effect of Velocity of Approach
iii. Effect of End Contractions

17. Flow Over a Sharp-Crested Triangular Weir (V-Notch) :
i. Comparison Between Rectangular and Triangular Weirs
ii. Effect of Error in Head Measurement on Discharge

18. Flow Over a Sharp-Crested Trapezoidal Weir :
i. Cippolitte Weir

19. Flow Over a Broad Crested-Rectangular Weir

Objective Questions
Short Answer Questions
Descriptive Questions
Numerical Questions

1. Introduction
2. Reynolds’s Experiment
3. Analysis of Flow through Pipes :
i. Velocity Distribution in Pipe Flow
ii. Variation of Frictional Head Loss with Velocity in Pipe Flow
iii. Hydraulic Gradient

4. Laminar Flow through a Circular Pipe :
i. Alternative Derivation of Hagen-Poiseuille Equation

5. Turbulent Flow through Pipes :
i. Darcy-Weisbach Equation for Friction Head Loss
ii. Evaluation of Friction Factor using Moody's Chart

6. Minor Losses :
i. Loss due to Sudden Expansion
ii. Loss due to Sudden Contraction
iii. Loss in Pipe Fittings

7. Practical Pipeline Problems :
i. Single Pipeline Problems
ii. Pipes Connected in Series
iii. Equivalent Pipe
iv. Pipes Connected in Parallel
v. Three Reservoir Problem

8. Hydraulic Transmission of Power :
i. Condition for Maximum Power Transmission
ii. Optimum Nozzle Diameter

9. Water Hammer :
i. Gradual Complete Valve Closure
ii. Rapid Complete Valve Closure
iii. Partial Value Closure

Objective Questions
Short Answer Questions
Descriptive Questions
Numerical Questions

1. Introduction
2. Navier-Stokes Equations of Motion :
i. Exact solutions to Navier-Strokes Equations
ii. Approximate Solutions to Navier-Stokes Equations

3. Relation between Pressure Gradient and Shear stress in Laminar Flow
4. Laminar Flow between Parallel Plates :
i. Plane Poiseuille Flow
ii. Alternate Derivation for Plane Poiseuille Flow
iii. Couette Flow
iv. Alternate Derivation for Couette Flow
v. Oil Flow in a Dashpot

5. Creeping Flow Past a Sphere :
i. Alternate Derivation for Stokes Flow

6. Mechanics of Oil Flow in Lubricated Bearings :
i. Journal Bearing
ii. Collar Bearing
iii. Footstep Bearing

Objective Questions
Short Answer Questions
Descriptive Questions
Numerical Questions

1. Introduction
2. General Description of Boundary Layer
3. Boundary Layer Thicknesses :
i. Disturbance or Nominal Thickness
ii. Displacement Thickness
iii. Momentum Thickness

4. Prandtl's Boundary Layer Equations
5. (Carman's Momentum-Integral Equation
6. Characteristic Properties of Laminar Boundary Layer :
i. Boundary Layer Thickness
ii. Boundary Shear Stress
iii. Friction Drag of Laminar Boundary Layer

7. Characteristic Properties of Turbulent Boundary Layer :
i. The Phenomenon of Turbulence in Boundary Layer
ii. Use of Pipe Analogy in Boundary Layer Analysis
iii. Boundary Layer Thickness
iv. Boundary Shear Stress
v. Friction Drag in Turbulent Boundary Layer
vi. Friction Drag when both Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layers are Present
vii. Critical Roughness

8. Boundary Layer Separation :
i. The Phenomenon of Separation
ii. Wake
iii. Form Drag
iv. Distinction between Bluff and Stream-lined Bodies

9. Profile Drag :
i. Computation of Profile Drag

10. Flow Past a Circular Cylinder
11. Circulation :
i. Potential Flow Past a Circular Cylinder with Circulation
ii. Circulation around an Aerofoil

12. Drag and Lift of an Aerofoil
13. Boundary Layer Control

Objective Questions
Short Answer Questions
Descriptive Questions
Numerical Questions

1. Introduction
2. Basic Definitions of Turbulent Flow
3. Classification of Turbulence
4. Theories of Turbulence :
i. Reynolds Theory of Turbulence
ii. Boussinesqs Theory of Turbulence
iii. Prandtl's Mixing Length Theory of Turbulence
iv, Karman's Similarity Hypothesis for Turbulence

5. Turbulent Flow near Solid Boundaries :
i. Laminar Sublayer
ii. Distinction between Smooth and Rough Boundaries

6. Turbulent Flow through Pipes :
i. Karman-Prandtl Universal Velocity Distribution Law
ii. Velocity Distribution in Smooth Pipes
iii. Velocity Distribution in Rough Pipes
iv. Velocity Distribution in terms of Mean Velocity
v. Relation between Mean and Maximum Velocities in Turbulent Flow

7. Pipeline Resistance :
i. Relation between Boundary Shear Stress and Friction Factor
ii. Friction Factor for Laminar Flow
iii. Resistance of Smooth Pipes in Turbulent Flow
iv. Resistance of Rough Pipes in Turbulent Flow
v. Resistance of Commercial Pipes

Objective Questions
Short Answer Questions
Descriptive Questions
Numerical Questions

1. Introduction
2. Notation and Basic Definitions :
i. Enthalpy
ii. Entropy
iii. Thermodynamic Processes
iv. Distinction between Reversible and Irreversible Processes
v. Distinction between Adiabatic and Isentropic Process
v. Distinction between a Flow and Non-Flow Process

3. Continuity Equation for Compressible Flow
4. Law of Conservation of Energy :
i. Work Done in an Isothermal Process
ii. Work Done in an Adiabatic Process
iii. Pressure, Temperature and Density Relations in an Adiabatic Process

5. General Energy Equation for Compressible Flow :
i. Energy Equation for an Isothermal System
ii. Energy Equation for an Adiabatic System

6. Sonic or Acoustic Velocity :
i. Sonic Velocity in an Isothermal System
ii. Sonic Velocity in an Adiabatic System
iii. Mach Number
iv. Regimes of Flow in a Compressible Fluid
v. Mach Line, Mach Angle and Mach Cone

7. Stagnation Point Parameters in Compressible Flow :
i. Stagnation Pressure
ii. Stagnation Temperature
iii. Stagnation Density
iv. Stagnation Enthalpy
v. Velocity Measurement using Pilot Tube

8. Discharge Measurement of a Compressible Flow using Venturi Meter and Orifice Meter
9. Area-Velocity Relation in Isentropic Flow
10. Flow through a Convergent Nozzle
11. Flow through A De Laval Nozzle
12. Normal Compression Shock :
i. Shock Analysis using Momentum Equation (Rayleigh Flow)
ii. Shock Analysis using Energy Equation (Fanno Flow)
iii. Relation between Mach Numbers Across the Shock
iv. Shock Strength and Shock Efficiency

13. Rayleigh and Fanno Lines
i. Temperature-Entropy Relation :
ii. Equation of Rayleigh Line
iii. Equation of Fanno Line
iv. Momentum Equation for Fanno Flows

14. Oblique Shock
15. Compression and Expansion Shocks
16. Supersonic Wave Drag
17. Adiabatic Flow through Long Ducts
18. Isothermal Flow in Long Ducts :
i. Isothermal Flow Regimes
ii. Relations between Pressures, Velocities and Densities
iii. Duct Lengths Required to Accelerate the Flow

Objective Questions
Short Answer Questions
Descriptive Questions
Numerical Questions
General Problems

1. Introduction
2. Classification of Open Channel Flow :
i. Types of Flow
ii. States of Flow
iii. Regimes of Flow

3. Velocity and Pressure Distributions in Open Channel Flow :
i. Velocity Distribution in a Channel Section
ii. Pressure Distribution in a Channel Section

4. Specific Energy in Open Channel Flow :
i. Properties of Specific Energy for a Rectangular Section
ii. Properties of Specific Energy for a Non-rectangular Section
iii. Relation between Discharge and Critical Depth

5. Specific Force in an Open Channel Flow
6. Critical Flow and Control Sections :
i. Section Factor for Critical Flow Computations

7. Uniform Flow in Open Channels :
i. Chezy's Formula
ii. Other Uniform Flow Formulae
iii. Factors Affecting Chezy's C and Manning's n
iv. Conveyance and Section Factor for Uniform Flow
v. Limit Slope

8. Economical Open Channel Sections :
i. Basic Rectangular Section
ii. Best Triangular Section
iii. Best Trapezoidal Section
iv. Best Circular Section

9. Steady Gradually Varied Flow :
i. Other Forms of Dynamic Equation of Gradually Varied Flow
ii. Classification of Channel Bottom Slopes
iii. Gradually Varied Flow Profiles
v. Computation of GVF Profiles

10. Steady Spatially Varied Flow (SVF) :
i. Dynamic Equation for SVF of Increasing
ii. Discharge Type Dynamic Equation for SVF of Decreasing Discharge Type

11. Steady Rapidly Varied Flow (Hydraulic Jump) :
i. Relation between Initial and Sequent Depths in a Hydraulic Jump
ii. Loss of Head in a Hydraulic Jump
iii. Relation between Initial and Final Froude Numbers
iv. Relative Loss in a Hydraulic Jump
v. Efficiency of a Hydraulic Jump
vi. Types of Hydraulic Jump
vii. Applications of a Hydraulic Jump

12. Venturi Flume :
i. Venturi Flume without Hump
ii. Venturi Flume with Hump
iii. Standing Wave Flume without Hump
iv. Standing Wave Flume with Hump or Critical Depth Meter
v. Other Measuring Flumes

13. Unsteady Rapidly Varied Flow or Uniformly Progressive Flow
14. Types of Surges in Unsteady Rapidly Varied Flow
15. Gravity Waves

Objective Questions
Short Answer Questions
Descriptive Questions
Numerical Questions

1. Introduction
2. Dimensional Homogenity
3. Dimensional Analysis :
i. Rayleigh's Method
ii. Buckingham's Pi-Theorem

4. Hydraulic Model Analysis :
i. Objectives of Model Analysis
ii. Situations that Require Model Studies

5. Model to Prototype Similarity Conditions :
6. Laws of Similitude :
i. Froude's Law of Similitude
ii. Reynolds' Law of Similitude
iii. Weber's Law of Similitude
iv. Mach's or Cauchy's law of Similitude
v. Euler's law of Similitude

7. Selection of Model Scale
8. Distorted Models
9. Movable Bed Models
10. Scale Effect

Objective Questions
Short Answer Questions
Descriptive Questions
Numerical Questions
General Problems

1. Introduction
2. Application of Impulse-Momentum Principle to a Curved Vane
3. Basic Theory of Turbo machines (Impact of Jet on Vanes) :
i. Stationary Normal Flat Vane
ii. Moving Normal Flat Vane
iii. Series of Moving Normal Flat Vanes
iv. Stationary Inclined Flat Vane
v. Moving Inclined Flat Vane
vi. Stationary Curved Vane
vii. Impact of Jet on a Series of Moving Curved Vanes

4. Hydropower Development :
i. Early Hydraulic Turbines
ii. Chronological Development of Hydraulic Turbines
iii. Impact of Advances in Electrical Technology on Hydropower Development
iv. Advantages of a Hydraulic Turbine
v. Components of a Typical Hydropower Plant
vi. Classification of Hydraulic Turbines
vii. Heads on a Turbine
viii. Power of a Turbine
ix. Efficiencies of a Turbine

5. General Concepts of Operation of Impulse Turbines
6. Component Parts of a PELTON Wheel Installation :
i. Guide Mechanism
ii. Buckets and Runner
iii. Casing
iv. Hydraulic Brake

7. Pelton Wheel Design Factors
8. Operational Theory of Reactive Turbines
9. Component Parts of a Francis Turbine Installation :
i. Spiral Casing or Scroll Casing
ii. Guide Vanes or Wicket Gates
iii. Runner and Shaft
iv. Draft Tube
v. Efficiency of Draft Tube

10. Francis Turbine Design Factors
11. Working of A Kaplan Turbine
12. Kaplan Turbine Design Factors
13. Cavitation in Hydraulic Turbines :
i. Protection against Cavitation
ii. Thoma's Cavitation Number

14. Distinction between Impulse and Reaction Turbines
15. Some Particulars of Hydro-electric power Generation Units :
i. Notable Hydro - electric Power Generation Installations in India and Abroad
ii. Operating Speed
iii. Runaway Speed
iv. Critical Speed
v. Turbine Runner Diameter
vi. Shaft Diameter
vii. Weights of Hydraulic Turbo-generator Components
viii. Hydraulic Thrust

16. Governing of Hydraulic Turbines :
i. Requirements of A Good Governor
ii. Governing of Impulse Turbines
ii. Governing of Reaction Turbines

17. Model Analysis of Turbo-machines :
i. Model to Prototype Ratio of Heads
ii. Model to Prototype Ratio of Discharges
iii. Model to Prototype Ratio of Powers
iv. Other Model to Prototype Ratios
v. Scale Effect of Turbo-machine Modeling

18. Unit Quantities :
i. Unit Speed
ii. Unit Discharge
iii. Unit Power

19. Equation of Specific Speed of a Turbine :
i. Specific Speed of Turbines in Terms of Dimensionless Ratios

20. Performance of Turbines :
i. Operation at Variable Speed
ii. Operation at Constant Speed
iii. Power and Efficiency at Variable Speed and Discharge

21. Factors Involved in Selection of a Hydraulic Turbine :
i. Specific Speed
ii. Head
iii. Rotational Speed
iv. Operational Requirements and Efficiency
v. Cavitation
vi. Disposition of Turbine Shaft
vii. Overall Economy
viii. Number of Units

Objective Questions
Short Answer Questions
Descriptive Questions
Numerical Questions
General Problems

Chap. XIV : PUMPS :
1. Introduction
2. Installation and Operation of a Centrifugal Pump
3. Classification of Centrifugal Pumps :
i. Diffuser or Turbine Pump
ii. Multistage Pump
iii. Double-Suction Pump
iv. Semi-open and Open Impeller Pumps
v. Vertical Shaft Pumps
vi. Radial, Mixed and Axial Flow Pumps

4. Head Developed by a Centrifugal Pump :
i. Manometic, Grass and Static Heads

5. Losses and Efficiencies
6. Design Factors of Centrifugal Pumps :
i. Rim Diameter
ii. Eye Diameter and Outlet Width
iii. Pipeline Diameters
iv. Discharge
v. Net Positive Suction Head
vi. Minimum Starting Speed

7. Cnvitation in Centrifugal Pumps
8. Specific Speed of a Centrifugal Pump
9. Performance of Centrifugal Pumps :
i. Variable Speed Performance
ii. Constant Speed Performance
iii. Relation between Specific Speed and Efficiency

10. Operational Problems in Centrifugal Pumps and Remedial Measures :
i. Piston, Plunger and Bucket Pumps
ii. Single acting and Double acting Pumps
iii. Two-throw and Three-throw Pumps

11. Principle of Operation of a Reciprocating Pump
i. Discharge of a Single acting Pump
ii. Discharge of a Double acting Pump
iii. Coefficient of Discharge and Slip
iv. Output Power

12. Effect of Acceleration of Pump
13. Effect of Pipe Friction :
i. Instantaneous Pressure Meads
ii. Work done by Pump

14. Instantaneous and Mean Discharges of Reciprocating Pump :
i. Single acting Pump
ii. Double acting Pump

15. Air Vessels :
i. Rate of Flow into and from Air Vessels
ii. Work done by Pump fitted with Air Vessels
iii. Work saved in fitting an Air Vessel

16. Comparative Study of Centrifugal and Reciprocating Pumps
17. Deep Well Pumps :
i. Jet Pump
ii. Air Lift Pump
iii. Submersible Pump
iv. Vertical Shaft Turbine Pump

Objective Questions
Short Answer Questions
Descriptive Questions
Numerical Questions
General Problems

1. Introduction
2. Hydraulic Circuits :
i. Meter-in Circuit
ii. Meter-cut Circuit
iii. Bleed-off Circuit

3. Pumping Units Used in Hydraulic Systems :
i. Gear Pump
ii. Vane Pump
iii. Screw Pump
iv. Axial Piston Pump
v. Radial Piston Pump

4. Hydraulic Valves :
i. Check or Non-return Value
ii. Relief Valve
iii. Speed Control Valve
iv. Pressure Compensating Valve
v. Direction Control Valve

5. Hydraulic Filters
6. Tanks Used in Hydraulic Systems
7. Hydraulic Piping
8. Hydraulic Fluids
9. Receiving Units or Hydraulic Motors :
i. Hydraulic Accumulator
ii. Hydraulic Intensifier
iii. Hydraulic Press
iv. Hydraulic Crane
v. Hydraulic Lift

10. Hydrokinetic Systems :
i. Fluid Coupling
ii. Torque Converter

11. Hydraulic Ram :

Objective Questions
Short Answer Questions
Descriptive Questions
Numerical Questions

List Of Appendix

1. Unit Conversion Ratios
2. Physical Properties of Fluids
3. Geometric Properties of Plane Areas

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