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Major Spices of India Crop Management and Post-Harvest Technology

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Book Information

Publisher:Indian Council of Agricultural Research
Published In:1998
Binding Type:Hardback
Weight:2.42 lbs
Pages:xxii + 514 Pages, Figures, Illustrations, Charts, Tables, Maps, Graphs, Index, Glossary, Bibliography, Annexures, Acknowledgements

The Title "Major Spices of India Crop Management and Post-Harvest Technology" is written by R.P. Sharma. This book was published in the year 1998. This book has total of pp. xxii + 514 (Pages). The publisher of this title is Indian Council of Agricultural Research. We have about 608 other great books from this publisher. Major Spices of India Crop Management and Post-Harvest Technology is currently Not Available with us.You can enquire about this book and we will let you know the availability.

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About the Book

From time immemorial, India has been famous for her quality spices which now earn foreign exchange to the tune of about 3,000 million rupees annually, while the current world spice trade is around 1,500 million US dollars (i.e. 37,500 million rupees). India is one of the largest producers and exporters of quality spices and spice products and has rightly earned the name of 'Home of Spices'. But, it is rather surprising that so far, there is not a single Book on crop Management and post-harvest technology of spices. The ICAR therefore decided to bring out 2 technical monographs on spices and requisitioned the services of Dr J.S. Pruthi, an eminent Agricultural Scientist and Spice Technologist, to write these 2 monographs entitled (1) Major Spices of India-Crop Management and Post-harvest Technology, (2) Minor Spices and Condiments-Crop Management and Post-harvest Technology. Dr Pruthi has already authored 3 other technical books on different facets of spices.

The present first comprehensive and authoritative compendium on 'Major Spices' covers 5 most important spices (pepper, cardamom, chillies, ginger and turmeric), which together earn us about 75-87% of the total annual Indian spice export earnings. The book comprises 8 chapters, the first being 'Introductory' covers nomenclature, history, role of ICAR, some CSIR laboratories, other departments and universities in spice-development programmes, present production, export and future plans for spice development. Chapters 2-6 describe one spice each on a common format, viz. nomenclature, economic importance, production, export, cultivation or crop management, plant protection, post-harvest technology, warehousing, marketing, processed products and end-uses. Each chapter is supported by comprehensive select bibliography. Chapter 7 deals with Agmark (National) standards for each spice. Besides the IS1 and International standards for spices, their methods of test have also been listed. In Chapter 8 are given numerous practical suggestions for future Research and Development programmes. At the end, 17 annexures containing useful information to the readers/users have been appended. They are followed by index.

It is hoped that this publication which is the first of its kind in India and possibly in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, will be of great practical value to all spice growers, agricultural scientists, technologists, teachers, students of all agricultural universities, entrepreneurs, as well as those engaged in processing, packaging, quality control, standardization and export Marketing of spices.

About the Author

Book Trust , Dr J.S. Pruthi (born on 20 June 1921), is an internationally well-known authority in Food Science and Technology with over 46 years' specialization in spices and fruit technology. He is The Author of 8 technical books, 5 of which are on different facets of spices including 2 of ICAR, 1 of Academic Press, New York, 1 of National Book Trust (India) and 1 of West German Publisher, Springer-Verlag. He is also the author of 6 patents (including 3 on spices) and over 300 scientific and technological publications. Some of his outstanding publications and patents have won him 15 National and International awards, the latest being National (NRDC) Independence Day Award of Rs 12,000 on 'Simple innovations in canning of green pepper' and A Gold Medal and Rs 2,000 as International Award on another patent.

He had a continuous brilliant university career in Agriculture, bedecked with medals, prizes and scholarships. He started his career with the ICAR in 1945, in the former Indian Institute of Fruit Technology in Lyallpur (Pakistan)/Delhi which was later merged with CFTRI, Mysore, in 1950. He has been the Founder Director, Agmark Laboratories, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, for 10 years, Founder Director, CSIR Industrial R&D Complex (now Regional Research Laboratory), Trivandrum, a founding post-graduate teacher in fruit and vegetable technology under the aegis of ICAR (1945-50) and later CSIR/CFTRI, Mysore (1950-1962), and one of the senior-most founding scientists of the CFTRI since its inception (1950-81). He also established the Central Agmark Laboratory, Nagpur.

He has led several Indian Delegations of Experts "in spice technology to attend and to preside over International Technical Meeting of ISO for formulation of world standards for spices. He has won world-wide recognition for his specialization in spices and is frequently invited (a) by the Commonwealth Secretariat, London, to be their spice specialist and deliver key-note addresses to International Spices Group (ISG) in Singapore, Kingston (Jamaica) etc, (b) by Co-operative League Of USA, and (c) by well-known spice processing and marketing organizations in the country and abroad. He has also been heading over a dozen national (ISI and Agmark) committees on spices, essential oils etc. He also served the Food Industry for 5 years in top positions of 'Chief, 'Advisor', 'Chief Executive' and 'Chief General Manager'.


Department of Agriculture ODUCTORY
1. Nomenclature or Classification of Spices and Condiments
2. Brief History of Spices :
i. Role of the ICAR in Spices Development in India
ii. Spices Enquiry Committee (1951-53)
iii. A review of Researches Conducted on 14 Spices and Cashewnut (1966)
iv. Central Plantation Crops Research Institute (CPCRI), Kasaragod, Kerala
v. All-India Co-ordinated Improvement Project for Spices (AICIPS)
vi. Role of Department of Agriculture and Co-operation
vii. Role of AGMARK laboratories and Directorate of Marketing and Inspection
viii. Pioneering Role of the CFTRI and other CSIR National Laboratories
ix. Spices Export Promotion Council, Cochin
x. Cardamom Board (1966)
xi. Spices Board (1986)
xii. National Research Centre for Spices (ICAR) (1986), Calicut (Kerala)
xiii. Other Organizations in Spice Development
xiv. International Spice Development Activities

3. World Spice Trade - Present Status
4. Present Status of Indian Spice Industry
5. Future Plans for Spice Development
6. The Present Work
7. Select Bibliography

1. Nomenclature
2. Description and Economic Importance
3. Distribution
4. Trends in International Trade/Exports
5. Price Spread
6. All-India Trends in Area and Production
7. Varieties
8. Systems of Cultivation : Climatic requirements, Site Selection and Soil Requirements, Selection of Planting Material, Selection of Varieties, propagation (Rooted Cuttings and Rapid Multiplication, Replanting and Underplanting, Manuring/Fertilizer Application)

9. Nursery Diseases
10. Establishing a Pepper Plantation
11. Plant Protection : Pests, Diseases, Nematodes, Physiological Disorder (Spike-shedding)

12. Harvesting and Yield
13. Economics of Cultivation
14. Post-harvest Technology : Drying, garbling or cleaning, grading, quality evaluation, packaging (bulk and retail), scientific storage (warehousing facilities), marketing of pepper

15. Pepper Products : White pepper, canned tender green pepper, bottled green pepper in brine/vinegar/ acetic acid, bulk packaged green pepper in brine, cured green pepper, dehydrated green pepper, freeze-dried green pepper, frozen green pepper, pepper powder, oil of pepper, pepper oleoresin, pepper by-products

16. Uses : Medicinal uses, as preservative, as flavourant in culinary seasonings, uses of pipeline, uses of pepper oleoresins
17. Select bibliography


I. True Cardamom or Small Cardamom

1. Nomenclature
2. Description, distribution and economic importance
3. World production and trade
4. Area and production in India
5. Cultivation : Soils and climatic requirements, varieties, propagation (raising nurseries, multiplication by tissue-culture technique, control of diseases and pests in nursery), preparation of land, planting, cultural operations and manuring (after-care), plant protection, economic life and replanting, harvesting, yield

6. Post-harvest Technology : Drying/curing of capsules/fruits, bleaching, quality/grading, packaging and storage, marketing, auction sales and price spread

7. Cardamom Products : Essential oil, oleoresin, decorticated seeds and seed powder
8. Uses : As masticatory and food flavourant, uses of oil and oleoresin, in medicine

II. Greater Indian Cardamom (Large Cardamom or Nepal Cardamom)
1. Nomenclature
2. Description and Distribution
3. Economic Importance
4. Area and Production
5. Existing Cultivation Practices : Climatic requirements, soil requirements, prevalent varieties

6. Package of practices : Preparation of land, planting, plant protection, harvesting, yield
7. Post-harvest Technology : Drying, improved flue-pipe system of curing, composition/quality

8. Marketing : Assembling, arrival at the major markets, prices, market information, grading, packing, transportation, storage

9. Processing/Products : In medicine, as food, as food flavourant
Select bibliography


I. Chillies
1. Nomenclature
2. Description and Distribution
3. Economic Importance : World exports, India's exports of chillies, export of chilli oleoresin, world imports
4. Area and Production
5. Cultivation/Crop Management : Climatic Requirements, soil and preparatory tillage, varieties, seed-bed preparation, method of sowing seed in nursery, transplanting seedlings, rotations and intercropping, fertilizer application, irrigation and interculture, harvesting, yield, diseases, insects
6. Hybrid capsicums

II. Paprika (Capsicum annuum)
III. Bird Chillies or Tabasco Chillies (Capsicum frutescens)

7. Post-harvest Technology : Traditional sun-drying, improved CFTRI method of sun-drying, artificial drying or mechanical drying

8. Marketing : Preparation for market, grading, fluctuation in chilli prices, composition and quality of chillies, packaging and storage

9. Processed products : Dehydrated green chillies, drying yield of chillies, quality requirements for processing, fractionation of red chillies, types of oleoresins, fixed chilli seed oil, volatile oil
Suggestions for chilli improvement and development

10. Uses : Food flavourant, role in human physiology, paprika as colourant and flavourant, medicinal properties, green chillies as anticancerous, in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, chilli seed, seed cake
Select bibliography


1. Nomenclature
2. Description and Distribution
3. Economic Importance : World imports of dry ginger, exports of dry ginger and ginger products, major bottlenecks in boosting exports

4. Area and Production
5. Cultivation of Ginger : Climate and soil, seasons, preparation of land, seed rate, spacing, varieties, manuring, inorganic fertilizers, rotation and intercropping, after-care or post-planting care, plant-protection measures, harvesting, yield, storage of seed-rhizome, cold storage of fresh ginger

6. Post-harvest Technology : Curing, bleaching, grading, major types of dried ginger in world trade, composition, packaging, storage, marketing, price spread, important assembling markets in India

7. Processed Ginger Products - Dried Ginger Products : Process for recovery of oil, oleoresin and starch, ginger oil, ginger oleoresin, dehydrated ginger, bleached ginger
8. Products from Fresh Ginger
9. Utilization of Ginger : In food preparation, in medicine, as flavourant, pharmaceutical uses, in perfumery, ayurvedic uses
Select bibliography


1. Nomenclature
2. Description and Distribution
3. Economic Importance : World trade of turmeric
4. Area and production
5. Cultivation : Climate and soil, planting material, varieties, preparation of land and planting, application of manures and fertilizers, mulching, interculture, irrigation, rotation and mixed cropping, harvesting, curing, plant protection, yield, incentives for production and marketing, rapid multiplication through tissue culture

6. Marketing : Preshipment inspection and quality control, composition
7. Packaging : Whole turmeric, turmeric powder
8. Storage : Storage at producer's level, warehousing
9. Processed Products : Turmeric powder, volatile oil, oleoresin
10. Uses : As food flavourant, as dye, medicinal use, in cosmetics
Select Bibliography


1. Quality Control, Composition and Nutrition
2. Agmark grade specifications for -
i. Black Pepper
ii. Cardamom
iii. Chillies
iv. Ginger
v. Turmeric

3. Agmark Label Charges for Agmarked Spices
4. Prevention of Food Adulteration Act and Rules Specifications
5. Quality Standards
6. List of ISI (now Bureau of Indian Standards) specifications
7. Development of International Standards for Spices and Condiments and Their Method of Test
8. ASTA Latest Cleanliness Specifications

1. Agro-horticultural Aspects of Spices
2. Main Research and Development Attainments
3. Priorities and New Thrust Areas Identified for the VII Plan
4. Post-harvest Technology
5. Processing Technology
6. Packaging Technology
7. Storage, Transport and Shipping
8. Quality Control and Standardization
9. Marketing
10. International Marketing
11. Spices as Food Additives
12. Biochemical and Physiological Aspects
13. Sensory Evaluation of Spices and Spice Products
14. Analysis : Analytical Techniques and Instrumentation
15. To Invent New Strategies to Boost Demand for Spices
16. International collaborative research and liason
17. Other Aspects
Select Bibliography

i. Black Pepper
ii. Cardamom
iii. Chillies
iv. Ginger
v. Turmeric