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Handbook on Indian Freshwater Molluscs,8181711467,9788181711465

Handbook on Indian Freshwater Molluscs

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Book Information

Publisher:Zoological Survey of India
Published In:2007
ISBN-10:8181711467
ISBN-13:9788181711465
Binding Type:Hardback
Weight:3.42 lbs
Pages:pp. xxiv + 400, Figures (Partly Col.), Tables, Maps, Index, Glossary, References, Abbreviation, Acknowledgement

The Title "Handbook on Indian Freshwater Molluscs " is written by Ramakrishna . This book was published in the year 2007. The ISBN number 8181711467|9788181711465 is assigned to the Hardback version of this title. This book has total of pp. xxiv + 400 (Pages). The publisher of this title is Zoological Survey of India. Handbook on Indian Freshwater Molluscs is currently Available with us.

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Contents

Introduction
Abbreviation Used
Mollusca
Classification
Ecology

I. COLLECTION AND PRESERVATION :
1. Fixation and Preservation
2. Biochemical and immunological techniques

II. POTENTIAL RESOURCES OF Aquaculture :
1. Background information
2. Arunachal Pradesh
3. Meghalaya
4. Manipur
5. Mizoram
6. West Bengal
7. Jharkhand
8. Bihar

III. SOURCE OF PEARLS :
1. Freshwater pearl :
Table-1. Freshwater molluscs used as food

IV. FRESHWATER SNAILS AND DISEASES :
Table 2. Schistosomes with their hosts and distribution from India

V. PARAGONIMIASIS
Table 3. Paragonimiasis with their host and distribution in India

VI. AMPHISTOMIASIS
VII. LIST OF THE FRESH WATER MOLLUSCAN SPECIES IN INDIA
VIII. GASTROPODS :
1. Shell
2. Central body
3. Key to the families

IX. Class GASTROPODA
X. Subclass PROSOBRANCHIA
XI. Order ARCHAEOGASTROPODA
XII. SupeRfamily NERITOIDEA
XIII. Family NERITIDAE
XIV. Subfamily NERITINAE :
1. Key to the Genera

XV. Genus Neritina Lamarck :
1. Key to the subgenera

XVI. Submenus Neritina s. st. :
1. Neritina (Neritina) pulligera (Linnaeus, 1967)

XVII. Subgenus Dostia Gray, 1840 :
1. Key to the species
2. Neritina (Dostia) platzconcha (Annandalc and Prashad, 1919)
3. Neritina (Dostia) violacea (Gmelin. 1791)

XVIII. Subgenus Neripteron Lesson, 1830 :
1. Neritina (Neripteron) anricUlala Lamarck, 1826

XIX. Subgenus Vittina Baker, 1923 :
1. Key to the species
2. Neritina (Vittina) pemttetiana (Reeluz, 1841)
3. Neritina (Vittina) smithi Wood, 1828
4. Neritina (Vittina) tnrrita (Gmelin, 1791)
5. Neritina (Vittina) variegata Lesson, 1831

XX. Genus Neritodryas von Martens, 1869 :
1. Neritodryas subsulcata (Sowerby, 1836)

XXI. Genus Theodnxus Mont fort, 1810
XXII. Subgenus Clithon Montfort, 1810
1. Key to the species
2. Theodoxus (Clithon) bicolor (Recluz, 1842)
3. Theodoxus (Clithon) corona (Linnaeus, 1758)
4. Theodoxus (Clithon) reticularis (Sowerby, 1838)

XXIII. Family SEPTARIIDAE
XXIV. Genus Septaria Ferussac, 1807 :
1. Key to the Species

XXV. Septaria lineata (Lamarck, 1816)
XXVI. Septaria porcellana (Linnaeus, 1758)
XXVII. Order MESOGASTROPODA
XXVIII. Superfamily VIVIPAROIDEA
XXIX. Family VIVIPARIDAE
XXX. Subfamily VIViPARINAE
XXXI. Genus Taia Annandale, 1918 :
1. Taia crassicallosa Annandale and Rao, 1925

XXXII. Subfamily BELLAMYINAE :
1. Key to the Genera

XXXIII. Genus Bellamya Jousseaume, 1886 :
1. Key to the species
2. Bellamya bengalensis (Lamarck, 1822) :
i. form typica (Lamarck)
ii. form annandalei (Kobelt, 1908)
iii. form balteata (Benson)
iv. form colairensis (Annandale, 1921)
v. race doliaris (Could, 1843)
vi. form eburnea (Annandale)
vii. form giganteu (Reeve)
VIII. phase halophila (Kobelt) :
a. form mandiensis (Kobelt, 1909)

3. Bellamya crassispiralis (Annandale, 1921) :
4. Bellamya crassa (Benson, 1836)
5. Bellamya dissimilis (Mueller, 1774)
6. Bellamya micron (Annandalc, 1921)

XXXIV. Genus Anxulyagra Rao, 1931 :
1. Key to the Species
2. Angulyagra microchaetophora (Annandale, 1921)
3. Angulyagra oxytropis (Benson, 1836)

XXXV. Genus Cipangopaludina Hannibal, 1912 :
1. Cipangopaludina lecythis (Benson, 1836)

XXXVI. Family AMPUU.ARIIDAE
XXXVII. Genus Pila (Bolten) Roeding, 1798 :
1. Key to the Species
2. Pila globosa (Swainson, 1822)
3. Pila globosa var incrassatula (Nevill)
4. Pila globosa var minor (Nevill)
5. Pila scutata (Mousson, 1848)
6. Pila scntata compacta (Reeve)
7. Pila theobaldi (Hanley, 1875)
8. Pila virens (Lamarck, 1822)

XXXVIII. Subgenus Turbinicola Annandale and Prashad, 1921 :
1. Pila (Turbinicola) saxea (Reeve, 1856)

XXXIX. Superfamily VALVATOIDEA
XL. Family VALVATIDAH
XLI. Genus Valvata, Mueller, 1774 :
1. Valvata piscinalis (Mueller, 1784)

XLII. Superfamily LITTORINOIDEA
XLIII. Family LITTORINIDAE
XLIV. Subfamily LITTORININAE
XLV. Genus Mainwaringia Nevill, 1884 :
1. Mainwaringia paludomoidea (Nevill, 1884)

XLVI. Subfamily BEMBICIINAH
XLVII. Genus Cremnoconchus Blanford, 1869 :
1. Cremnoconchus svhadrensis (Blanford, 1863)

XLVIII. Subgenus Lissoconchus Thiele, 1931 :
1. Creinnoconchus (Lissoconchus) carinatus (Layard, 1854)
2. Creinnoconchus (Lissoconchus) conicHS (Blanford, 1870)

XLIX. Superfamily RISSOIDEA
L. Family HYDROBIIDAE
LI. Subfamily POTAMOPYRGINAE
LII. Genus Potamopyrgus Stimpson
LIII. Subgenus Indopyrgus Thiele, 1928 :
1. Potamopyrgus (Indopyrgus) nevilli Thiele, 1928

LIV. Family BITHYNIIDAE :
1. Key to the genera

LV. Genus Bithynia Leach, 1818 :
1. Key to the species
2. Bithynia tentaculata kashmirensis (Nevill, 1884)
3. Bithynia troscheli (Paasch, 1842)

LVI. Subgenus Digoniostoma Annandale, 1920 :
1. Bithynia (Digoniostoma) cerameopoma (Benson, 1830)
2. Bithynia (Digoniostoma) evezardi (Blanford, 1880)
3. Bithynia (Digoniostoma) pulchella (Benson, 1836)
4. Bithynia (Digoniostoma) textum Annandale, 1921

LVII. Genus Gabbia Tryon, 1865 :
1. Key to the species
2. Gabbia orcula Frauenfeld, 1862
3. Gabbia orcula var. producta (Nevill, 1884)
4. Gabbia stenothyroides (Dohrn, 1857)
5. Gabbia travancorica (Benson, 1860)

LVIII. Genus Mysorella Annandale, 1919 :
1. Mysorella custigena (Kuester, 1852)

LIX. Family POMATIOPSIDAE
LX. Subfamily TRICULINAE
LXI. Tribe Triculini
LXII. Genus Tricula Benson, 1843 :
1. Key to the species
2. Tricula gravelyi Prashad, 1921
3. Tricula montana Benson, 1843

LXIII. Family STKNOTHYRIDAH :
1. Key to the genera

LXIV. Genus Stenothyra Benson, 1856
1. Key to the species
2. Stenothyra blanfordiana Nevill, 1880
3. Stenothyra dleltae (Benson, 1836)
4. Stenothyra foveolata Benson, 1856
5. Stenothyra hungerfordiana Nevill, 1880
6. Stenothyra minima (Sowerhy, 1837)
7. Stenothyra nana Annandale and Prashad, 1921
8. Stenothyra ornata Annandale and Prashad, 1921
9. Stenothyra soluta Annandale and Prashad, 1919
10. Stenothyra woodmasoniana Nevill, 1880

LXV. Genus Gangetia Ancey, 1890 :
1. Gangetia miliacea (Nevill, 1880)

LXVI. Family IRAVADIIDAE
LXVII. Genus Iravadia Blanford, 1867 :
1. Key to the species
2. Iravadia annandalei Preston, 1916
3. Iravadia ennurensis Preston, 1916
4. Iravadia funerea Preston, 1916
5. Iravadia princeps Preston, 1915

LXVIII. Family ASSIMINHIDAE
LXIX. Subfamily ASSIMINEINAE
LXX. Genus Assiminea Hemming, 1828 :
1. Assiminea francessi (Wood, 1828)

LXXI. Superfamily CERITHIOIDEA
LXXII. Family THIARIDAE
LXXIII. Subfamily THIARINAE :
1. Key to the genera

LXXIV. Genus Thiara Roeding, 1798 :
1. Key to the subgenera

LXXV. Subgenera Thiara s. st :
1. Key to the species
2. Thiara (Thiara) amarula (Linnaeus, 1758)
3. Thiara (Thiara) nulls (Lea, 1850)
4. Thiara (Thiara) scabra (Mueller, 1774)

LXXVI. Subgenus Sermyla H. and A. Adams, 1854 :
1. Thiara (Sermyla) riqueti (Grateloup, 1840)

LXXVII. Genus Faunus Montfort, 1810 :
1. Faunus ater (Linnaeus, 1758)

LXXVIII. Genus Melanoides Olivier, 1804 :
1. Key to the species
2. Melanoides crebra Lea, 1850
3. Melanoides nevilli (Brot, 1874)
4. Melanoides nicobarica (Moerch, 1859)
5. Melanoides peddamunigalensis Ray and Roy Chowdhury
6. Melanoides tuberculata (Mueller, 1774)

LXXIX. Genus Stenomelania P. Fisher, 1885 :
1. Key to the species
2. Stenomelania aspirans (Hinds, 1874)
3. Stenomelania plicuria (Born, 1780)
4. Stenomelania punctata (Lamarck, 1822)
5. Stenomelania torulosa (Bruguiere, 1789)

LXXX. Genus Tarebia H. and A. Adams, 1854 :
1. Key to the species
2. Tarebia granifera (Lamarck, 1822)
3. Tarebia lineata (Gray, 1828)
4. Tarebia semigranosa (von dem Busch, 1842)

LXXXI. Family PLEUROCERIDAE
LXXXII. Subfamily MELANATRIINAE :
1. Key to the genera

LXXXIII. Genus Brotia H. Adams, 1866
LXXXIV. Subgenus Antimelania Fischer and Crosse, 1892 :
1. Brotia (Antimelania) costula (Rafinesque, 1833)

LXXXV. Genus Sulcospira Troschel, 1858
1. Sulcospira huegeli (Philippi, 1841)

LXXXVI. Subfamily PALUDOMINAE
LXXXVII. Genus Paludomus Swainson, 1840 :
1. Key to the subgenera

LXXXVIII. Subgenus Paludomus s. st. :
1. Key to the species
2. Paludomus (Paludomus) annandalei Preston, 1909
3. Paludomus (Paludomus) blanfordiana Nevill, 1877
4. Paludomus (Paludomus) conica (Gray, 1834)
5. Paludomus (Paludomus) conica var. kopiliensis Nevill
6. Paludomus (Paludomus) inflatus Brot, 1880
7. Paludomus (Paludomus) obesus (Philippi, 1842)
8. Paludomus (Paludomus) ornatus Benson, 1856
9. Paludomus (Paludomus) pustulosa Annandale, 1925
10. Paludomus (Paludomus) regulata Benson, 1856
11. Paludomus (Paludomus) reticulata Blanford, 1870
12. Paludomus (Paludomus) rotunda Blanford, 1870
13. Paludomus (Paludomus) Stephanas (Benson, 1836)
14. Paludomus (Paludomus) tanschauricus Gmelin, 1771)

LXXXIX. Subgenus Phitopotamis Layard, 1855 :
1. Paludomus (Philopotamis sulcatus Reeve, 1847

XC. Submenus Stomatodon Benson, 1862 :
1. Paludomus (Stomatodon) stomatodon Benson, 1862

XCI. Submenus Tanalia Gray, 1847 :
1. Key to the species
2. Paludomus (Tanalia) toricatus Reeve, 1847
3. Paludomus(Tanalia) neritoides Reeve, 1847

XCII. Subclass PULMONATA
XCIII. Order BASOMMATOPHORA
XCIV. Superfamily LYMNAEO1DRA
XCV. Family LYMNALIDAB
XCVI. Genus Lymnaea Lamarck, 1799 :
1. Key to the species

XCVII. Subgenus Lymnaea s. st. :
1. Lymnnaea (Lymnaea) statgnalis (Linnaeus, 1758)

XCVIII. Subgenus Pseudosuccinea Baker, 1908 :
1. Lymnaea (Pseudusuccinea) acuminata Lamarck, 1822 :
i. form typica Lamarck, 1822
ii. form brevissima Annandale and Rao, 1925
iii. form chlamys Benson, 1836
iv. form graclior Martens, 1881
v. form hians Sowerby, 1873
vi. form mulleata Annandale and Rao, 1925
vii. form panda (Troschel, 1837)
viii. form rufescens Gray, 1822

2. Lymnaea (Pseudosuccinea) biacuminata Annandale and Rao, 1925
3. Lymnaea {Pseudosuccinea) horae Annandale and Rao, 1925
4. Lymnaea (Pseudosuccinea) luteola Lamarck, 1822 :
i. form typica Lamarck, 1822
ii. form australis Annandalc and Rao, 1925
iii. form impure Troschel, 1837
iv. form ovalis Gray, 1822
v. form succinea Deshayes, 1834

5. Lymnaea (Pseudosuccinea) ovalior Annandale and Prashad, 1921

XCIX. Genus Galba Schranck, 1803 :
1. Key to the species
2. Galba andersoniana Nevill, 1887
3. Galba hookeri (Reeve, 1850)
4. Galba truncatula (Mueller, 1774)

C. Genus Radix Montfort, 1810 :
1. Key to the species
2. Radix auricularia (Linnaeus, 1758)
3. Radix brevicada (Sowerhy, 1873)
4. Radix lagotis f. costulata (von Martens, 1874) :
i. f. defilippi (Issel, 1865)
ii. form solidissima (Kobelt, 1872)
iii. form striata (Andreae, 1911)

5. Radix persica (Issel, 1865)

CI. Genus Stagnicola Leach in Jeffreys, 1830 :
1. stagnicola tungabhadraenisis Ray, 1967

CII. Superfamily PHYSOIDEA
CIII. Family PHYSFDAE
CIV. Genus Physa Draparnaud, 1801 :
1. Physa acuta Draparnaud, 1805

CV. Superfamily PLANORBOIDEA
CVI. Family PLANORBIDAH
CVII. Subfamily PLANORBINAE
CVIII. Tribe Planorbis :
1. Key to the genera

CIX. Genus Planorbis Geoffroy, 1767
1. Planorbis tangitarensis Germain, 1918
2. Planorbis rotundatus Poiret, 1801

CX. Genus Gyraulus Charpentier, 1837
1. Key to the species
2. Gyraulus barrackporensis (Clessin, 1886)
3. Gyraulus convexiuxculus (Hutton, 1849)
4. Gyraulus euphraticus (Mousson, 1874)
5. Gyraulus labiatus (Benson, 1850)
6. Gyraulus ladacensis Nevill, 1878
7. Gyraulus pankongensis (von Martens, 1882)
8. Gyraulus rotula (Benson, 1850)
9. Gyraulus saltensis Germain, 1922

CXI. Tribe Camptocerateae :
CXII. Genus Camptoceras Benson, 1843 :
1. Key to the species
2. Camptoceras lineatum Blanford, 1871
3. Camptoceras subspinosum Annandale and Prashad, 1920
4. Camptoceras terebra Benson, 1843

CXIII. Tribe Segmentinineae
CXIV. Genus Segmentina Fleming, 1817
CXV. Subgenus Polypylis Pilsbry, 1906 :
1. Key to the species
2. Segmentina (Polypylis) calatha (Benson, 1850)
3. Segmentina (Polypylis) taia Annandale and Rao, 1925
4. Segmentina (Polypylis) trochoidea (Benson, 1836)

CXVI. Genus Hippeutis Agassiz in Charpentier, 1837 :
1. Key to the species

CXVII. Subgenus Hippeutis s. st
1. Hippeutis fontanus (Lightfoot, 1786)

CXVIII. Subgenus Helicorbis Benson, 1855 :
1. Hippeutis (Helicorbis) umbilicalis (Benson, 1836)

CXIX. Family BULLINIDAH
CXX. Subfamily BULLIN1NAE
CXXI. Genus Indoplanorbis Annandale and Prashad, 1921 :
1. Indoplanorbis exustus (Deshayes, 1834)

CXXII. Family ANCYLIDAE
CXXIII. Subfamily FHRR1SSINAF
CXXIV. Genus Ferrissia Walker, 1903 :
1. Key to the species
2. Ferrissia baconi (Bourguignat, 1853)
3. Ferrissia ceylanica (Benson, 1864)
4. Ferrissia tennis (Bourguignat, 1862)
5. Ferrissia verruca (Benson, 1855)
6. Ferrissia viola Annandale and Prashad, 1921

CXXV. BIVALVIA :
1. Habitat and Food
2. Morphology of soft parts
3. Digestive System
4. Circulatory system
5. Nervous system
6. Sense system
7. Reproductive system
8. Key to the families

CXXVI. Class BIVALVIA
CXXVII. Subclass PTHRFOMORPHIA
CXXVIII. Order AKCOIDA
CXXIX. Super-family ARCOIDHA
CXXX. Family ARCIDAE
CXXXI. Subfamily ANADARINAH
CXXXII. Genus Scaphula Benson, 1834 :
1. Key to the species
2. Scaphula celox Benson, 1836
3. Scaphula deltae Blanford, 1867
4. Scaphula nagarjunai Janaki Ram and Radhakrishna, 1984

CXXXIII. Subclass PALEOHETERODONTA
CXXXIV. Order TRIGOINOIDA
CXXXV. Superfamily UNIONOIDEA, Fleming, 1828
CXXXVI. Family UNIONIDAE Fleming, 1828
1. Key to the genera

CXXXVII. Subfamily UNIONINAE
CXXXVIII. Genus Arcidopsis Simpson, 1900
1. Arcidopsis footei (Theobald, 1876)

CXXXIX. Genus Physunio Simpson, 1900
CXL. Subgenus Velunio Haas, 1914 :
1. Physunio (Velunio) velaris (Sowerby, 1868)

CXLI. Genus Scabies Haas, 1911 :
1. Scabies crispata (Gould, 1843)

CXLII. Genus Solenaia Conrad, 1868 :
1. Solenaia xoleniformix (Benson, 1836)

CXLIII. Subfamily AMBLEMINAE (Quadrulinae)
CXLIV. Tribe Amblemini
CXLV. Genus Lamellidens Simpson, 1900 :
1. Key to the species
2. Lamellidens consobrinus (Lea, 1859)
3. Lamellidens corrianus (Lea, 1834)
4. Lamellidens generosus (Gould, 1847)
5. Lamellidens jenkinsianus (Benson, 1862)
6. Lamellidens jenkinsianus sub sp, daccaensis (Preston, 1912)
7. Lamellidens jenkinsianus sub sp, obesa (Hanley and Theobald, 1877)
8. Lamellidens marginalis (Lamarck, 1819)
9. Lamellidens phenchooganjensis Preston, 1912
10. Genus Parreysia Conrad, 1853
11. Key to the subgenera

CXLVI. Subgenus Parreysia s. st.
1. Key to the species
2. Parreysia (Parreysia) annandalei Preston, 1912
3. Parreysia (Parreysia) burmanus (Blanford 1869)
4. Parreysia (Parreysia) Corbis (Benson, 1856)
5. Parreysia (Parreysia) corrugata (Mueller, 1774)
6. Parreysia (Parreysia) corrugata (Mueller) subsp, laevirostris (Benson, 1862)
7. Parreysia (Parreysia) corrugata (Mueller) subsp. nagpoorensis (Lea, 1859)
8. Parreysia (Parreysia) favidens (Benson, 1862)
9. Parreysia (Parreysia) favidens var. assamensis Preston, 1912
10. Parreysia (Parreysia) favidens var chrysis (Benson, 1862)
11. Parreysia (Parreysia) favidens subsp. deltae (Benson, 1862)
12. Parreysia (Parreysia) favidens var. marcens Benson
13. Parreysia (Parreysia) favidens plagiosoma (Benson, 1862)
14. Parreysia (Parreysia) favidens subsp. viridula (Benson, 1862)
15. Parreysia (Parreysia) gowhuttensis (Theobald, 1873)
16. Parreysia (Parreysia) rajahensis (Lea, 1841)
17. Parreysia (Parreysia) sikkimensis (Lea, 1859)
18. Parreysia (Parreysia) smaragdites (Benson, 1862)
19. Parreysia (Parreysia) triembolus (Benson, 1855)

CXLVII. Subgenus Radiatula Simpson, 1900
1. Key to the species
2. Parreysia (Radiatula) andersoniana (Nevill, 1877)
3. Parreysia (Radiatula) bonneaudi (Eydoux, 1838)
4. Parreysia (Radiatula) caerulea (Lea, 1831)
5. Parreysia (Radiatula) caerulea var. gaudichaudi (Eydoux, 1838)
6. Parreysia (Radiatula) cylindrica Annandale and Prashad, 1919
7. Parreysia (Radiatula) involuta (Benson, 1856)
8. Parreysia (Radiatula) khadakvaslaensis (Ray, 1966)
9. Parreysia (Radiatula) lima (Simpson, 1900)
10. Parreysia (Radiatula) nuttalliana (Lea, 1856)
11. Parreysia (Radiatula) occata (Lea, 1860)
12. Parreysia (Radiatula) olivaria (Lea, 1831)
13. Parreysia (Radiatula) pachysoma (Benson, 1862)
14. Parreysia (Radiatula) shurtleffiana (Lea, 1856)
15. Parreysia (Radiatula) theobaldi (Preston, 1912)

CXLVIII. Genus Trapezoideus Simpson, 1900 :
1. Trapezoideus exolexcens exolescens (Gould, 1843)

CXLIX. Superfamily MUTBLOIDEA
CL. Family ETHERIIDAE
CLI. Genus Pseudomulleria Anthony, 1907 :
1. Pseudomulleria dalyi E.A. Smith, 1898

CLII. Subclass HETERODONTA
CLIII. Order VENER01DA
CLIV. Superfamily SOLENOIDEA
CLV. Family CULTELLIDAE
CLVI. Genus Neosolen Ghosh, 1920 :
1. Neosolen aqitaedulcioris Ghosh, 1920

CLVII. Genus Tanysiphon Benson, 1858 :
1. Tanysiphon rivalis Benson, 1858

CLVIII. Superfamily TELLINOIDEA
CLIX. Family PSAMMOBI1DAE
CLX. Subfamily NOVACULININAE
CLXI. Genus Novaculina Benson, 1830 :
1. Novaculina gangetica Benson, 1830

CLXII. Superfamily CORBICULOIDEA
CLXIII. Family CORBICULIDAE :
1. Key to the genera

CLXIV. Genus Corbicula Megerle von Muehlfeld, 1811 :
1. Key to the species
2. Corbicula annandalei Prashad, 1928
3. Corbicula annandalei Prashad, 1928
4. Corbicula bensoni Deshayes, 1854
5. Corbicula cushmiriensis Deshayes, 1854
6. Corbicula krishnaea Ray, 1967
7. Corbicula peninsularis Prashad, 1928
8. Corbicula striatella Deshayes, 1854

CLXV. Genus Batissa Gray, 1853 :
1. Key to the species
2. Batissa inflata Prime, 1860
3. Batissa similis Prime, 1859

CLXVI. Genus Polymesoda Rafinesque, 1820
CLXVII. Submenus Geloina Gray, 1842 :
1. Polymesoda (Geloina) bengalensis (Lamarck, 1818)
2. Polymesoda (Geloina) erosa (Solander, 1786)

CLXVIII. Genus Villorita Griffith and Pidgeon, 1934 :
1. Villoritu cornucopia Prashad, 1921

CLXIX. Family PISIDIIDAE :
1. Key to the genera

CLXX. Genus Pisidium Pfeiffer, 1821
CLXXI. Subgenus Pisidium s. st :
1. Pisidium (Pisidium) casertanum (Poli, 1791)

CLXXII. Subgenus Afropisidium Kuiper, 1962 :
1. Pisidium (Afropisidium) clarkeanum G & H. Nevill, 1871
2. Pisidium (Afropisidium) ellisi Dance, 1967
3. Pisidium (Afropisidium) nevillianum Theobald, 1876

CLXXIII. Subgenus Europisidium Stadnichenko, 1984 :
1. Pisidium (Europisidium) mitcchelli Prashad, 1925

CLXXIV. Subgenus Odhneripisidium Kuiper, 1962 :
1. Pisidium (Odhneripisidium) atkinsonianum Theobald, 1876
2. Pisidium (Odhneripisidium) kuiperi Dance, 1967

CLXXV. Genus Sphaerium Scopoli, 1777 :
1. Key to the species
2. Sphaerium austeni Prashad, 1921
3. Sphaerium indicum Deshayes, 1854
4. Sphaerium kushmirensis Prashad, 1937

Preface

Convention on biological diversity stipulates that the sovereign rights of the countries of origin over their genetic/biological diversity resources and acceptance of the need to share benefits flowing from commercial utilization of biological diversity resources with holders of traditional knowledge and practices of conservation and sustainable utilization of resources. In view of this, the conservation of biological diversity is a protective measure to prevent the loss of genetic diversity of the species, save the species from extinction, and to protect the ecosystems from damages. Criteria for assigning conservation priorities depends on the richness in a given area, the number of occurrence of the genotype, species or ecosystems (Rarity), degree of the separation of the population, species or ecosystems from its comparable analogue (Distinctiveness), degree of occurrence (Representation), imminent danger (Threat) and presence or absence of key stone resources (Function). It is therefore, high time that we reset our priorities and make an earnest effort to give due importance to research in Taxonomy. Before starting any kind of studies, one needs to know the correct scientific name of the organisms on which one is going to study. This is important because the correct scientific name of the organism is a functional label using which various pieces of information concerning that organism, including all the past work done on it, can be retrieved and stored ensuring easy reference (Narendran, 2000).

The need for a stronger focus on invertebrate conservation has long been recognized, but information on the status and distribution of the majority of invertebrates simply does not exist (Groombridge 1993). Invertebrates comprise a large proportion of biodiversity but are very rarely considered in reserve selection and other conservation initiatives. Molluscs represent one of the largest and most diverse phyla in the entire animal kingdom, next to the arthropods, they have the most named species in the animal kingdom (Hickman, 1961). Molluscs both extinct and living compromise about 11% of all animal species that have ever evolved during the entire course of earth history (Tasch, 1973). Recognizing the importance of molluscs (an invertebrate) in the life of humankind and the significant roles they play in ecosystems, the Mollusc Specialist Group (MSG) of IUCN believes that continuing loss of mollusc diversity is detrimental not only to ecosystems, but, in the long run, to the welfare of humankind itself. In this regard, inventorisation is considered important for assessment in evaluation of resources and their conservation options, which in turn rely on adequate use of taxic diversity. Therefore, the ultimate task of taxonomists is to document and understand the extent and significance of biological diversity.

Natural History Museums have long been recognized as the centres of systematics and biological research. The global biodiversity information is mainly based on the museum specimens, which form the baseline data on the diversity, distribution, abundance and variation. The lung association with vast authentically identified zoological collections present in the section of Zoological Survey of India, field survey experiences, association with colleagues exploring new resources of taxonomic characters, reflects the present state of our knowledge of freshwater molluscs in India. Therefore, the present hook begins with the systematic survey of freshwater mollusks of India, including their ecology, distribution. values (food) and role in human welfare such as trematode infection in domestic cattle and man. The present form of (his book includes a detailed account of the freshwater molluscs with key to (he family, genera, and species besides geographical distribution and references. Attempts are not made to include all known synonyms, though in most cases these could be construed from the cited references. Wherever, possible, locations of the type species are given.

The work involves a team work for several months by various coworkers and expected to attract and enlighten the people from different walks of life.

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