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Modi's Medical Jurisprudence and Toxicology 23rd Edition, Reprint,8180381056,9788180381058

Modi's Medical Jurisprudence and Toxicology 23rd Edition, Reprint

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Book Information

Published In:2010
Binding Type:Hardback
Pages:pp. xxxiv + 794, Frontispiece, Figures, Plates (Col.), Tables, Index, Appendices, Abbreviations, Acknowledgement

The Title "Modi's Medical Jurisprudence and Toxicology 23rd Edition, Reprint" is written by Karunakaran Mathiharan. This book was published in the year 2010. The ISBN number 8180381056|9788180381058 is assigned to the Hardback version of this title. This book also comes in Paperback . The book displayed here is a 23rd Edition, Reprint edition. This book has total of pp. xxxiv + 794 (Pages). The publisher of this title is Butterworths. We have about 1252 other great books from this publisher. Modi's Medical Jurisprudence and Toxicology 23rd Edition, Reprint is currently Available with us.

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About the Book

Modi's Medical Jurisprudence and Toxicology has been acknowledged as the guiding force of medico-legal practice in India since 1920. Dr. Karunakaran Mathiharan, founder of Institute of Legal Medicine, currently practicing as a Consultant Legal Medicine, and Prof. Dr. Amrit K. Patnaik, Director of Institute of Legal Medicine, have successfully strived in continuing the tradition in editing the twenty-third edition. The revised edition of Modi's Medical Jurisprudence, without omitting any of the distinctive contributions of Dr. J.P. Modi, contains, inter alia, an extensive and wide coverage of current issues, subjects such as consumer law, organ transplantation, radiation injuries, bomb blast injuries, investigation of anaesthetic deaths, female foeticide, updated case-law, latest amendments, making it a useful edition for students and practicing doctors and lawyers.

Another salient feature of the Book is the introduction of new colour plates facilitating easy understanding of facts and tabulation of significant facts making it reader friendly.


Preface to the Twenty-Second Edition
Preface to the First Edition

Chap. I : History of Forensic Medicine :
1. Scope and Definition of Forensic Medicine
2. Medico-legal Work in Ancient India
3. Recent Trends in India
4. Origin and Development of Forensic Medicine in Other Countries

Chap. II : Legal Procedure in Criminal Courts :
1. Introduction
2. Legal Procedure at an Inquest
3. Difficulties in Detection of Crime
4. Criminal Courts and Their Powers

Chap. III : Medical Evidence and Medical Witness :
1. Evidence
2. Importance of Medical Evidence
3. Medical Certificate
4. Witness
5. Case Law

Chap. IV : Legal and Ethical Aspects of Medical Practice :
1. Legal Aspects of Medical Practice
2. Legal Protection to Medical Practitioners
3. Physician's Responsibility in Criminal Matters
4. Ethical Aspects of Medical Practice
5. Introduction
6. Code of Medical Ethics
7. Duties of Physician in Consultation
8. Responsibilities of Physicians to each other
9. Declaration
10. Declaration of Geneva
11. Duties of Physicians in General
12. Duties of Physicians to the Sick
13. Duties of Physicians to each other
14. Human Experimentation
15. Principles
16. Duties of a Patient
17. Doctors and the Media

Chap. V : Medical Negligence and Consumer Protection Act :
1. Introduction
2. History of Healer Liability Suits
3. Crime to Tort : Negligence
4. Civil Negligence
5. Medical Negligence in India
6. Criminal Negligence
7. Medical Negligence and Criminal Law
8. Contributory Negligence
9. Vicarious Liability

Chap. VI : HIV and AIDS : Legal and Ethical Implications :
1. Pathogenesis of HIV/AIDS
2. Transmission of HIV
3. Vaccine for HIV
4. Legal and Ethical Aspects
5. Informing Spouse or other Sexual Partner
6. Right to Marry
7. Medical Records
8. Right to Treatment without Discrimination
9. Iatrogenic HIV Infection
10. A Comprehensive Law on AIDS

Chap. VII : Human Rights and Torture Medicine :
1. Medical Codes on Human Rights and Torture
2. Human Rights and Torture in India
3. Medical Professionals and Human Rights Abuse
4. Torture Medicine
5. Types of Torture
6. Sequelae of Torture
7. Torture Malingering
8. Role of Forensic Personnel

Chap. VIII : Medico-Legal Aspects of Death :
1. Definition
2. Statutory Definition of Death
3. Voluntary Donations of Body for Anatomical Dissections
4. Presumption of Death
5. Presumption of Survivorship

Chap. IX : Brain-stem Death and Transplantation of Human Organs Act :
1. Introduction
2. The Transplantation of Human Organs Act (THOA) 1994
3. Donation of Cornea
4. Consent in Transplantation
5. Model Algorithm for Determining Brain Death by Neurological Criteria
6. Guidelines on Cadaver Donor Transplants

Chap. X : Personal Identity :
1. Definition
2. Race
3. Sex Determination
4. Age
5. Complexion and Features
6. Hair
7. Anthropometry and Dactylography
8. Footprints
9. Deformities
10. Scars
11. Tattoo Marks
12. Occupation Marks
13. Clothes and Personal Articles
14. Speech and Voice
15. Gait
16. Ticks, Manner and Habit
17. Mental Power, Memory and Education
18. Miscellaneous Methods of Identification
19. DNA Fingerprinting

Chap. XI : Examination of a Living Person for Medico-legal Purposes :
1. Introduction
2. Examination of a Living Person
3. Prognosis
4. Life Insurance
5. Workmen's Compensation
6. Industrial Insurance
7. Factories Act
8. Malingering (Feigned Diseases)
9. Examination for Drunkenness
10. Drunkenness Certificate
11. Confidentiality

Chap. XII : Post-mortem Examination :
1. Objective
2. Rules
3. Night Post-mortem
4. Instruments
5. Chemicals
6. External Examination
7. Internal Examination
8. Phases of Videography
9. Preservation of Viscera and Other Articles in Cases of Suspected Poisoning and Rules for Transmitting the Chemical Examiner and Forensic Science Laboratory
10. Cause of Death
11. Case Law on Post-mortem Report
12. Examination of Decomposed Bodies
13. Examination of Mutilated Bodies or Fragments
14. Examination of Bones
15. Conflagrated Human Remains-Unburnt and Burnt
16. Care in the Post-Mortem Room

Chap. XIII : Exhumation :
1. Definition
2. Objectives of Exhumation
3. Rules for Exhumation
4. Examination
5. Time of Exhumation

Chap. XIV : Post-mortem Changes and Time since Death :
1. Introduction
2. Signs of Death
3. Changes in the Eye
4. Changes in the Skin
5. Cooling of the Body
6. Cadaveric Lividity, Hypostasis, Suggilation or Post-mortem Staining
7. Putrefaction or Decomposition and Autolysis
8. Adipocere (Saponification)
9. Mummification
10. Time Since Death

Chap. XV : Post-mortem Artefacts :
1. Introduction

Chap. XVI : Examination of Biological Stains and Hair :
1. Introduction
2. Theory of Inheritance
3. Blood
4. Semen
5. Saliva Stains
6. Hair and Fibres
7. Other Biological Stains and Tissues
8. Dna Profiling (Deoxyribonucleic Acid Typing)
9. Collection and Preservation of Biological Material for Laboratory Examination
10. Reporting on Laboratory Examination

Chap. XVII : The Pathology of Sudden Natural Death :
1. Introduction
2. Causes of Sudden Natural Death

Chap. XVIII : Deaths from Asphyxia :
1. Introduction
2. Hanging
3. Strangulation
4. Suffocation
5. Drowning (Immersion)

Chap. XIX : Death from Starvation, Cold and Heat :
1. Starvation
2. Cold (Hypothermia)
3. Heat

Chap. XX : Injuries from Burns, Scalds, Lightning and Electricity :
1. Burns and Scalds
2. Lightning
3. Electricity

Chap. XXI : Radiation Injuries :
1. Introduction
2. Sources of Radiation
3. Types of Ionising Radiation
4. Permissible Dose
5. Half-life
6. Radioactive Substances and their Effects

Chap. XXII : Investigation of Deaths Related to Anaesthetic Procedures :
1. Introduction
2. Anaesthetic Risks and its Classification
3. Types of Anaesthesia
4. Complications of Regional Anaesthesia
5. Post-mortem
6. Liability of an Anaesthetist

Chap. XXIII : Injuries by Mechanical Violence :
1. Introduction
2. Wounds
3. Bruises/Contusions
4. Abrasions
5. Firearms
6. Close Distance Phenomena Observed in Firearm Injuries or Shot Holes on Clothing

Chap. XXIV : Bomb Blast Injuries :
1. Explosions
2. Classification of Bombs
3. Chemical Explosives
4. Indian Explosives Act 1884
5. Explosion Injuries
6. Disruptive Effects of Blast
7. Immersion Blast (Explosion in water)
8. Ground Shock
9. Domestic Gas Explosions
10. Nuclear Explosion
11. Post-mortem

Chap. XXV : Medico-Legal Aspects of Wounds :
1. Examination of the Injured Persons
2. Nature of Injury
3. Simple, Grievous or Dangerous Hurt
4. Type of Weapon
5. Age of Injury
6. Examination of Exhibits
7. Causes of Death from Wounds
8. Immediate or Direct Causes
9. Which of the Several Injuries Caused Death?
10. The Power of Volitional Acts in a Victim after Receiving a Fatal Injury
11. Differences between Wound Inflicted During Life and After Death
12. Distinction between Ante-Mortem and Post-Mortem Wounds
13. Difference between Suicidal, Homicidal and Accidental Wounds
14. Hesitation (tentative) Cuts
15. Ewings Postulates

Chap. XXVI : Traffic Injuries :
1. Road Injuries
2. Railway Injuries
3. Aircraft Injuries

Chap. XXVII : Regional Injuries :
1. Head
2. Face
3. Neck
4. Spine and spinal cord
5. Chest
6. Abdomen
7. Muscles
8. Bones

Chap. XXVIII : Impotence, Sterility and Artificial Insemination :
1. Impotence and Sterility
2. Artificial Insemination
3. Surrogate Birth
4. Specific Principles
5. Draft Guidelines on ART Clinics

Chap. XXIX : Virginity, Pregnancy and Delivery :
1. Virginity
2. Piegnancy
3. Delivery

Chap. XXX : Sexual Offences :
1. Introduction
2. Rape
3. Sexual Assault of Men
5. Unnatural Sexual Offences
6. Sexual Deviations

Chap. XXXI : Legitimacy and Legal Aspects of Marriage Annulment :
1. Introduction
2. Cases in which the Question of Legitimacy may Arise
3. Medico-Legal Points
4. Legal Aspects of Marriage Annulment
5. Leading Cases

Chap. XXXII : Infanticide :
1. Definition
2. The Abandoning of Infants
3. Concealment of Birth
4. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
5. Non-Accidental Injury of Children

Chap. XXXIII : Abortion. Medical Termination of Pregnancy and Female Foeticide :
1. Definition
2. Classification of Abortion
3. Evidence of Abortion
4. Rule of Hasse

Chap. XXXIV : Medico-Legal Aspects of Sterilisation :
1. Introduction
2. Vasectomy
3. Tubectomy

Chap. XXXV : Mental Ill-Health and Its Medico-Legal Aspects :
1. Introduction
2. Causes of Mental Ill-Health
3. Indications of Mental Ill-Health
4. Classification of Mental Diseases
5. Diagnosis of Mental Ill-Health
6. Restraint of the Mentally Ill Person
7. Civil Responsibility
8. Criminal Responsibility

Section B : TOXICOLOGY :
Chap. I : Poisons and their Medico-legal Aspects :
1. Concept and Scope of Toxicology
2. Law Relating to Poisons
3. Case Law
4. Poisoning in India
5. Classification of Poisons
6. Routes of Administration
7. Routes of Elimination of Poisons
8. Actions of Poisons (Local, Remote, Systemic, General)
9. Diagnosis of Poisoning
10. Examination of the Viscera and Their Contents
11. Duty of a Medical Practitioner in Case of Suspected Poisoning
12. Fatal Doses
13. Treatment in Cases of Poisoning
14. Prevention of Poisoning

Chap. II : Corrosive Poisons :
A. Inorganic Acids (Mineral Acids) :
1. Sulphuric Acid (Oil of Vitriol, Battery Acid) (H2SO4)
2. Nitric Acid (Aqua Fortis, Red Spirit of Nitre) (HNO3)
3. Hydrochloric Acid (Muriatic Acid, Spirits of Salts) (HCL)
4. Hydrofluoric Acid (HF)

Organic Acids :
1. Oxalic Acid (Acid of Sugar) (COOH COOH)
2. Binoxalate (Acid oxalate) of Potassium (KHC2O42H2O)
3. Carbolic Acid (Phenol, Phenyl Alcohol or Phenic Acid) (C6H5OH)
4. Creosote
5. Picric Acid (Carbazotic Acid, Trinitrophenol, Trinitrophen) (C6H2(NO2)3OH)
6. Salicylic Acid (Orthobenzoic Acid), Methyl Salicylate (Oil of Wintergreen, Oil of Gaultheria or Sweet Birchoil), Acetyl Salicylic Acid (Aspirin) and Sodium Salicylate
7. Aspirin
8. Acetic Acid (CH3COOH)
9. Tartaric Acid (HOOC [CHOH)2 COOH]
10. Citric Acid (C6H8O7H2O)
11. Alkalies
12. Calcium Hydroxide (Slaked Lime) (Ca (OH)2)

Chap, III : Inorganic Irritant Poisons (I) :
General Symptoms
Non-metallic Poisons and their Compounds :
1. Phosphorus (P4)
2. Organophosphorus Compounds and Allied Poisons
3. Triorthrocresyl-Phosphate ((CH3C6H4)3 Po4)
4. Phosphine (Hydrogen Phosphide; Phosphoretted Hydrogen) (PH3)
5. Chlorine
6. Bromine
7. Iodine
8. Boron

Chap. IV : Inorganic Irritant Poisons (II) :
B. Metallic Poisons and their Compounds :
1. Arsenic
2. Antimony
3. Mercury (Para)
4. Copper (Tamba)
5. Lead (Shisha)
6. Thallium
7. Zinc (Jasat)
8. Bismuth
9. Silver (Chandi)
10. Iron (Loha)
11. Manganese
12. Tin (Kalai)
13. Chromium
14. Potassium
15. Aluminium
16. Alum (Phitkari)
17. Magnesium
18. Barium
19. Sodium
20. Beryllium (Be)
21. Cadmium
22. Gold (Sona)
23. Platinum
24. Nickel and Cobalt
25. Osmium

Chap. V : Organic Irritant Poisons (I) :
1. Vegetable Poisons (Compounds from Plant Source)
2. Castor Oil Plant (Ricinus communis, Arandi)
3. Croton (Croton Tiglium, Jamalgota or Naepala)
4. Jequirity (Abrus Precatorius, Indian Liquorice, Gunchi or Rati)
5. Bitter Apple (Colocynth, Indrayani)
6. Ergot
7. Chillies and Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum and Capsicum Frutescens, Cayenne Pepper, Lalmirch)
8. Marking-Nut Tree (Semecarpus anacardium)
9. Madar, Akdo (Calotropis gigantea and Procera)
10. Lal Chitra (Plumbago rosea) and Chitra (Plumbago zeylanica)
11. Veratrum
12. Meadow Saffron (Colchicum autumnale)
13. Stavesacre (Delphinium Staphisagria)
14. Christmas Rose (Helleborus Niger or Black Hellebore, Kali Katuki)
15. Laburnum (Cytisus Laburnum)
16. Yew (Taxus Baccata)
17. Savin (Juniperus Sabina)
18. Gamboge (Revenchino Shero)
19. Jalap
20. Scammony
21. Kaladana Seeds (Pharbitis Seeds)
22. Nishotar (Ipomoea Turpethum, Pithori)
23. Cleistanthus Collinus
24. Akasbel (Cuscuta Reflexa)
25. Euphorbium
26. Cleistanthus Collinus
27. Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas, Jangli Arandi, Ratanjot)
28. Aloes (Elwa or Elio)
29. Urginea Scilla
30. Karihari (Gloriosa Superba, Khadiyanag)
31. Cuckoo-Pint (Arum maculatum, Lords and Ladies, Wake-Robin, The Parson in the Pulpit)
32. Asiaticum (Crinum Deflexum, Sukhadarshan, Nagdown)
33. Yellow Mexican Poppy (Argemone mexicana, Prickly Poppy)
34. Kakmari (Cocculus Suberosus, Kakphal)
35. Sharagava (Moringa Ptergyosperma, Shajna)
36. Satap (Ruta Graveolens)
37. Rhitha (Sapindas Trifoliatus)
38. Bahera (Terminalia Bellerica, Belleric Myobalans)

Chap. VI : Organic Irritant Poisons (II) :
C. Animal Poisons :
1. Cantharides (Lytta)
2. Snakes (Ophidia)
3. Poisonous Insects
4. Food Poisoning
5. Food Allergy
6. Botulism or Allantiasis
7. Ptomaines
8. Poisoning by Hormones

Chap. VII : Mechanical Irritant Poisons :
1. Introduction
2. Powdered Glass
3. Diamond Powder
4. Needles
5. Chopped Animal Hair
6. Vegetable Hair

Chap. VIII : Somniferous Cerebral Poisons :
1. Introduction
2. Opium (Afim)
3. Morphine (C17H19O3N)
4. Heroin (Diacetyl-Morphine or Diamorphine)
5. Codeine (C18H21O3N)
6. Proprietary Medicines Containing Opium or Morphine

Chap. IX : Inebriant Cerebral Poisons :
1. Alcohol (Ethyl Alcohol, Grain Alcohol)
2. Pathological Alcoholic Intoxication
3. Motor Vehicles Act vis-a-vis Drunkenness
4. Denatured Spirit, Methyl Alcohol (Wood Alcohol or Spirit, Pyroxylic Spirit, Methanol or Wood Naphtha) (CH3 OH)
5. Methyl Chloride or Monochloromethane (CH3C1)
6. Methyl Bromide (CH3 Br)
7. Ethylene Glycol (HOCH2-CH2OH)
8. Amyl Alcohol (C5H11OH)
9. Amyl Nitrite (C5H11OH2)
10. Metacetaldehyde, (Metaldehyde) (C2H4 H4)
11. Formaldehyde (CH2O (HCHO))
12. Ether (Aether, Sulphuric Ether, Ethylic Ether or Ethyl Oxide) (C4H10O)
13. Ethyl Chloride (C2H5C1)
14. Ethyl Bromide (C2H5Br)
15. Chlorform (Trichloromethane) (CHC13)
16. Avertin (Bromethol or Solution of Tribromoethyl alcohol)
17. Carbon Tetrachloride (Tetrachlor Methane)
18. Tetrachlorethane (Acetylene Tetrachloride) (C2H2 C14)
19. Trichlorethylene (Chlorylen or Trilene) (C2HC13)
20. DDT, Chlorophenonthane (Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane, l-Trichloro-2, 2 Bis (p-chlorophenyl) Ethane, pp-DDT) (C14H9C15)
21. Endrin
22. Bromoform (Tribromomethane) (CHBr3)
23. lodoform (Tri-iodomethane) (CHI3)
24. Chloral Hydrate (Trichloroacetaldehyde) (C2H3C13O3)
25. Paraldehyde (CH3CHO3)
26. Trional (Methylethl-methane diethyl sulphone or Methyl Sulphonal)
27. Tetronal (Diethylimethane-diethylsulphone or Ethyl sulphonal)
28. Barbiturates
29. Veronal (Barbitone, Barbital, Hypnogen, Malonurea, Diethyl-Malonylurea, Diethyl-Barbituric Acid)
30. Medinal (Veronal Sodium, Barbitonum Soluble, Soluble Barbitone, Barbital Sodium or Sodium Barbitone)
31. Luminal (Gardenal, Phenobarbitonum, Phenyl-Ethyl-Barbituric Acid or Phenobarbital)
32. Mandrax
33. Thalidomide [Alpha (N-Phthalimido) Glutarimide]
34. Tranquillisers
35. Antihistamines
36. Amphetamine Sulphate (Benzedrine)

Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Agents :
1. Antifebrin (Acetanilide, Phenyl-Acetamide) (C6H5NH. CO. CH3)
2. Antipyrin (Phenazone, Phenyl-Dimethyl-Isophyrazolone) (C11H13ON2)
3. Phenactin (Acetphenetidin, Acetophenetidin) (C10H13ON2)
4. Amidopyrine (Pyramidon of Aminopyrine)
5. Phenyl Butazone (Butazolidin, Butapyrin)
6. Cinchophen (Phenylquinoline-Carboxylic acid)
7. Sulphonamide (P-Amidobenzenesulphonamide)
8. Aniline (Phenylamme or Aniline Oil) (C6H5 NH2)
9. Phenylenediamines (C6H4(NH2)2)
10. Pyridine (C5H3N)
11. Coal-Tar Naphtha
12. Naphthalene (Naphthaline, Tar Camphor) (C10H8)
13. Benzene (Benzol) (C6H6)
14. Nitrobenzene (Nitrobenzol) (C6H5NO2)
15. Dintrobenzene (Dinitrobenzol) (C6H4(NO2)2)
16. Dinitrophenol (2 : Dinitrophenol) (C6H3(NO2)2 OH)
17. Dinitrocresol (4 : 6-Dinitro-Ortho-Cresol)
18. Trinitrotoluene (Trotyle) (C6H2(CH3)(NO2))
19. Nitroglycerin (Trinitroglycerin, Trinitrin, Clonoin Oil, Glyceryl Trinitrate, Noble's Blasting Oil) (C3H5 (O. NO2)3)
20. Petroleum (Rock Oil)
21. Oil of Turpentine (Spirit of Turpentine)
22. Eucalyptus Oil
23. Nutmeg (Myristica)
24. Nutmeg (Myristica)

Chap. X : Deliriant Cerebral Poisons :
1. Dhatura (Datura Fastuosa)
2. Deadly Night-Shade (Atropa Belladonna)
3. Henbane (Hyoscyamus Niger, Khorasani Ajwayan)
4. Indian Hemp (Cannabis Sativa or Cannabis Indica)
5. Mescal Buttons (Peyote)
6. Cocaine (Methyl-Benzoyl-Eggonine) (C17H21O4N)
7. Worm-Wood (Artemisia Maritima, Kirmani Owa)
8. Camphor (Kafoor) (C10H16O)
9. Poisonous Fungi (Mushrooms)
10. Poisonous Food Grains

Chap. XI : Spinal Poisons :
1. Kuchila
2. Strychnine (C21H22O2N)
3. Calabar Bean
4. Physostigmine (Eserine) (C15H21N3O2)
5. Yellow or Carolina Jessamine or Jasmine

Chap. XII : Cardiac Poisons :
1. Tobacco
2. Lobelia (Indian Tobacco)
3. Jaborandi
4. Areca or Betel Nut (Supari)
5. Digitalis or Foxglove
6. Strophanthus
7. Quinine (Quinina) (C20H24N2O2)
8. White or Sweet-Scented Oleander
9. Exile or Yellow Oleander
10. Exile or Yellow Oleander
11. Cerbera Odollam (Dabur or Dhakur)
12. Cerbera Odollam (Dabur or Dhakur)
13. Aconite, Monk's Hood, Wolfsbane or Blue Rocket
14. Aconite, Monk's Hood, Wolfsbane or Blue Rocket
15. Hydrocyanic Acid (Hydrogen Cyanide or Prussic Acid) (HCN)

Chap. XIII : Asphyxiants (Irrespirable Gases) :
1. Carbon Dioxide (Carbonic Acid Gas, Carbonic Anhydride)
2. Carbon Monoxide (Carbonic Oxide Gas)
3. Carbon Disulphide (Carbon Bisulphide) (CS2)
4. Hydrogen Sulphide (Sulphuretted Hydrogen) (H2S)
5. Nitrogen Monoxide (Nitrous Oxide or Laughing Gas) (N2O)
6. Sulphur Dioxide (Sulphurous Acid Gas or Sulphurous Anhydride) (SO2)
7. War Gases

Chap. XIV : Peripheral (Neural) Poisons :
1. Common or Spotted Hemlock
2. Curare (Curara, Woorara, Ourari, Urari or Woorali)

Chap. XV : Miscellaneous Poisons :
1. Mycotoxins
2. Poisoning by Hormones


Years back, when I (Mathiharan) was an undergraduate and postgraduate student, my Professors, Dr. Sembon David and Dr Neela Govindaraj used to emphasise the invaluable contribution of Dr. Jaising P. Modi to the growth of Forensic Medicine in India. His magnum opus 'Modi's Medical Jurisprudence and Toxicology' has been the guiding force of medico-legal practice in India since 1920. Therefore, when Ms Ambika Nair, Publishing Manager, Lexis Nexis Butterworths India asked me whether I could edit Modi's Medical Jurisprudence and Toxicology, I readily accepted with pleasure. In fact, we consider it a privilege to be associated with a book that will soon celebrate hundred years of its publication.

In India and many other countries, the accusatorial system for the administration of criminal justice depends on the ability of the prosecution to prove, beyond reasonable doubt, the commission of an offence by an accused. Examination of available evidence forms a crucial part of adjudication of justice. The scientific expert is called upon to examine the scientific (including medical) evidence dispassionately and objectively without taking moral stands or taking sides with the parties involved with an issue. This places a major responsibility on all scientific persons involved in the examination to ensure scrupulous adherence to established standards while interpreting the scientific facts.

Therefore, to emphasise on the importance of scientific evidence, and to enhance its quality, efforts have been taken in the present edition to present the facts in a lucid language. Further, while not omitting any of the distinctive contributions of Dr. J.P. Modi, the present edition has not only undergone editing, ten new chapters on subjects such as consumer law, organ transplantation, radiation injuries, bomb blast injuries, investigation of anaesthetic deaths, female foeticide have also been added in the Medical Jurisprudence section incorporating the recent advances in Forensic Medicine. In addition, relevant case laws have been updated in the respective chapters and wherever necessary, existing chapters have been restructured, rewritten and revised. We have also taken special attention to mention Indian perspectives on HIV/AIDS, human rights, medical negligence, euthanasia, medical records, emergency care, torture, organ transplantation, female foeticide, surrogacy and right to health care. New colour plates have been introduced to facilitate easy understanding of the facts. For easy referrals, boxes containing significant facts and flow charts have been added.

We are confident that readers, both students and practising doctors and lawyers, will find this edition useful both for understanding the subject as also in practice.

List Of Appendix

1. Form of Certificate Recommended For Leave or Extension or Communication Of Leave and for Fitness
2. Corporation of Chennai Health Department
3. The Oath of Hippocrates
4. The Dentists (Code of Ethics) Regulations, 1976
5. General Application of Ethical Principles to Forensic Medicine
6. Code of Conduct for Forensic Mortuary Personnel
7. The Dentists Act, 1948 (Act XVI of 1948)
8. The Indian Medical Council Act 1956
9. The Indian Medical Degrees Act 1916
10. The Indian Nursing Council Act 1947
11. The Homoeopathy Central Council Act 1973
12. The Indian Medicine Central Council Act 1970
13. The Pharmacy Act 1948
14. The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act 1971
15. The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Rules 1975
16. The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Regulations 1975
17. The Transplantation of Human Organs Act 1994
18. The Mental Health Act 1987
19. The Indian Evidence Act, 1872
20. The Code of Criminal Procedure 1973
21. The Indian Penal Code 1860
22. Workmen's Compensation Act 1923
23. Radiation Protection Rules 1971

About the Editors

Dr. Karunakaran Mathiharan passed his MB, BS and MD (Forensic Medicine) from Madurai Medical College and Madras Medical College respectively. The topic that led to his PhD degree by the Tamil Nadu Dr MGR Medical University was Res Ipsa Loquitur: Its Application in Medical Negligence Cases under Consumer Protection Act.

After practising as a general practitioner, he joined the faculty of the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Madras Medical College as an Assistant Professor. Later, in Chennai, he founded the Institute of Legal Medicine, a data centre on medical law and ethics, consumer rights, human rights and other issues involving the relationship of the life sciences to the social sciences and humanities. At present, he is practising as a Consultant Legal Medicine.

Some of his published papers are on topics such as Ethics in Medical Research-The Current Indian Scenario, Ethical and Legal Issues in Organ Transplantation-Indian Scenario, Ethical and Legal Aspects of Treating the Victims of Torture, Standardization of videogmphy techniques in the autopsies of the victims of custodial violence. Pharmaceutical Industry and the Consumer, Origin and Development of Forensic Medicine in India, Emergency Medicare : Its Ethical and Legal Aspects, The Fundamental Right to Health Care, Criminal Medical Negligence : The Need for a Re-Look, The Legal and Ethical Implications of HIV/AIDS, Consumer Rights in Healthcare Delivery, Medical Profession and Human Rights, The State Control of Medical Malpractice, Dentistry and Law, Drug Regulations-An Overall View and Doctors on the Dock - with the Patients Turning Consumers.

He has participated as a Guest Speaker/Faculty Member in several medical conferences to speak on Medical Law & Ethics and also addressed numerous Continuing Medical Education (CME) Programmes, training programmes, faculties of medical and dental colleges, Indian Medical Association (IMA), Indian Dental Association (IDA) and Tamil Nadu Government Doctors Association (TNGDA) meetings in many of their Tamilnadu chapters, professional, human rights and consumer organisations on medical law and ethics, human rights and torture medicine.

Prof Dr. Amrit K. Patnaik passed his MD in Forensic Medicine from Madurai Medical College in 1978. After working as Professor and Head of the Forensic Medicine departments of various government medical colleges of Tamil Nadu, he retired as the Professor and Director, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Madras Medical College, Chennai and State Police Surgeon, Government of Tamil Nadu.

For many years, he was an examiner of undergraduate and postgraduate examinations in Forensic Medicine in various universities. He was the guide to PhD scholars and postgraduate students in preparing their dissertations and theses. He has published papers in various academic journals. At present, he is the Director of Institute of Legal Medicine, Chennai.

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