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Issues in Pakistan's Economy,0195790529,9780195790528

Issues in Pakistan's Economy



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Publisher:Oxford University Press
Published In:1999
Binding Type:Paperback
Weight:2.19 lbs
Pages:pp. xvii + 462, 38 Figures, 195 Tables, Graphs, Index, Appendices, Notes, Biblio.

The Title "Issues in Pakistan's Economy " is written by S. Akbar Zaidi. This book was published in the year 1999. The ISBN number 0195790529|9780195790528 is assigned to the Paperback version of this title. The publisher of this title is Oxford University Press. Issues in Pakistan's Economy is currently Not Available with us.You can enquire about this book and we will let you know the availability.

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About the Book

This challenging new account of Pakistan's economic development sets itself two goals: to re-examine conventional WISDOM about developments in Pakistan's society and economy; and to provide facts, information and data that are not easily available, about its economy and some particular sectors. The Book explodes the myth about the Pakistan economy: that it remains essentially feudal and agricultural; that liberalization and the free market are prerequisites for high rates of growth; and that government expenditure is always wasteful and inefficient.

The book is not only comprehensive in its citation of available facts and figures on aspects of economic performance, but also examines the wide literature on Pakistan, relying on extensive quotation from numerous published articles And Books to make sense of inadequate public data.

A key strength of the book is its linkage of key aspects of economic affairs to politics and the wider society. It maintains that, while the Pakistan economy has had enviable rates of growth for many of the last fifty years, the state and public sector have failed to provide adequate services to the people of Pakistan. An important contribution of this book is to highlight and address institutional issues in the delivery of social services in Pakistan, helping to explain why high rates of economic growth have not been translated into impressive social sector outcomes

By questioning many of the assumptions commonly made about, Pakistan, this book fulfils its aim of providing a new and fresh perspective on Pakistan's economy and society.

About the Author

S. Akbar Zaidi was formerly Associate Professor at the Applied Research Centre, University of Karachi, Pakistan, where he taught and undertook research for nearly 15 years. He has had two other books published, The Political Economy of Health Care in Pakistan and Regional Inequalities and the National Question in Pakistan. Another book, The New Development Paradigm: Papers on Institutions, NGOs, Gender and Local Government, is shortly to be published by Oxford University Press.


List of Figures
List of Tables

1. Structural Change
2. Five Decades and Five Epochs :
i. Laying the Foundations : 1947-1958
ii. The Decade of Development : 1958-1968
iii. The Bad Luck Years : 1971-1977
iv. The Second Military Government : 1977-1988
v. The Era of Structural Adjustment: 1988 Onwards

3. The Balance Sheet
4. Conclusions

Part A : Agriculture :
1. The Development of Agriculture Before the Consolidation of British Rule
2. The Impact of British Colonialism
3. Feudal or Capitalist?

4. Summary and Further Reading :
i. Summary
ii. Further Reading

1. The Green Revolution :
i. The Issue of the Tubewells
ii. Tractorization
iii. Regional and Income Disparities
iv. Elite Farmer Strategy and Capitalist Development
v. Social and Political Effects

2. Land Reforms :
i. The 1959 Land Reforms
ii. The Bhutto Reforms of 1972

3. Summary and Further Reading :
i. Summary
ii. Further Reading

1. Explaining the Numbers :
i. Data from the Censuses
ii. Changes Over Time

2. What Do the Numbers Mean?

3. Summary and Further Reading :
i. Summary
ii. Further Reading

1. An Overview and Major Trends
2. Agricultural Pricing Policy
3. Rural Financial Markets and Agricultural Credit :
i. Informal Sources of Credit
ii. Formal Sources of Credit

4. Mechanization
5. Agricultural Income Tax
6. Summary and Further Reading
i. Summary
ii. Further Reading

Chap. VI : The Process of Industrialization in Pakistan I : 1947-1977
1. 1947-1958 : Exchange Rates, Trade Policies, and Import Substituting Industrialization :
i. The Impact of the Exchange Rate
ii. The Trade Policy Regime
iii. The Consequences of Exchange Rate and Trade Policy for Industrialization :
vi. The End Result

2. 1958-1968: The Decade of Development :
i. Trade Policy Directing Industrialization
ii. Foreign Aid, the Private Sector, and Inequalities

3. 1972-1977 : The Bhutto Years - Bad Luck or Bad Management? :
i. Economic Policies and Performance
ii. The Bad Luck Factor

4. Summary and Further Reading :
i. Summary
ii. Further Reading

1. The Zia Years: 1977-1988 :
i. The Nature and Extent of Growth
ii. Industrial Policy
iii. The Public/Private Sector Divide
iv. Deregulation and Liberalization
v. Causes of High Growth and the Success of the Zia Regime

2. The Age of Structural Adjustment : 1988 Onwards

3. Summary and Further Reading :
i. Summary
ii. Further Reading

1. Numbers and Trends in Industry
2. The Small-Scale Manufacturing Sector :
i. Numbers and Characteristics
ii. Emergence and Growth
iii. Issues Affecting the Small-Scale Sector

3. The Textile Industry and its Crisis
4. Has Public Sector Industry Been a Failure?
5. The Privatization Process
6. The Debate Over Efficiency in the Industrial Structure

7. Summary and Further Reading :
i. Summary
ii. Further Reading

1. Pakistan's Foreign Trade : Basic Facts
2. Trade Policy and Trade Regimes : 1947-1997 :
i. The Early Years : 1947-1958
ii. Trade Policy and the Decade of Development
iii. A New Country : 1972-1977
iv. The Beginning of a Liberal Trade Regime: 1977-1988
v. Trade Liberalization Under Structural Adjustment: 1988 Onwards

3. The Debate Over Efficiency and the Trade Regime
4. The Exchange Rate
5. Summary and Further Reading :
i. Summary
ii. Further Reading

1. The Structure of Government and Taxation :
i. Legislative Functions
ii. The Structure of Taxation
iii. Inter-Governmental Fiscal Relations

2. Public Finance: The Basic Facts
3. Important Issues in Public Finance and Revenue Mobilization :
i. Federal Taxes
ii. Resource Mobilization at the Provincial Level
iii. Local Government Revenues

4. Is Local Government the Answer? :
i. The Contribution of Municipal Government in Development
ii. Potential for Development by Local Governments
iii. Is Local Government the Answer?

5. The Nature of Public Debt and the Fiscal Deficit : A Preliminary Introduction :

6. Summary and Further Reading :
i. Summary
ii. Further Reading

1. Does the Fiscal Deficit Matter? :
i. Should Budgets Always be Balanced?
ii. The Problem of Measuring the Deficit
iii. Fiscal Deficits, Intertemporal Equity, and Distribution
iv. Macroeconomic Implications

2. Critical Concerns Regarding Pakistan's Fiscal Deficit :
i. The IMF/World Bank View of Pakistan's Fiscal Deficit
ii. Re-examining Critical Concerns

4. Summary and Further Reading
i. Summary
ii. Further Reading

1. The Development of the Banking Sector
i. The First Phase : 1947-1974
ii. The Relationship Between Economic
Growth and the Development of Banking
iii. Nationalization in the 1970s
iv. Islamic Banking
v. Developments since 1988
vi. Banking Trends : 1964-1991
vii. Development Finance Institutions (DFIs) and Non-Bank Financial Institutions (NBFIs)
viii. Some Salient Issues in the Banking Sector

2. The Equities Market
3. Summary and Further Reading
i. Summary
ii. Further Reading

1. Monetary Policy and Monetary Management in Pakistan
2. Money Supply and Monetary Expansion
3. Inflation and its Causes
4. The Low Savings Rate
5. Summary and Further Reading
i. Summary
ii. Further Reading

1. The Development and Export of Development Thinking
2. From Structural Adjustment Loans to Structural Adjustment Programmes
3. Structural Adjustment Programmes: Composition
4. Structural Adjustment Programmes: Implementation and Effects

5. Economic Liberalization and Openness: Some Questionable Assertions :
i. The Contextuality of Policy
ii. International Capital and the Loss of National Autonomy

6. Summary and Further Reading
i. Summary
ii. Further Reading

1. History
2. Implementation of the Structural Adjustment Programmes in Pakistan :
i. Fiscal Policy
ii. Trade
iii. Financial Sector

3. Was the 1988 Structural Adjustment Programme a Success? Achievements and Failures :
i. Fiscal Policy
ii. Trade and Balance of Payments
iii. Financial Sector
iv. Liberalization and Privatization
v. Other Areas

4. The World Bank/IMF's Overall Evaluation of the 1988 Structural Adjustment Programme :

5. The Political economy of Structural Adjustment Programmes in Pakistan :
i. Pakistan's Dependence on Washington, or Are Governments Autonomous?
ii. Did Pakistan Need to Go to the IMF?
iii. Why Does Pakistan Accept the Structural Adjustment Programme?

6. Summary and Further Reading :
i. Summary
ii. Further Reading

1. Some International Comparisons
2. Planning for the Social Sectors
3. The Health Sector :
i. Statistics
ii. The Issues

4. Education
i. Statistics
ii. The Issues
iii. Summarizing the Issues in Education

5. Population Welfare and Family Planning
i. The Evolution of the Population Welfare Programme
ii. Knowledge and Usage
iii. Some Issues

6. Urbanization and Housing :
i. The Extent of Urbanization
ii. Housing in Cities

7. Summary and Further Reading :
i. Summary
ii. Further Reading

Chap. XVII : The Social Sector II :
1. Gender Inequality and Women :
i. Statistics
ii. Some Issues
iii. Finding Some Options

2. Infrastructure
i. The Power Sector

3. The Environment

4. Regional Inequalities :
i. Methodology and Results
ii. The Issues

5. Poverty :
i. Who Are the Poor and Where Do They Live?

6. Summary and Further Reading
i. Summary
ii. Further Reading

Chap. XVIII : Institutional Issues in the Social Sector
1. The Social Action Programme (SAP)
2. Governance, Decentralization, and Local-Level Delivery :
i. Government and Development in Pakistan

3. NGOs and Community Participation
4. Issues of Interpretation and Implementation in the Social Sector

5. Summary and Further Reading
i. Summary
ii. Further Reading

Part F : POLITICAL Economics :
1. Civilian Bureaucracy and Industrialization: 1947-1958
2. Civil and Military Bureaucratic Capitalism: 1958-1971
3. A Shift in Emphasis: 1971-1977
4. A Military State and the Middle Classes: 1977-1988
5. The Rise and Rise of the Middle Classes: 1988 Onwards
6. Concretizing the Thesis: The 1997 Elections and Reform of the Economy
7. The Collapse of the State

8. Summary and Further Reading :
i. Summary
ii. Further Reading

List of Tables

1. Pakistan: basic indicators, 1947-1997
2. Growth rates in Pakistan in main eras
3. Pakistan : indicators of failure
4. Structure of land ownership in the Punjab province, 1924 and 1939
5. Distribution of land ownership in Pakistan and provinces, 1950-1955
6. Key dates and features of land and tenancy reforms in Pakistan
7. Number of declarants and resumed area under the land reforms regulation of 1959
8. Progress of implementation of land reforms up to June 1994
9. Distribution of land ownership in Pakistan and provinces, 1950-1955
10. Distribution of the operational holdings by size and tenure in Pakistan, 1960
11. Distribution of the operational holdings by size and tenure in Pakistan, 1972
12. Distribution of the operational holdings by size and tenure in Pakistan, 1980
13. Number and area of farms by size of the farms, 1990
14. Tenure classification of the farms by provinces
15. Tenure classification of the farms' area by provinces
16. Tenure classification of the farms and area by provinces
17. Average size of operational holding, 1960-1990
18. Summary data on number, size, area, and operational status of farms by tenure based on agricultural census data, 1960-1980
19. Land utilization, 1947-1996
20. Index of agricultural production, 1959-1996
21. Area under major crops, 1950-1996
22. Production of major crops, 1950-1996
23. Yield of major agricultural crops, 1950-1996
24. Area irrigated by different sources, 1950-1993
25. Per capita availability of main food items, 1986-1994
26. Sources of loans by asset quintile
27. Distribution of institutional loans as a percentage of all loans by categories and size of farm, 1973 and 1985
28. Agricultural credit disbursed in Pakistan by agencies, 1955-1995
29. Agricultural credit advanced by ADBP, 1980-1994
30. Agricultural credit advanced by commercial banks, by size of holding, 1980-1994
31. Number of tractors by horsepower
32. Farms reporting use of important agricultural machinery
33. Revenue raised from agricultural and non-agricultural sources, 1973-1988
34. Share of direct and indirect taxes in agricultural and non-agricultural sector tax revenue, 1973-1988
35. Distribution of direct, indirect, and total taxes between the agricultural and non-agricultural sector, 1973-1988
36. Sectoral incidence of budgetary taxes
37. Annual growth rate, 1950-1958, at 1959/60 factor cost
38. Domestic terms of trade for West Pakistan, 1951-1964
39. Average rate of duty on imported goods by types of commodity, 1955-1964
40. Sources of growth in manufacturing value added, 1951-1964
41. Balance of payments of trade, 1949-1958
42. Annual growth rate, 1958-1970, at 1959/60 factor cost
43. Rate of growth of manufacturing output, 1960-1970
44. Growth rate of total factor productivity, 1960-1970
45. Total factor productivity in manufacturing: selected countries
46. Income distribution in Pakistan, 1963/4 and 1969/70
47. Per capita GDP in East and West Pakistan at 1959/60 constant prices
48. Index of disparity in per capita income
49. Annual growth rate, 1971-1977, at 1959/60 factor cost
50. Inflation rates in Pakistan, 1970-1980
51. Trade pattern, 1970-1977
52. Investment and growth rates in the large-scale manufacturing sector, 1969-1980, at constant price level of 1969/70
53. Differential growth rates of money supply, GDP, and commodity-producing sectors, 1969-1980
54. Growth rates of output, labour, capital stock, and total factor productivity, 1978-1988
55. Average annual growth rates of value of output, 1978-1988
56. Decomposition of manufacturing growth, 1978-1988
57. Growth and structure of manufacturing employment, 1975-1986
58. Share of public industrial enterprise in total large-scale manufacturing, 1978-1988
59. Sectoral contributions to GDP growth, 1981-1992
60. Growth rates in manufacturing, 1980-1996
61. Gross fixed capital formation in private, public, and general government sectors at current market prices, 1963-1995
62. Production index of manufacturing, 1965-1995
63. CMI value of production, selected dates
64. CMI value of value added, 1987/8 and 1990/1
65. Growth of selected industrial items, 1980-1995
66. Average daily employment by major industry sectors
67. Estimates of the share of the informal sector in urban employment by industry
68. Estimates of the size of the informal sector in urban employment by industry
69. Formal and informal sector employment in urban 'Sindh and Punjab, 1984/5
70. Characteristics of formal and informal manufacturing sectors in urban Pakistan, 1983/4
71. Annual real growth rates in the formal and informal manufacturing sectors in urban Pakistan, 1976/7 to 1983/4
72. Major industries in terms of employment in the formal and informal manufacturing sectors in urban Pakistan, 1983/4
73. Distribution of employment within major industries by formal and informal manufacturing sectors, 1983/4
74. Industrial categorization: formal, informal, mixed
75. Labour productivity and capital-output ratio, small scale and large scale, 1983/4 and 1987/8, for selected industries
76. Cotton textile statistics, 1955-1995
77. Indices for production of yarn and cloth, 1955-1995
78. Overview of the cotton textile industry, 1988
79. Constant market share analysis: Pakistan, Korea, and Hong Kong, 1973-1987
80. Share of the public sector in various activities, 1960-1988
81. Output, employment, and productivity indices of public sector industries and the manufacturing sector, 1972-1982
82. Privatization of state-owned enterprises
83. Capital utilization in manufacturing industries of Pakistan
84. Impact of trade reform on effective protection and profitability
85. Balance of payments, selected dates
86. Exports, imports, and trade balance, 1950-1995
87. Balance of payments growth rates, 1980-1995
88. Components of balance of payments, 1980-1995
89. Economic classification of exports and imports
90. Pakistan: major exports
91. Pakistan: major imports
92. Pakistan: direction of trade
93. Workers' remittances, 1972-1995
94. Main sources of workers' remittances
95. Rate of duty on imported goods by types of commodity, 1955-1960
96. Change in import patterns from licences to bonus vouchers in the 1960s
97. Unweighted average and frequency distribution of nominal tariffs in Pakistan, 1986/7
98. Foreign currency deposits, 1980-1996
99. Rate-wise value of imports and duties, 1991/2
100. Effective exchange rates for exports and imports, and their ratio
101. Value and depreciation of the rupee since April 1972
102. Recent government interventions in the rupee-dollar rate
103. Direct and indirect taxes at different tiers of government
104. Modes of collection of different taxes
105. Formula for federal tax sharing with provinces
106. Principal sources of revenue and expenditure for United Pakistan
107. Summary of public finances, 1987/8 and 1994/5
108. Consolidated federal and provincial government revenues, 1987/8 and 1994/5
109. Consolidated federal and provincial government expenditure, 1987/8 and 1994/5
110. Summary of public finance: consolidated federal and provincial governments, 1978-1995
111. Consolidated federal and provincial government expenditure, 1971-1995
112. Composition of government's total expenditure, 1971-1995
113. Key public financial ratios, selected dates
114. Share of different levels of government in revenues and expenditure in Pakistan, 1979/80 and 1990/1
115. Federal tax receipts (net), 1983-1995
116. Taxes and their distribution, 1983-1995
117. Distribution of direct and indirect taxes, 1983-1995
118. Level and composition of tax revenues in developing countries and in Pakistan
119. Tax/GDP ratios of individual taxes in Pakistan
120. Elasticity and buoyancy of major taxes w.r.t. income (GDP)
121. Decomposition of buoyancy of major taxes
122. Key financial ratios of the provinces, 1990-1995
123. Share of different levels of government in expenditure on social sectors in Pakistan, 1990/1
124. Annual compound growth rate in tax revenue by province, 1990/1 to 1994/5
125. Taxation and expenditure proposals according to the Structural Adjustment Programmes, 1988-1991 and 1993-1996
126. Domestic debt outstanding,1981-1994
127. Domestic debt outstanding at end of period, 1980-1996
128. Domestic debt outstanding, 1993-1995
129. Debt servicing, 1979-1992
130. Sources of financing the fiscal deficit, 1978-1995
131. Gross domestic product, inflation, current account deficit, and budget deficit, 1980-1995
132. Scheduled banks' advances by economic group
133. Branches and deposits in Pakistani banks, 1964-1991
134. Scheduled banks' advances, June 1985 and June 1991
135. Fluctuations in the KSE and some scrips
136. Holder-wise analysis of total domestic public debts, 1990-1993
137. Pakistan : selected financial instruments
138. Monetary assets, 1985-1995
139. Growth in monetary assets, 1990-1995
140. Causative factors for changes in monetary assets, 1990-1995
141. Income velocity of money, 1980-1995
142. Money supply (Ml, M2, M3), 1979-1995
143. Key indicators of Pakistan's financial development, 1980-1994
144. Historical WPI, CPI, and sectoral inflation rates
145. Savings as a percentage of GDP, 1980-1995
146. Capital accounts of the public and private sectors
147. Adjustment loans and lending commitments by region, 1980-1991
148. The World Bank's assessment of reforms in the major policy areas affected by adjustment programmes, 1981-1988
149. IMF arrangements with Pakistan
150. Summary of public finance, 1988/9 to 1990/1
151. Changes in trade policy, 1987/8 to 1992/3: non-tariff barriers
152. Summary key indicators and programme targets, 1987/8 to 1991/2
153. Growth rates in Pakistan, 1980-1992
154. International comparisons of the social sectors
155. Key indicators of life expectancy, 1965-1995
156. Access to drinking water and sanitation facilities, 1976-1990
157. Main causes of death in Pakistan
158. Medical and health establishments, 1955-1994
159. Registered medical and paramedical personnel and expenditure on health, 1955-1994
160. Population per medical facility in Pakistan, by urban and rural areas, 1988
161. Availability of health manpower in Sindh, 1982
162. Estimates of private consumption expenditure and total public sector expenditure on medical care and education, 1985-1994
163. Literacy rates in Pakistan, 1951-1990
164. Literacy rates in Pakistan, 1972, 1981
165. Regional differences in primary schooling enrolment rates and literacy rates, 1991
166. Participation rates in education, 1983-1991
167. Provincial drop-out rates (%), 1986/7
168. Number of educational institutions and enrolment by kind, level, and sex, selected years
169. Expenditure on education, 1972-1990
170. Distribution of enrolment by school type
171. Trends in demographic and health indicators, 1965-1995
172. Availability and access to family planning outlets, 1994
173. Fertility rates and contraceptive knowledge, attitude, and practice
174. Fertility by background characteristics
176. Urban and rural population by province, 1981 and 1993
177. Housing accessibility to municipality services in urban areas of Pakistan by province, selected years
178. Urban population and population in slums and katchi abadis in major cities, mid-1990
179. Male-female disparities in health, education, and work
180. School enrolment ratios in Pakistan, 1960-1985
181. Prospective power projects to be built in Pakistan
182. Resource base and degradation, world and Pakistan, late 1980s
183. Land capability classifications
184. Comparative ranking of districts in Pakistan
Share of provinces in population quartiles by level of development
185. Percentage of population within provinces and development levels
186. Literacy in Pakistan, 1972, 1981
187. Regional differences in human development indicators, 1991
188. Survey of poverty estimates
189. Income distribution in Pakistan, 1963-1988
190. Distribution of the poor by province and residence
191. Rural head-count ratios and nutrition levels, by province
192. Trends in economic growth, poverty, and inequality, 1960s to the 1990s
193. Targeted development allocations by sector in the Social Action Programme
194. Extent of achievement of targeted allocations to SAP sectors, 1992/3 to 1994/5
195. Social Action Programme targets for 1987/8, with comparisons with Indonesia, Philippines, and Thailand

List of Figures

1. Structural change in Pakistan, 1947-1997
2. The land tenure system in Pakistan
3. Growth rates in agriculture, 1949-1969
4. Agrarian transition in Pakistan
5. The agricultural sector
6. Land utilization, 1959/60 and 1995/6
7. Index of agricultural production, 1959-1996
8. Total area sown, 1960-1965 and 1995/6
9. Yield per hectare of main crops, 1950-1996
10. Per capita availability of main food items, 1986-1994
11. Average annual growth rates in agriculture, 1949-1996
12. Agricultural credit disbursed in Pakistan by formal institutions, 1955-1995
13. Bhutto's nationalization programme, 1972-1977
14. Bhutto : the bad luck factor?
15. Growth rates in the industrial sector, 1950-1996, at constant factor prices of 1959/60
16. Production index of manufacturing, 1965-1995
17. Indices for production of yarn and cloth, 1955-1995
18. Chronology of the main developments in the public enterprise sector
19. Balance of payments growth rates, 1980-1995
20. Components of balance of payments, 1980-1995
21. Current account deficit, 1980-1995
22. Economic classification of exports and imports, 1971/2 and 1994/5
23. Annual depreciation of the rupee
24. Legislative and actual allocation of functions among different levels of government in Pakistan
25. Tax and non-tax revenue, 1986-1995
26. Government expenditure, 1986-1995
27. Defence, interest payments, and development expenditure, 1986-1995
28. Total revenue receipts and expenditure, 1990/1
29. Percentage share of main taxes in total tax, 1983/4 and 1994/5
30. Percentage share of direct and indirect taxes in total tax, 1983/4 and 1994/5
31. Sources for the financing of the budget deficit, 1986-1995
32. The system of financial intermediation in Pakistan
33. Scheduled banks' advances by economic group
34. The KSE index, November 1991 to September 1996
35. Financial sector reforms, 1990-1995
36. Schematic diagram explaining causes of inflation in Pakistan
37. Structural adjustment loans to countries, 1986-1990
38. Land capability by classes

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