The Mega Online Bookstore
Welcome Guest | Login | Home | Contact Us

History of Economic Thought 17th Edition, Ane's Student Edition



Not Available

We have 3 million other books

Find Another Book

Enquire about this book

Book Information

Publisher:Ane Books India
Published In:2011
Binding Type:Paperback
Weight:2.22 lbs
Pages:pp. xix + 991

The Title "History of Economic Thought 17th Edition, Ane's Student Edition" is written by T.N. Hajela. This book was published in the year 2011. The ISBN number 8180522202|9788180522208 is assigned to the Paperback version of this title. The book displayed here is a 17th Edition, Ane's Student Edition edition. This book has total of pp. xix + 991 (Pages). The publisher of this title is Ane Books India. We have about 503 other great books from this publisher. History of Economic Thought 17th Edition, Ane's Student Edition is currently Not Available with us.You can enquire about this book and we will let you know the availability.

Related Books

Renascent Bengal, 1817-1857 Proceedings of a Seminar Organised by the Asiatic Society, Calcutta 2nd Reprint

Renascent Bengal, 1817-18 ...

S. Chatterjee, ...

Our Price: $ 9.36

Congress and Socialism Economic Programmes and Policies 1st Edition,8186565248,9788186565247

Congress and Socialism Ec ...

R.C. Kochar

Our Price: $ 11.22

Road Planning for Economic Development A Case Study of North Bengal 1st Edition,8170542721,9788170542721

Road Planning for Economi ...

Indrajit Ray

Our Price: $ 8.98

India Changing Economic Structure in the Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries : Outline History of Craft and Trade 3rd Revised Edition,8173040621,9788173040627
81 %

India Changing Economic S ...

Alexander I. Tc ...

List Price: $ 74.25

Our Price: $ 14.22

Perspectives on Modern Economic and Social History 1st Edition,8171321879,9788171321872

Perspectives on Modern Ec ...

Brij Kishore Sh ...

Our Price: $ 10.56

Punjab, 1998 Political and Socio-Economic Developments 1st Edition,8186565450,9788186565452

Punjab, 1998 Political an ...

Mohinder Singh

Our Price: $ 22.50

About the Book

The book was first published in 1967 and the present edition is the Seventeenth edition.

The book discusses the development of the History of economic thought from the earliest times to the most recent times. Part One deals with the development of economic thought in Western Countries. Book One deals with the economic thought in ancient times and medieval ages. Book Two gives in detail the pre-classical economic thought. Book Three deals with the economic thought of the classicism. Book Four discusses the economic thought of the critics of the classical school. Book Five deals with the restatement of the classicism, Book Six covers the economic thought of the subjectivists. marginalists and neo-classicals. Book Seven gives the economic thought as it developed as a reaction to neo-classicism Institutionalism, Welfare Economics, General Equilibrium Economics. Book Eight discusses the Keynesian Economics and Post Keynesian developments in Economic Thought and Book Nine discusses the development of some of the important theories as also gives the contribution of the Nobel Laureates and other prominent economists.

Part Two deals with the Indian Economic Thought and covers the economic thought of the modern times.

About the Author

Dr. T.N. Hajela, after teaching undergraduate and postgraduate students for almost two decades joined the University Grants Commission in 1 963, dealt with programmes related to the improvement of standards of teaching and research in higher education in Indian Universities and retired as joint secretary in 1986. In 1974, he went to U.K. as a visiting fellow of the Queen Elizabeth House, Oxford University and worked for one full term on "Impact of Inflation on Higher Education in the U.K."

Dr. Hajela has been associated with a number of universities of the country as member of Academic Council, Research Degree Committee and Board of Studies in economics. He has authored a number of textbooks for university students in the field of monetary economics, macroeconomics, co-operation, economic thought, public finance etc.


Daniel Raymond ord/von-Mises" Title="von-Mises">von Mises "/books/john-stuart" Title="john-stuart">John Stuart eyword/william-stanley" Title="william-stanley">William Stanley IC THOUGHT IN WESTERN COUNTRIES :
1. Definition and Significance of History of Economic Thought :
Definition of History of Economic Thought; History of Economics, Economic History and History of Economic Thought; Scope of History of Economic Thought; Significance of the Study of History of Economic Thought; Questions

Book I : Ancient and Medieval Economic Thought :
2. Economic Thought in Ancient Times :
Introduction; Characteristic Features of Ancient Economic Thought; Significance of the Study of Ancient Economic Thought; Contribution of the Early Thinkers-The Hebrews; Economic Thought of Hebrews; Characteristics of the Hebrew Economic Thought; The Greeks: Plato, Aristotle, Xenophon; The Greek Stoics and Epicureans; General Features of the Greek Thought; The Romans : Cicero, Seneca, Pliny, Cato, Varro, Columella; Roman Jurists; Questions

3. Economic Thought in Medieval Ages :
Introduction; Characteristics of the Early Medieval Social Order; Characteristics of the Later Medieval Society; St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274 A.D.); Nicole Oresme (1320-1382 A.D.); Significance of the Period; Questions

Book II : Pre-Classical Economic Thought :
4. Mercantilism :
Period of Mercantilism; Factors Giving Rise to Mercantilism; Mercantilism : A National Policy; Mercantilism; A Body of Doctrines or Views; Basic Tenets of Mercantilist Philosophy; The Mercantilist Concept of the State; The Influence of Mercantilists on State Policies; Important Mercantilists and Their Views; Criticism of Mercantilism; Mercantilism and State Socialism; Chief Critics of Mercantilism; The Revival of Mercantilism; Questions

5. Physiocracy :
A Reaction Against Mercantilism; Factors Responsible for the Rise of Physiocracy; Physiocratic Doctrines; Theoretical Aspect; Practical Aspect of Physiocracy; The Physiocratic School; Criticism and Decay of Physiocracy; Place of Physiocrats in the History of Economic Thought; Questions

Book III : Classicism Introduction :
6. Adam Smith-The Founder of English Classicism :
Wealth of Nations : The Underlying Philosophy; Smith's Naturalism and Optimism; Wealth of Nations in Outline; Resume of Smithian Doctrines; Critical Estimate of Smithian Doctrines; Influence of Wealth of Nations; Place of Smith in History of Economic Thought; Questions

7. The Followers of Smith-Jeremy Bentham :
The Period intervening between Smith's Wealth of Nations and Ricardo's Principles : Changes during the Period that Elapsed between Ricardo's and Mill's Principles; Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832); Life and Works; Social Philosophy; Benthamism and Smithianism; The Philosophical Radicals; Questions

8. The Followers of Smith (Contd.)-Thomas Robert Malthus
Life-sketch; Chief Influences; Malthus's Views on Population; Was Malthus a Practical Man; Critical Appreciation; Other Economic Views of Malthus; On Rent; On Market Gluts; Place of Malthus in the History of Economic Thought; Questions

9. The Followers of Smith (Contd.)-David Ricardo :
Life and Works; The Principles of Political economy and Taxation; Theory of Value; Theory of Distribution; Theory of Economic Development; Theory of International Trade; Theory of Money; Questions

10. The Writers in the Classical Tradition-James Mill, McCulloch, Senior etc. :
In England-James Mill (1773-1836); John Ramsay McCulloch (1789-1864); Nassau William Senior (1790-1864) In France-J. B. Say (1767-1832); Bastiat (1801-1850); Charles Dunoyer (1786-1862); In Germany-Nebenius (1785-1857); John Heinrich von Thunen (1783-1850); Friedrich Benedikt Wilhelm von Hermann (1795-1868); Karl Heinrich Rau (1792-1870); In America-Henry Charles Carey (1793-1879); His Economic Views; Questions

Book IV : Reactions Against Classicism (Critics and Opponents) :
11. The Individualistic Critics-Lauderdale and Rae :
Lauderdale (1759-1830) : Wealth and Wages; Value; Role of Capital; John Rae (1786-1873) : Individual and National Interets; Smith's Method of Study; Questions

12. The Nationalistic Critics-Muller, List, Raymond, Gentz, Hamilton and Carey :
Adam Heinrich Muller (1779-1829) : His Economic Views; Cosmopolitanism; Individualism; Self Interest; Free-Trade; Friedrich List (1789-1846) : Sources of Inspiration; Economic Views; Cause of Wealth; National Element; Role of Manufactures; Was List a Wholesale Protectionist; D. Daniel Raymond (1786-1849) : Individual and National Wealth; National Wealth and National Property; Other Criticisms; Friedrich Gentz. (1764-1832); Economic Views; Alexander Hamilton (1757-1804) : Economic Views; Henry Charles Carey (1793-1879); Critical Assessment; Questions

13. The Historical Critics-The English Historical School :
Richard Jones (1790-1855); Walter Bagehot (1826-1877); Thomas Edward Cliffe Leslie (1825-1882); John Kells Ingram (1824-1907); Arnold Toynbee (1853-1883); James E. Thorold Rogers (1823-1893); William James Ashley (1860-1926); Question

14. The Historical Critics (Contd.)-The German Historical School :
Introduction; The Rise of Historicism in Germany; The Older Historical School; Wilhelm Roscher (1817-1896); Burno Hildebrand (1812-1871); Karl Gustav Adolf Knies (1821-1898); Characteristics of the Older Historical School; Younger Historical School; Characteristics of the Younger School; Gustav Schmoller (1830-1917); Adolf Wagner (1835-1917); G.F. Knapp (1842-1926); Karl Bucher (1847-1930); Ludwig Joseph Brentano (1844-1931); Werner Sombart (1863-1941); Max Weber (1864-1920); Richard Ehrenberg (1857-1921); The German Historical School : An Appraisal; The Critical Ideas; The Positive Ideas; Influence of the Historical School; Questions

15. The Socialistic Critics and the Rise of Socialism :
Introduction; Early French Socialists; Babeuf; Etienne Cabet (1788-1856); Saint Simon (1760-1825) : Life Sketch; Economic-Ideas; Industrialism and the Place of Government; The Followers of St. Simon; Criticism of Private Property; Their Concept of Collectivism; Jean Charles de Sismondi (1773-1842) : Life Sketch; Method of Economics; Aim of Economics; Competition and Over-production; Undue Emphasis on Production; Arguments against Machinery Causes of Crisis; Government Interference and Other Proposals of Reform; Was Sismondi a Socialist?; Sismondi's Place in History of Economic Thought; The Early English Socialists; Charles Hall (1742-1820) : Cause of Poverty; The Degradation of the Workers; Agriculture Versus Trade; William Thompson (1785-1833) : On the Distribution of Wealth; Thomas Hodgskin (1787-1869) : The Importance of Capital as a Factor of Production; Right of Property; On State Intervention; John Francis Bray (1809-1897) : Influence of Environment; Private Property; Accumulation of Wealth; Equal Exchanges; John Gray (1799-1883); Questions

16. The Socialistic Critics (Contd.)-The Utopian Socialists and The Associationists :
Robert Owen (1771-1858); Owen's Philosophy; Practical Measures of Reform; On Profits; Labour Notes; Francois Marie Charles Fourier (1772-1837); Life Sketch; His Social Philosophy; Phalanxes; Back to land; Jean Joseph Charles Louis Blanc (1813-1882) : Life Sketch; His Social Philosophy; Proudhon (1809-1865) : Life Sketch; On Property; On Communism Versus Property; Exchange Bank; Characteristic Features of Associationism; Questions :

17. The Socialistic Critics (Contd.)-The State Socialists :
Introduction; State Socialists; Johann Karl Rodbertus (1805-1875) : His Economic Views-The Social Organism; Exploitation of Labour; Two Aspects of Distribution; Law of Decreasing Wage-share; Commercial Crises; Distributive Justice; State Intervention; Richardo of Socialism; Ferdinand Lassalle (1825-1864); His Economic Ideas; Division of Labour; The Role of the State; Questions

18. The Socialistic Critics (Contd.)-The Scientific Socialists (Karl Marx and His Followers) :
Karl Marx (1818-1883) : Life and Works; Influences Shaping His Ideas; Father of International Socialism; Development of Human Society; Chief Tenets of Marxian Thought; Dialectical Materialism; Dialectics; Materialism; The Labour Theory of Value; Theory of Surplus Value; Rate of Surplus Value; Labour Theory of Value as applied to Exchange; Criticism of Marxian Theory of Value; The Law of Concentration of Capital; Industrial Crises; Growth of Pauperism; The Growth of Companies; Marx and Modern Economists; Marx and Rodbertus: Points of Difference; Points of Similarity; An Assessment of Marx and His Thought; Source of Inspiration for Historical Research; Economic content of his thought; Characteristics of Marxism; Marxism and Classicism; Followers of Marx; Louis Boudin; Rosa Luxemburg; Henry Grossmann; Rudolf Hilferding; Questions

Book V : The Restatement of Classicism :
19. John Stuart Mill :
Life and Works; Sources of Influence; Principles of Political Economy; Scheme of the Book; Nature and Scope of Economics; Production; Distribution; Wages; Profits; Rent Exchange; Value; Money and Credit; International Trade; Interest; The Dynamics of Economics; Was Mill a Socialist?; The Role of Government; Mill's Position vis-a-vis Classical Economics; Mill's Agreement with Classical Doctrines; (i) The Law of Self-interest; (ii) The Law of Free Competition; (iii) The Law of Population; (iv) The Law of Demand and Supply; (v) The Law of Wages; (vi) The Law of Rent; (vii) The Law of International Exchange; (viii) Mill's Disagreement with the Classical Doctrines; Theory of Economic Development; Scope of Economics; Methods and Laws of Economics; International Trade; Functions of Government; Critical Appraisal; Questions

20. The Last Phase of Classicism-Cairnes and Fawcett :
Introduction : John Elliot Cairnes (1824-1875): Subject-matter of Economics; Nature of Economic Laws; Logical Method of Economics; Value; Theory of Non-Competing Groups; In Defence of the Wages Fund Theory; Henry Fawcett (1833-1884); Question

Book VI : The Reconstruction of Economic Science :
21. Subjectivism and Marginalism-(The Subjective and the Mathematical Schools) :
Factors Giving Rise to Subjectivism; The Subjective School; The Mathematical School; Hermann heinrich Gossen (1810-1858); William Stanley Jevons (1835-1882); Wants; Utility; Leon Walras (1834-1910); The Doctrine of Marginal Utility; Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1928); Guslav Cassel (1866-1945); J.R. Hicks; Questions

22. Subjectivism and Marginalism (Contd.)-(The Austrian School) :
Karl Menger (1840-1921) : On Needs; On Goods; The Theory of Imputation of Value; Theory of Functional Distribution; Exchange; Money; Methods of Economics; Friedrich von Wieser (1851-1926) : The Theory of Value; The Theory of Value and The Social Economy; Eugen von Bohm-Bawerk (1851-1914) : The Problem of Interest; Criticisms of the Austrian Doctrines; Questions

23. Neo-Classicism : (Marshall and the Cambridge School) :
Alfred Marshall (1842-1924); Sidgwick (1838-1900); Nicholson (1850-1927); Alfred Marshall (1842-1924) : Life and Works; Principles of Economics; Plan of the Book; Aims of Economics; Guiding Principles; (a) The Relativity of" Normal Action" (b) "Normal" and "Market" Values; (c) "Rent and Interest"; "Fixed and Circulating Capital", "Land and Other Rents"; (d) The Value of Labour and of its Products; A Broad View of Principles of Economics-Definition; Methods and Laws of Economics; Wants and Their Satisfaction; Factors of Production; On Population; On Division of Labour; The Law of Diminishing Returns; The Representative Firm; Value, Demand and Supply; Distribution of National Income; Monetary Theory; Criticisms; The Cambridge School; Questions

24. Neo-Classicism (Contd.) Wicksell and the Stockholm School) :
Knut Wicksell (1851-1926); Wickesell's Economic Views : Savings and Investment; Trade Cycles; Other Members of the School; Questions

Book VII : Reactions Against Neo-Classicism :
25. Beginnings of Economics in the United States :
John Bates Clark (1847-1938); F.A. Fetter (1863-1949); S. N. Patten (1852-1922); Herbert J. Davenport (1861-1931); Irving Fisher (1867-1947); Frank William Taussig (1859-1940) : Life and Works; On Methods of Study; On Value; On Rent; On Population; T.N. Carver; Richard T. Ely (1854-1943); E.R.A. Seligman (1861 -1939); Question

26. Institutionalism (Veblen, Commons and Mitchell) :
Institutionalism and Classicism; Institutionalism and German Historicism; Characteristic Features of Institutionalism; Thorstein Bunde Veblen (1857-1927) : His Economic Views; Importance of Institutions; Veblen and the Historical School; Veblen and Marx; The Theory of the Leisure Class; The Theory of Business Enterprise; His views on Trade Cycles; J.R. Commons; W. C. Mitchell (1874-1948); Critical Appraisal of Institutionalism; Question

27. Welfare Economics-(J.A. Hobson and A.C. Pigou)
Introduction; J.A. Hobson (1858-1940) : Life and Works; Chief Influences; Criticism of the Classical Economics; Arther Cecil Pigou (1877-1959); New Trends in Welfare Economics; Questions

28. The General Equilibrium Economics :
Characteristics of General Equilibrium Theory; General Equilibrium Economists; Leon Walras; Vilfredo Pareto; The Stockholm School; J.R. Hicks; Question

Book VIII : The Keynesian Revolution :
29. The Keynesian Economics :
J.M. Keynes (1883-1946); The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money; The Inducement to Invest; The Rate of Interest; The Concept of Multiplier; Theory of Employment; Theory of Prices; Money-wage Rates and Employment; Theory of Trade Cycle; Keynes and the Classical Economics; Keynes' Attitude towards Laissez-faire and Classical Economics; Keynes and International Economics; Was Keynes a Depression Economist?; Keynes' Influence on Public Policy; Keynes' Achievements and Shortcomings; Keynesian Economics and Underdeveloped Countries; Questions

30. Post-Keynesian Developments in Economic Thought :
Statistics and the Development of Economic Thought; Influence of the New Economics on Economic Theory and Public Policy; Emergence of Macroeconomics; Institution-alisation of Economics; The Revival of Monetarism; Objectives of Domestic Economic Policy; Economic Growth; Questions

Book IX : Miscellaneous Introduction :
31. The Development of Socialist Thought :
Socialist 'Thought during the Nineteenth Century; Neo-Marxians; Fabian Socialists; Syndicalists; Guild Socialism; Christian Socialists; Democratic Socialism; Socialist Thought during the Twentieth Century; Influence of the Socialist Thought on Economic Thought; Questions

32. The Development of Theories of Value and Trade Cycles :
Development of the Theory of Value; Pre-Classical ideas on Value; Classical ideas on Value; Value under Monopolistic and Imperfect Competition; Monopolistic Competition Theroy; Theory of Imperfect Competition; Development of the Theory of Trade Cycle; Early Classical Period; Beginnings towards a Real Theory; The Concept of Cycle; Overproduction of Capital Goods; Under-Consumption or Over-saving; Questions

33. The Development of Theories of Distribution :
The Monopoly Theory of Rent; The Differential-cost Theory of Rent; The Productivity Theory of Rent; The Theory of Wages; The Theory of Interest; The Theory of Profits; Questions

34. The Development of Theories of International Trade and Public Finance :
The Theory of International Trade; Development of the Theory of Public Finance; Questions

35. Nobel Laureates in Economics :
1969-J. Tinbergen and Ragnar Frisch; 1970-P.A. Samuelson; 1971-Simon Ku/nets; 1972-K. J. Arrow and John Hicks; 1973-Wassily Lcontief; 1974-F. A. Von hayek and Gunnar Myrdal; 1975-Leonid Kantorovich andT. Jailing Koopmans; 1976-Milton Friedman; 1977-B. Ohlin and James Meade; 1978-H. A. Simon; 1979-F.W. Schultz; 1980-L. R. Klein; 1981-James Tobin; 1982-George Joseph Stigler; 1983-Gerard Debreu; 1984-Richard Stone; 1985-Franco Modigliani; 1986-James Mcdill Buchanan; 1987-Robert M. Solow; 1988-Maurice Allais; 1989-Trygve Magnus Haavelmo; 1990-Merton H. Miller; Harry Max Markowitz and William F. Sharpe; 1991-Ronald H. Coase; 1992-Gary Stanley Becker; 1993-Robert W. Fogel and Douglas C. North; 1994—John C. Harsanyi; John F. Nash and Reinhard Selten; 1995-Robert E. Lucas; 1996-Willam Vickrey and James A. Mirrlees; 1997-Robert C. Merton and Myron S. Scholes; 1998-Amartya Sen; 1999-Robert A. Mundell; 2000-James J. heckman and Daniel L. Mcfadden; 2001-George Akerlof; Michael Spence and Joseph Stiglitz; 2002-Daniel Kahneman and Vernon L. Smith; 2003-Clive W.J. Granger and Robert F. Engle; 2004-Finn E. Kydland and Edward C. Prescott; 2005-Robert J. Aumann and Thorns C. Schelling; 2006-Edmund S. Pheips; 2007—Leonid Hurwiez; Eric S. Meskim and Roger B. Myerson; Questions

36. Other Prominent Economists and Their Contribution :
Introduction; Joseph A. Schumpeter : Life and Works; Influence; Method of Study; Theory of Economic Development; Business Cycles; Capitalism and Socialism; R.G. Hawtrey: His Economic Views; Ludwig Von Mises : His Economic Views; J.M. Clark: His Economic Views; Alvin H. Hansen: His Economic Views; D. H. Robertson (1890-1969) : His Economic Views; (a) Money; (b) Trade Cycles; (c) Saving and Capital; (d) Definition and Laws of Economics; (e) Consumer's Surplus; (f) Rent; Lionel Robbins : His Economic Views; (a) Definition of Economics; (b) International Liberal Planning; (c) International Financial Reconstruction; (d) Causes of Depression; On Positive Economics; Ragnar Nurkse: His Economic Views; J.K. Galbraith: His Economic Views; The Purpose of Economic Progress; The Concept of Countervailing Power; Joan Robinson; Kenneth E. Boulding; Questions

37. Ancient and Medieval Economic Thought in India (Kautilya and Valluvar) :
Economic Thought in Ancient India; Sources of Information; Kautilya's Arthashastra; The Ancient Economic Ideas; (a) Nature and Purpose of Material Wealth; (b) Varta; (c) Agriculture and Animal Husbandry; (d) Dignity of Labour; (e) Trade; (f) Public Finance; (g) Population; (h) Slavery; (i) Welfare State; (j) Social Security; (k) Interest; (1) Price Control; (m) Socio-economic Institutions; (n)Town Planning; Economic Ideas of Valluvar; Basic Tenets of Valluvar's System; The Concept of an Economic Society; Poverty and Begging as Social Curses; Accumulation of Wealth; The Spirit of Industry; Importance of Agriculture; Balanced Spending; Constituents of an Economic Society; Public Finance; Welfare State; Kautilya and Valluvar; Chief Characteristics of Ancient Economic Thought; Economic Thought in Medieval India; Questions

38. Modern Economic Thought in India
(Naoroji, Ranade, Wacha, Dutt and Gokhale) :
Factors influencing the Nineteenth Century; Economic Thought : (1) The Growing Poverty; (2) The Rise of Indian Nationalism; (3) Miscellaneous Factors; Dada Bhai Naoroji (1815-1917) : The Problem of Poverty; The Drain Theory; Criticism of the British Administration; National Income in India; the Dynamic Element in His Thought; Mahadeo Govind Ranade (1842-1901) : His Economic Ideas; (1) Methods of Economics; (2) Role of the State (3) India's Poverty; D.E. Wacha (1844-1937); R.C. Dutt (1848-1909) : His Economic Ideas; GK. Gokhale (1866-1915); Questions

39. Modern Economic Thought in India (Contd.) (Gandhi, Visvesvaraya, Kale, Brij Narain, Shah, Mukerjee and Mehta) :
M.K. Gandhi (1869-1948) : Life and Works; His Economic Ideas; (a) The Trusteeship Doctrine; (b) Industrialisation; (c) Decentralisation; (d) Regeneration of Villages or Village Sarvodaya; (e) Food Problem; (f) On Population; (g) Prohibition; Gandhian Socialism; Critical Estimate of Gandhian Economic Thought; M. Visvesvaraya(1861-1962); V.G Kale (1876-1946); Brij Narain (1888-1947); K.T. Shah (1888-1953); R. K. Mukerjee; J.K. Mehta (1901-1980); Questions

40. Modern Economic Thought in India (Contd.) (Vakil, Gadgil, Wadia, Gyan Chand, Rao and Adarkar) :
C.N. Vakil; D.R. Gadgil; P.A. Wadia; Cyan Chand; V.K.R.V. Rao; B.P. Adarkar; Question

41. Modern Economic Thought in India (Contd.) (Developments in Applied Economics) :
Government Reports; Contemporary Economic Thought; Land Resources and People; Economic Planning; Democratic Socialism; Questions