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Mulla Principles of Hindu Law Vol. 1 20th Edition

Mulla Principles of Hindu Law Vol. 1 20th Edition

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Publisher:LexisNexis
Published In:2007
Binding Type:Hardback
Weight:4.09 lbs
Pages:cxviii + 996 Pages, Index

The Title "Mulla Principles of Hindu Law Vol. 1 20th Edition" is written by S.A. Desai. This book was published in the year 2007. The publisher of this title is LexisNexis. Mulla Principles of Hindu Law Vol. 1 20th Edition is currently Not Available with us.You can enquire about this book and we will let you know the availability.

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Contents

Preface
Preface to the Seventeenth Edition
Preface to the Twelfth Edition
Introduction

Chapter I : OPERATION OF HINDU Law :
1. Personal Law : Hindus
2. Application of Hindu Law
3. Extent of Application of Hindu Law
4. Acts Modifying and Abrogating Rules of Hindu Law
5. Enactments Referred to in
6. Persons Governed by Hindu Law
7. Persons to whom Hindu Law does not Apply :
7A. Loss of Caste : Reconversion

Chapter II : SOURCES OF HINDU LAW :
8. Sources of Hindu Law
9. Commentaries as a Source of Law
10. Judicial Decisions as a Source of Law
11. Mitakshara and Dayabhaga School
12. Sub-Divisions of Mitakshara School
13. Works on Adoption :
13A. Personal Law : Rule of Presumption

14. Migration and School of Law
15. Custom as a Source of Law
16. Three kinds of Customs
17. Essentials of a Valid Custom
18. Discontinuance of Custom
19. Burden of Proof of Custom
20. Invalid Custom :
20A. Principles of Equity

Chapter III : GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF INHERITANCE :
Law Prior to The Hindu Succession Act 1956 :
21. Law of Inheritance
22. Two Systems of Inheritance
23. Inheritance to Males and Females
24. Modes of Devolution of Property
25. Female Heirs
26. Limited Estate of Females
27. Last 'Full' Owner and 'Fresh Stock of Descent'
28. Inheritance Never in Abeyance
29. Doctrine of Representation
30. Spes Successions
41. Co-Heirs
42. Succession Per Stirpes and Per Capita

Chapter IV : ORDER OF INHERITANCE OF MALES ACCORDING TO MITAKSHARA LAW :
Law Prior to the Hindu Succession Act 1956 :
33. Mitakshara Law of Inheritance
34. Devolution of Property According to Mitakshara Law
35. Act 18 of 1937
36. Propinquity, the Governing Factor
37. Gotraja Sapindas and Bhinna-Gotra Sapindas
38. The Classes of Heirs
39. Gotraja Sapindas
40. Samanodakas
41. Table of Got Raja Sapindas and

Samanodakas
42. Succession in the Bombay State
43. Order of Succession among Sapindas
44. Whole Blood and Half-Blood
45. Order of Succession among

Bandhus :
46. Bandhus
47. Rules for Determining Heritable Bandhus
48. Who are Heritable Bandhus
49. Three Classes of Bandhus
50. Rules for Determining order of Succession among Male Band bus-First Rule Laid down by the Judicial Committee
50A. Descendants Preferred to those who are not Descendants

51. Second and Third Rules Laid down by the-Judicial Committee
52. Fourth Rule Laid down by the Judicial Committee
53. Additional Rules Laid down by the High Courts
53A. A Sum-up of Rule
53B. The Last Rule Laid down by the Judicial Committee

54. Order of Succession among Bundhus
55. Banbhus who are Descendants of Remoter Ancestors
56. Female Bandhus in Bombay and Madras
56A. Heirs of an Illegitimate Son

57. Preceptor, Disciple and Fellow-Student
58. Hermits and Members of Religious orders
59. Escheat

Successiom after Reunion :
60. Order of Succession among Reunited Members

Chapter V : FEMALE HEIRS :
Law Prior to the Hindu Succession Act 1956
61. Female Heirs : Bengal School
61A. Female-Heirs : Mitakshara school

62. Female Heirs in Benares and Mithila
63. Female Heirs in Madras
64. Female Heirs in Bombay
65. Sister's Place as an Heir in the Bombay state
66. Half-Sister as an Heir in the Bombay state
67. Father's Sister as an Heir in the Bombay state
68. Widows of Gotraja Sapindas as Heirs in the Bombay state
69. Widows of Samanodakas as Heirs in the Bombay state
70. Daughters of Descendants, Ascendants and Collaterals as Heirs in the Bombay state

Chapter VI : ORDER OF SUCCESSION TO MALES IN THE BOMBAY STATE :
Law Prior to the Hindu Succession Act 1956 :
71. Succession in the Bombay state
72. Order of Succession in Cases Governed by Mitakshara
73. Order of Succession among Samanodakas
74. Order of Succession among Bandbus
75. Strangers as Heirs
76. Escheat
77. Order of Succession in Cases Governed by Mayukha

Chapter VII : ORDER OF INHERITANCE TO MALES ACCORDING TO DAYABHAGA OR BENGAL SCHOOL :
Law Prior to the Hindu Succession Act 1956 :
78. Heritable Property
79. Spiritual Benefit-the Governing Doctrine
80. Doctrine of Spiritual benefit
81. Three Classes of Heirs
82. Sapindas
83. Female Sapindas
84. Sakulyas
85. Samanodakas
86. Principles Governing Precedence among Sapindas
87. Principles Governing Precedence among sakulyas and Samanodakas
88. Order of Succession among Sapindas
89. Order of Succession among Sakulyas
90. Order of Succession among Samanodakas
91. Preceptor, Disciple and fellow-Student
92. Escheat
93. Female Heirs : Bengal school

Succession after Reunion :
94. Order of Succession among Reunited Members

Chapter VIII : POINTS OF DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MITAKSHARA AND DAYABHAGA SUCCESSION :
Law Prior to the Hindu Succession Act 1956 :
95. Points of Distinction between the Mitakshara and the Dayabhaga Systems of Inheritance

Chapter IX : EXCLUSION FROM INHERITANCE AND PARTITION :
Law Prior to the Hindu Succession Act 1956 :
96. Unchastity
97. Change of Religion and Loss of Caste
98. Physical and Mental Defects : Disqualified Heirs
99. Murder
100. Disability as Excluding Females
101. Effect of Disability
102. Disqualification only Personal
103. Disability Arising after Succession
104. Removal of Disability after Succession has Opened
105. After-born Son of Disqualified Heir

Exclusion from Partition :
106. Disability and Partition
107. Lunacy and Partition
108. Removal of Disability Reopens Partition
109. A Disqualified Coparcener having Sons

Miscellaneous :
110. Maintenance of Disqualified Heirs
111. Adoption of Religious Order

Chapter X : WOMEN'S PROPERTY : PART I-STRIDHANA :
A. Stridhana according to the Smritis, the Commentaries and the : Judicial Decisions :
112. Different Meanings of Stridhana-the Word 'Stridhana' is Derived from
113. Stridhana according to the Smritis-the Sacred writings of Kishis or Sages of Antiquity
114. Stridhana according to the Commentators
115. Stridhana according to Mitakshara
116. Stridhana according to the Bombay school
117. Stridhana according to the Benares school
118. Stridhana according to the Madras school
119. Stridhana according to the Mithila school
120. Stridhana according to Dayabhaga or Bengal school
121. Distinction between Mitakshara Stridhana and Dayabhaga Stridhana
122. The Privy Council and Mitakshara Stridhana
123. Alabama and Bombay school

B. Peculiar Features of Stridhana :
124. Peculiar Features of Stridhana

C. Enumeration of Stridhana :
125. Sources of Woman's Property
126. Gifts and Bequests from Relations
127. Gifts and Bequests from Strangers
128. Share on Partition
129. Property given in Lieu of Maintenance
130. Property Acquired by Inheritance
131. Property Acquired by Mechanical Arts
132. Property Obtained by Compromise
133. Property obtained by Adverse Possession
134. Property Purchased with Stridhana
135. Property Acquired from other Sources
136. Stridhana by Custom
137. Maiden's Property
138. Property Acquired during Widowhood
139. Unchastity
140. Presumption as to Properly found in Widow's Possession

D. Rights on a Woman over her Stridhana :
141. Texts Bearing on Die subject
142. Rights over Stridhana during Maidenhood
143. Rights over Stridhana during Coverture-Saudayika and Non-Sandayika
144. Rights over Stridhana during Widowhood

E. Succession to Stridhana :
145. Succession to Maiden's Property
146. Succession to Sbulka
147. Succession to Stridhana according to Mitakshara
148. Succession to Stridhana-Benares School
149. Succession to Stridhana-Bombay school
150. Classification of tribune-Mayukha Law
151. Succession to Stridhana-Mayukha Law
152. Succession to stridhana-Madras school
153. Succession to stridhana-Mithila school
154. Classification of stridhana
155. Succession to Tintack
156. Gifts and Bequests from Father after Marriage
157. Succession to Avatara

F. Rules Common to all Schools :
158. Escheat
159. Stridhana Heirs take as Tenants-in-common
160. Stridhana Heirs take per Stripes
161. Where Stridhana Heir is a Male
162. Where Stridhana Heir is a Female
163. Illegitimate Children : Succession to Stridhana
164. Succession to Property of Dancing Girls (Naikins) and Prostitutes
165. Contracts by Married Woman

Chapter XI : WOMEN'S PROPERTY : PART II-PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY A WOMAN BY INHERITANCE :
Law Prior to the Hindu Succession Act 1956 :
166. Property Inherited by Males
167. Property Inherited by Females

A. Devolution of Property Inherited by Females :
168. Property Inherited by Females from Males in Territories other than Bombay state
169. Property Inherited by Females from Females in Territories other than the Bombay state
170. Property Inherited by Female from Males in the Bombay state
171. Property Inherited by Females from Females in the Bombay state
172. Share Allotted to a Woman on Partition
173. Deleted

B. Power of Female heirs over Inherited Property :
174. Limited Heirs
175. Reversioners
176. Widow's Estate
177. Income and Saving from Income :
177A. Acquisition of new Property from Sale Proceeds of Property Left by Husband
177B. Doctrine of Blending

178. Limited Power of Disposal of Immovable Property
179. Limited Power of Disposal of Movable Property
180. No Power to Dispose of Inherited Property by will
181. Alienations by Widow :
181A. Alienation by widow for Religious or Charitable Purposes
181B. Alienation by Widow for Legal Necessity-Extent of Power of Alienation
181C. Alienation for Legal Necessity by one widow without Consent of other Widows
181D. Alienation by Widow may be by way of Mortgage or Sale

182. Burden of Proof of Necessity : Evidence
183. Alienation by Widow with Consent of Reversioners for Presumptive Legal Necessity
184. Effect of alienation made for Legal Necessity or with Consent of Next Reversioner :
184A. Doctrine of Part-Performance

185. Effect of Alienation made without Legal Necessity and without consent of Next Reversioner
186. Lease by widow
187. Alienation by widow with Leave of Court under the Indian Succession Act 1925, section 307
188. Equities on Setting Aside Alienations by Widow
189. Purchase-Money Applied by Widow in Part only to Purposes of Legal Necessity
190. Estoppel : Election by Reversioner :
190A. Estoppel, Election, Ratification

191. Alienation made by widow with Consent of Reversioner, Whether Binding on him and Actual Reversioner
192. Family Arrangement : Compromise by widow-Reversioner Party to and Benefiting by the Transaction
193. Compromise and Family Arrangement by widow-Reversioner not a Party-Binding on Reversioner, though not a Party, if Transaction Bona Fide
194. Compromise by Widow of Claims Made by Next Reversioner :
194A. Widow's Power of Alienation for Payment of Trade Debts

195. Unsecured Debts Incurred by Widow for Legal Necessity
196. Acknowledgement of Debts by Widow
197. Surrender of Estate by Widow-Surrender must be of the whole Estate
198. Widow's Power of Management and Investment
199. Decree against widow when Binding on Reversioners
200. Decree in Reversioner's Suit against Widow and Rees Judicata
201. Adverse Possession against Widow not Adverse Against Next Reversioner

C. Remedies against Unauthorised Acts of Windows and other Limited Heris :
202. Reversioners and their Rights
203. Declaratory Suit in Case of Unauthorised Alienations
204. Will by widow of Property Inherited by her from her Husband
205. Who may Sue for Injunction or for Declaratory Decree
206. Declaratory Suits and Limitation
207. Reversioner's Suit for Possession and Limitation
208. Decree in Suit between Next Reversioner and Alienee and Res Judicata
209. Adverse Possession by Widow

Chapter XII : JOINT HINDU FAMILY COPARCENERS AND COPARCENARY PROPERTY-MITAKSHARA LAW :
A. Coparceners :
210. Joint Hindu Family
211. Hindu Coparcenary
212. Formation of Coparcenary
213. Coparcenary not Limited to Four Degrees from common Ancestor
214. Undivided Coparcenary Interest
215. Females cannot he Coparceners :
215A. Daughters as Coparceners

B. Coparcenary Property :
216. Obstructed and unobstructed Heritage
217. Unobstructed Heritage not Recognised by Dayahbaga
218. Classification of Property
219. Incidents of Joint Family or Coparcenary Property
220. Incidents of Separate or Self-Acquired Property
221. Ancestral Property
222. Character of Father's and Son's Interest in Ancestral Property
223. Gift by Lather of Ancestral Movables within Reasonable Limits
224. Gift by Father or other Managing Member of Ancestral Immovable Property within Reasonable Limits
225. Property thrown into Common Stock
226. Property Jointly Acquired :
226A. Joint Acquisitions by Some Members

227. Survivorship-Devolution of the Deceased Coparcener's Interest
228. Separate Property :
228A. Non-State Private Properties of an Erstwhile Ruler

229. Separate Earnings-Gains of Science :
229A. Gains of Learning-Ains of Science

230. Recovery of Ancestral Property Lost to the Family
231. Presumption as to Coparcenary Anil Self-Acquired Property
232. Anex-stral Business and its Incidents :
232A. Notice of Severance in Status

C. Management and Enjoyment of Coparcenary Property :
233. Rights of Coparceners
234. Manager :
234A. Daughter as Manager-Position after the Hindu Succession (Amendment) Act 2005 :

235. Manager's Power over Income
236. Manager's Liability to Account on Partition
237. Manager's Liability to Account otherwise than in a Partition Suit
238. Power of Manager to Contract Debts for Family Purpose and Family Business
239. General Powers of Manager of Joint Family Business
240. Alienation by Manager of Coparcenary Property for Legal Necessity
24l. What is Legal Necessity :
241A. Alienation by Manager for 'the Benefit of the Estate'

242. Burden of Proof of Necessity :
242A. Discretion of Manager

243. Purchase-Money or Money Raised on Mortgage Applied by Manager in Part only to Purposes of Legal Necessity
244. Alienation by Manager of Coparcenary Property for Purposes of Family Business
245. Inference to Arbitration by Manager
246. Compromise by Manager :
246A. Managers Power to give Valid Discharge for Debts
246B. Family Arrangement or Family Settlement

247. Acknowledgement and Part Payment of Debt by Manager
248. Relinquishment of Debt by Manager
249. Parties to Suits
250. Adding New Plaintiff and Limitation
251. Decree Against Manager and Res Juclicata
252. Decree against Lather as Manager and Res Judicata

D. Alienation of Coparcenary Property :
253. Who may Alienate Coparcenary Property
254. Alienation by Father
255. Alienation by Sole Surviving Coparcener

E. Alienation of Undivided Coparcenary Interest :
256. Gift of Undivided Interest
257. Sale or Mortgage of Undivided Interest in Bombay, Madras and Madhya Pradesh
258. Sale or Mortgage of Undivided Interest-other states
259. Rights of Purchaser of Coparcener's Interest
260. Position of Coparcener whose Undivided Interest has been sold
261. Rights of Mortgagee from a Coparcener
262. Renunciation or Relinquishment of his Share
263. Insolvency of manager, father or other coparcener
264. Insolvency of Joint Family Firm

F. Shttinc, aside Alienations :
265. Setting aside Gifts
266. Setting aside Sales and Mortgage in Bombay and Madras states
267. Setting aside Sales and Mortgages in other states
268. Objections to Alienations by Coparceners Existing (born or Conceived) at the Time of the Alienation
269. Limitation for Setting aside Sales

Chapter XIII : COPARCENERS AND COPARCENARY PROPERTY UNDER DAYABHAGA LAW :
270. Distinguishing Features of Dayabhaga Joint Family
271. Sons do not Acquire any Right by Birth
272. Absolute Power of Father to Dispose off Ancestral Property
273. No Right of Partition or to Call for Accounts against Father
274. Conception of Ancestral Property according to Dayabhaga Law
275. Coparceners according to Dayahbaga Law
276. Coparcenary Property
277. Each Coparcener takes a Defined Share
278. Rights of Purchaser of Coparcener's Interest in Execution
279. No Right of Survivorship
280. Absolute Power of Coparcener to Dispose off his Share
281. Manager and his Powers
282. Enjoyment of Coparcenary Property
283. Coparcener's Right of Partition
284. Presumptions as to Coparcenary Property
285. Co-ownership and Coparcenary Property

Chapter XIV : DEBTS-MITAKSHARA LAW :
286. 'Debts'-The subject may be Considered under the Following Heads
A. Liability or Separate Property for Debts :
287. Liability of 'Heirs' for Debts

B. Undivided Coparcener's Interest when Liable for his debt :
288. Undivided Coparcenary Interest when Liable for Coparcener's Debt

C. Liability or Joint Family Property for Father's Debts :
289. Pious Obligation of Son, Grandson and Great-Grandson to Pay Ancestor's Debts
290. Extent of Liability of Grandson and Great-Grandson :
290A. Wife who has Received Share on Partition

291. Creditor's Suit
292. Limitation
293. Sale of Coparcenary Property in Execution of Decree Against Father Alone
293A. Son's Remedies before Sale
293B. Son's Right after Sale
293C. Execution of Decree Against Father after his Death

294. Sale or Mortgage of Coparcenary Property by Father for Payment of Antecedent Deb
295. Alienation by Father Neither for Legal Necessity Nor for Antecedent Debt-Son's Liability
296. Where Purchase-Money applied in Part only in Payment of Antecedent Debt
297. Immoral (Avyavaharika) Debt
298. Time-Barred Debt
299. Debt Contracted by Father During Minority or Oilier Disability
300. Summary of the Chapter

Chapter XV : DEBTS-DAYABHAGA LAW :
301. Debts-Bengal School

Chapter XVI : PARTITION AND REUNION-MITAKSHARA LAW :
A. What Property is Divisiable on Partition :
302. Subject of Partition
303. Property Available for Partition
304. Mode of taking Accounts

B. Persons Entitled to a Share on Partition :
304. Persons Entitled to a Share
306. Sons, Grandsons and Great-Grandsons
306A. Daughters

307. Minor Coparceners
308. Son Begotten at the Time of Partition, but Horn after Partition
309. Son Begotten as well as Born after Partition :
309A. Daughter

310. Adopted Son
311. Illegitimate son
312. Absent coparcener
313. Purchaser
314. Wife
314A. Widow

315. Widow-Mother
316. Grandmother
317. Disqualified Coparceners

C. Restraint Against Partitions :
318. Agreement not to Partition
319. Direction in a will Prohibiting Partition

D. Allotment of Shares :
320. Shares on Partition

E. Partition How Effected :
321. What is Partition
322. Partition by Father During his Lifetime
323. Whether Father can Effect Partition by a will
324. How Partition may be Effected
325. Partition by Agreement
326. Evidence of Partition and Burden of Proof
327. Partial Partition
328. Partition by Decree of Court
329. Births and Deaths Pending Suit for Partition
330. Death of a Coparcener Pending Suit for Partition
331. Death of a Female Entitled to a Share Pending Suit for Partition
332. Suit for Partition : Parties to the Suit : Property to be Comprised in the Suit
333. Conversion and Partition :
333A. Special Marriage Act 1872 : Special Marriage Act 1954

334. The Partition Act 1893

F. Respoening of Partition :
335. Rights of Sons
336. Fraud
337. Mistake
338. Where a Portion of Joint Property was Excluded from Partition :
338A. Reopening of Partition at the Instance of a Minor

G. Effect of Partition :
339. Devolution of Share Acquired on Partition
340. Whether Separating Son can Inherit as an Heir

H. REUNION :
341. Who may Reunite
342. Effect of Reunion
343. Intention Necessary to Constitute Reunion

I. Partition Created by so-Called Will :
344. Partition or Family Arrangement or Agreement Created by so-Called will

Chapter XVII : PARTITION-DAYABHAGA LAW :
345. Scope of the Chapter
346. What is Partition
347. Persons Entitled to Partition
348. Sons, Grandsons and Great-Grandsons
349. Illegitimate Sons
350. Purchaser
351. Wife
352. Mother
353. Grandmother
354. Allotment of shares

Chapter XVIII : GIFTS :
355. 'Gift' Defined
356. What Property may he Disposed of by Gift
357. Delivery of Possession
358. Gift to Unborn Person : Rule Apart from Statute
359. Gift to Unborn Person : Rules as Altered by Statute
360. Reservation of Life Interest
361. Conditions Restraining Alienation or Partition
362. Revocation of Gift
363. Gift in Fraud of Creditors
364. Donatio Mortis Causa
365. Trusts

Chapter XIX : WILLS :
366. Persons Capable of Making Wills
367. What Property may be Bequeathed by will
368. Section 57, Indian Succession Act 1925 :
368A. Form of will
369. Revocation of will : Alterations in will
370. Wills Founded on The Law of Gifts
371. Bequest to Unborn Persons : Rule Apart from Statute
372. Bequest to Unborn Persons : Rule as Altered by Statute
373. Election
374. Probate, Letters of Administration and Succession Certificate
375. Vesting of Estate in Hindu Executor or Administrator :
375A. Power of Hindu Executor or Administrator to Dispose of Property

376. Intention of Testator
377. Ordinary Notions and Wishes of Hindus to be taken into Consideration

Chapter XX : RULES COMMON TO GIFTS AND WILLS :
378. Tagore Case
379. Estate of Inheritance
380. Limited Estate
381. Estates Repugnant or Unknown to Hindu Law
382. Limitations subject to which a Gift or Bequest can be made to an Unborn Person
383. Disposition in Favour of Unborn Person subject to Prior Disposition
384. Rule against Perpetuity
385. Gift or Bequest to a class
386. Failure of Prior Disposition
387. Independent and Alternative Bequests
388. Grant subject to Defeasance : Executory Bequest
389. Gift or Bequest by way of Remainder
390. Trust Valid for Valid Purposes
391. Condition Repugnant to Interest Created
392. Condition Restraining Alienation or Partition
393. Direction Postponing Payment to Donee or Legatee
394. Gift of Income without Limit of Time
395. Immoral Condition
396. Direction for Accumulation
397. Power of Appointment
398. Caution against Applying English Rules
399. Gift or Bequest to two or more Persons
400. Gift and Bequest to widows, Daughters and other Females

Chapter XXI : RELIGIOUS AND CHARITABLE ENDOWMENTS :
401. Endowments :
401A. New Legislation

402. Gift to Dbaram, Void
403. Subject of Endowment
404. Endowment how Created :
404A. Illusory Endowments

405. Complete Dedication-Absolute Grant in Favour of Charity :
405A. Partial Dedication-Charge in Favour of Charity

406. Application of Profits or Property-Evidence of Dedication
407. Benquest to Idol not in Existence at Testator's Death
408. Endowments and Rule against Perpetuities :
408A. Endowments and Directions for Accumulations

409. Estate in Remainder
410. Devasthanam, Math, Shchait, Mabant, Debutter Property
411. Position of Shebait and Mabant
412. Alienation of Drhulter Property
412A. Burden of Proof of Necessity
412B. Who can Maintain a Suit

413. Creditors suit for Money Lent for Legal Necessity
414. Decree against Shebait or Mabant, when Binding on Successor
415. Devolution of office of Mabant : Nomination
416. Devolution of office of Shebait
416A. Devolution of office of Pujari
417. Transfer of Right of Management
418. Rights of Founder
419. Offerings
420. Removal of Sbebaits and Mabants-scheme for Management :
420A. Sadadbartas, Tanks, Seats of Learning, Home for Disabled or Destitutes

421. Distinction between Public and Private Endowments : Public and Private Temples
422. Right of Worship
423. Limitation

Chapter XXII : MARRIAGE :
Law Prior to the Hindu Marriage Act 1955
424. Marriage : Minority, Lunacy, Fraud
425. Forms of Marriages
426. Presumption as to form
427. No Restriction as to Number of Wives
428. Only one Husband at a Time
429. Remarriage of Widows
430. Who may give in Marriage
431. Marriage without Consent of Guardian
432. Identity of Caste or of Sub-Caste
433. Prohibited Degrees of Relationship
434. Marriage Ceremonies
435. Presumption as to Legality of Marriage
436. Special Marriage Act 1954
437. Marriage Expenses
438. Divorce
439. Marilal Duties
440. Guardianship of Wife
441. Restitution of Conjugal Rights

Chapter XXIII : ADOPTION :
Law Prior to the Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act 1956 :
442. Adoption in other Systems of Law
443. Different forms of Adoption
444. Object of Adoption
445. Requirements of a Valid Adoption

A. Persons who may Lawfully take in Adoption :
446. Who may Adopt
447. Adoption by Male
448. Adoption by Wife
449. Adoption by Widow
450. Who may give Authority to Adopt
451. Authority to Widow to Adopt
452. Authority to co-widow
453. Form of Authority
454. Conditional Authority
455. Authority must be Strictly Followed
456. Exercise of Authority to Adopt is Discretionary : no Limit of Time :
456A. Agreement not to Adopt is Contrary to Public Policy

457. Revocation of Power to Adopt
458. Adoption by Widow without Husband's Authority
459. In Madras
460. In Bombay
461. Extent of widow's Power to Adopt
462. Minor widow
463. Unchaste Widow
464. Remarriage of widow
465. Successive Adoption
466. Motive of Adoption
467. Co-widows
468. Generally
469. Whether there is a Limit to the Power of the widow to Adopt when the Husband was a Member of the Joint Family at the Time of his Death
470. Adoption by Widow Succeeding as Gotraja Sapiiula in Bombay

B. Persons Lawfully Capable of Giving in Adoption :
471. Who may give in Adoption
472. Right of Father
473. Right of Mother
474. Delegation of Power
475. Renunciation of Hindu Religion
476. Mental Capacity :
476A. Consent of Government

C. Persons who may be, Lawfully Taken in Adoption :
477. Who may be Adopted
478. Only son
479. Orphan
480. Stranger
481. Adoption of Same Boy by two Persons
482. Simultaneous Adoption
483. Duyamushyayana or Son of two Fathers
484. Adoption of Daughters by Naikins (Dancing Girls)

D. Act of Adoption and CermonifeS Incidental to IT :
485. Ceremonies Relating to Adoption
486. Giving and Receiving
487. Datta Bomam
488. Tree Consent
489. Consideration for Adoption
490. Adoption cannot he Cancelled : Renunciation by Adopted Son of Right of Inheritances

E. Results of Dattak Adoption :
491. Results of Adoption
492. Succession Exparte Paterna
493. Succession Exparte Materna
494. Son born after Adoption
495. Rights of Adopted Son in Separate Property : Power of Adoptive Father to Dispose of Separate Property
496. Rights of Adopted Son in Coparcenary Property
497. Agreements Curtailing Rights of Adopted Son

F. Divesting of Estate on Adoption by Widow :
498. Vesting and Divesting of Estate
498A. Vesting on Adoption by Widow

499. Divesting of Estate of Inheritance
500. Further Case of Divesting of Estate in Bombay
501. Stridhana not Divested
502. Maintenance of widow on Divesting of Estate
503. Adoption by Widow in a Joint Family

G. Alienations Made Prior to Adoption :
504. Adopted Son's Rights Date from Adoption
505. Alienations by Adoptive Father Prior to Adoption
506. Alienations by widow before Adoption

G. Surrender Prior to Adoption :
506A. Surrender Prior to Adoption

H. Effects of invalid Adoption :
507. Effect of Invalid Adoption
508. Gift to a Person whose Adoption is Invalid

I. Mode of Proof and Estoppel :
509. Burden of Proof and Evidence
510. Estoppel :
510A. The Doctrine of Factum Valet in Relation to Adoption

511. Limitation

J. Kritrima Adoption :
512. Kritrima form of Adoption

K. Illatom Adoption :
512A. Illatom Adoption

L. Customary Adoption in Punjab :
512B. Informal Adoption in Punjab

Chapter XXIV : MINORITY AND GUARDIANSHIP :
513. Age of Majority
514. Guardians

A. Natural Guardians :
515. Guardianship of Person and of Separate Property of Minor
516. Guardianship of Property where Family is Joint
517. Guardianship of a Married Female
518. Guardianship of an Adopted Son
519. Guardianship of Illegitimate Children
520. Remarriage of Mother
521. Loss of Caste
522. Change of Religion by Father
523. Change of Religion by Mother
524. Change of Religion by Minor

B. Powers of Natural Guardian :
525. Alienations by Natural Guardian
526. Contract by Natural Guardian
527. Compromise by Natural Guardian
528. Acknowledgement of Debt by Guardian

C. Testamentary Guardians :
529. Guardians Appointed by will

D. Guardians Appointed by the Court :
530. Power of Court to Appoint Guardian
531. Guardian of Person
532. Guardian of Minor's Separate Property
533. Alienation by Guardian Appointed under the Guardians and Wards Art 1890
534. Guardian of Minor's Undivided Coparcenary Interest

E. Guardian De Facto and Guardian Ad Hoc :
535. Alienations by Guardian de Facto and Guardian ad Hoc
535A. De Facto Guardian of Lunatic

F. Remedies :
536. Procedure for Recovering Custody of Minors

Chapter XXV : MAINTENANCE :
A. Nature and Extent of Right of Maintenance :
537. Priority of Debts over Maintenance
538. Liability for Maintenance-two Kinds
539. Personal Liability : Liability of Father, Husband and Son
540. Liability Dependent on Possession of Coparcenary Property : Liability of Manager
541. Liability Dependent on Possession of Inherited Property : Liability of Heirs :
541A. Liability of the Government

B. Persons Entitled to Maintenance :
542. Sons
543. Daughter
544. Grandchildren
545. Parents
546. Female Members of a Joint Hindu Family
547. Disqualified Heirs
548. Illegitimate Sons
549. Illegitimate Daughters
550. Concubine-Avaniddbastri :
550A. Statutory Right of Maintenance

551. Wife's Right of Maintenance
552. Separate Residence and Maintenance :
552A. Statutory Right of Maintenance

553. Line-Hastily of Wife
554. Change of Religion by Husband
555. Wife of Disqualified Heir :
555A. Maintenance of Widow : Hindu Woman's Rights to Property Act 1937
556. Widow's Right of Maintenance
557. Widow Residing Apart
557A. Arrears of Maintenance

558. Unchastity of a Widow
559. Right of Widow to Reside in the Family House
560. Widow Remarrying
561. Widowed Daughter-in-Law
562. Loss of Caste

C. Amount of Maintenance :
563. Amount of Maintenance Payable to a Widow
564. Amount of Maintenance-for other Females
565. Amount may be Increased or Decreased
566. Maintenance not a Charge
567. Transfer for Payment of Debts
568. Right of Maintenance against Donees and Devisees

D. Transfer of Family dwelling house and its effect on the Right of Residence :
569, 570. Widow of Undivided Coparcener
571. Unmarried Daughters of Deceased Coparcener
572. Wife and Unmarried Daughters of Sole Owner

E. Right of Maintenance not affected by will :
573. Right of Maintenance not Affected by will

F. Transfer and Attachment of Right of Maintenance :
574. Transfer of Right of Maintenance
575. Attachment of Right of Maintenance

E. Sutt for Maintenance :
576. Suit for Maintenance
577. Limitation
578. Execution of Decree

Chapter XXVI : CONVERSION FROM HINDUISM, KHOJAS, CUTCHI MEMONS AND SOME Others :
579. Khojas and Cutchi Memons (The Whole of this Section is Subject to the Provisions of the Shariat Act 1937)
580. The Cutchi Memons Act 1920

Chapter XXVII : IMPARTIBLE PROPERTY :
581. Impartible-Property
582. Property Impartible by Custom
583. Accretions to Impartible Property
584. Impartible Property : whether Coparcenary Property
585. Alienation of Impartible Property
586. Right to Maintenance out of Impartible Property
587. General Principles
588. Where Estate Ancestral, and Last owner Undivided
589. Where Estate Ancestral, but Last Owner Divided
590. Proof of Separation where Estate Ancestral
591. Where Estate Self-Acquired :
591A. Execution of Decree Against Successor

592. Dayabbaga school

Chapter XXVIII : THE LAW OF DAMDUPAT :
593. The Rule of Damdupat
594. Where Part of the Principal has been Paid
595. Capitalisation of Interest by Subsequent Agreement
596. The Rule of Damdupat does not apply after a Suit
597. Places in which the Rule of Damdupat Applies
598. Persons Entitled to Claim Benefit of the Rule
599. To what Transaction the Rule Applies
600. Mortgages Executed Alter the Passing of the Transfer of Property Act 1882

Chapter XXIX : BENAMI TRANSACTIONS :
600A. The New Act

601. Benami Transactions
602. Effect Given to Real Title
603. Exception I : Sale under a Decree of Court or for Arrears of Revenue
604. Exception II : Transfer by Benamidar for value
605. Exception III : Fraud upon Creditors
606. Exception IV : Transaction against Public Policy
607. Decree against Bemimidar
608. Right of Beminidar to sue

Chapter XXX : JAINS :
A. Jain Tents and Jain Law :
609. Jains and their Tenets
610. Law Applicable to Jains
611. Jains in Bombay state

B. Succession :
612. Law of Succession
613. Interest taken by Jain widow in her Husband's Estate :
613A. Succession to Stridbnna

C. Adoption :
614. Adoption Secular in Character
615. Adoption by Widow
616. Second Adoption by Widow
617. Age of boy to be Adopted : adoption of Married Man
618. Adoption of Orphan
619. Adoption of Daughter's Son
620. Adoption of Sister's Son
621. Ceremonies Incidental to Adoption
621A. Adoption cannot be Cancelled

622. Share of Adopted Son

Chapter XXXI : SHUDRAS :
623. Who are Shudras
624. Lingayats
625. Kayasthas
626. Rajas of Tanjore
627. Marathas of Bombay state
628. Converts to Hinduism
629. Whether a Shudra can be a Sanyasi
630. Ceremonies Incidental to Adoption
631. Who may Adopt
632. Who may be Adopted
633. Second Adoption during Lifetime of First Adopted Son
634. Son born after Adoption
635. Marriage as a Samskara
636. Identity of Caste
637. Anuloma Marriage
638. Presumption as to form of Marriage

Inheritance and Parittion :
639. Inheritance and Partition

Maintenance :
640. Maintenance of Illegitimate Sons

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