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Silvicultural Systems The Techniques of Raising, Tending and Regeneration of Forest Crops 1st Indian Print,8187067543,9788187067542

Silvicultural Systems The Techniques of Raising, Tending and Regeneration of Forest Crops 1st Indian Print

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Book Information

Publisher:Asiatic Publishing House
Published In:2008
ISBN-10:8187067543
ISBN-13:9788187067542
Binding Type:Hardback
Weight:2.09 lbs
Pages:pp. xv + 212, Figures, Illus., Index

The Title "Silvicultural Systems The Techniques of Raising, Tending and Regeneration of Forest Crops 1st Indian Print" is written by R.S. Troup. This book was published in the year 2008. The ISBN number 8187067543|9788187067542 is assigned to the Hardback version of this title. The book displayed here is a 1st Indian Print edition. This book has total of pp. xv + 212 (Pages). The publisher of this title is Asiatic Publishing House. We have about 212 other great books from this publisher. Silvicultural Systems The Techniques of Raising, Tending and Regeneration of Forest Crops 1st Indian Print is currently Available with us.

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About the Book

In preparing this Book every endeavour has been made to elucidate principles by giving a sufficiency of actual examples, while avoiding a superfluity of local detail which might tend to confuse the reader. The Plan has therefore been followed of explaining the systems on general lines and giving only A Few local examples to illustrate important or special points. The historical information given is necessarily brief, but it may prove of interest in throwing light on the influences under which systems have been evolved, developed, and in some cases superseded. French and German terminology has been given with the object of assisting those conversant with these languages who may wish to study the literature or visit the forests of continental Europe. The application of silivicultural systems presents problems of an essentially practical kind; hence the descriptions and discussions in this book have been based as far as possible on the results of personal investigations extending over a number of years in the forests of several different European countries. Apart from this, experience gained in India has proved invaluable in helping towards the appreciation of the more important points connected with the introduction and practice of silvicultural systems under conditions often very different from those prevailing in Europe. Although every endeavour has been made to describe the various systems as they are actually practiced, and the descriptions have been supplemented by photographs taken personally in different countries, the reader is asked to regard this book not as a means of acquiring a complete knowledge of silvicultural systems, but rather as a guide towards the practical study of systems in the forest.

Contents

I. INTRODUCTION
II. THE CLEAR-CUTTING SYSTEM :
1. General Description
2. Size, Form, and Arrangement of Coupes
3. Clear-cutting with Artificial Regeneration
4. Clear-cutting with Natural Regeneration
5. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Clear-cutting System
6. Experience of the Clear-cutting System in Saxony and Switzerland
7. Application of the Clear-cutting System

III. SYSTEMS OF SUCCESSIVE REGENERATION FELLINGS AND SHELTER-WOOD SYSTEMS :
1. Systems of Successive Regeneration Fellings
2. Advantages and Disadvantages of Shelter-wood Systems

IV. THE UNIFORM SYSTEM :
1. Terminology
2. General Description
3. Regeneration Fellings
4. Periods and Periodic Blocks
5. Form of Crop Produced
6. Uniform System with Artificial Regeneration
7. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Uniform System
8. Treatment of Individual Species and Mixtures
9. Application of the Uniform System
10. Introduction of the Uniform System in Uneven-aged Forest

V. THE GROUP SYSTEM :
1. Terminology
2. General Description
3. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Group System
4. Application of the Group System

VI. THE IRREGULAR SHELTER-WOOD SYSTEM :
1. Terminology
2. General Description
3. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Irregular Shelter-wood System
4. Application of the Irregular Shelter-wood System

VII. STRIP SYSTEMS :
1. General Terminology and Classification
2. The Shelter-wood Strip System
3. Wagner's Blendersaumschlag
4. The Strip and Group System
5. The Progressive Clear-strip System
6. The Alternate Clear-strip System

VIII. THE WEDGE SYSTEM :
1. Origin and Development
2. General Description
3. Results Obtained

IX. THE SELECTION SYSTEM :
1. Terminology
2. General Description
3. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Selection System
4. Application of the Selection System

X. TWO-STORIED HIGH FOREST
XI. HIGH FOREST WITH STANDARDS :
1. Present-day Practice
2. The Tire Et Aire System

XII. THE COPPICE SYSTEM :
1. General Description
2. Special Forms of Coppice
3. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Coppice System
4. Application of the Coppice System

XIII. THE COPPICE SELECTION SYSTEM
XIV. COPPICE WITH STANDARDS :
1. General Description
2. Special Forms of Coppice with Standards
3. Introduction of Coppice with Standards in Irregular High Forest
4. Advantages and Disadvantages of Coppice with Standards
5. Application of Coppice with Standards

XV. CONVERSION OF COPPICE SYSTEMS TO HIGH FOREST :
1. General Considerations
2. Conversion by Natural Regeneration
3. Conversion by Artificial Regeneration

XVI. COMBINATIONS OF SYSTEMS
XVII. CHOICE OF SYSTEM
XVIII. CHANGES OF SYSTEM
XIX. DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH FOREST SYSTEMS :
1. Development of Systems
2. Some Present-day Ideas
3. Dauerwald

XX. DEVELOPMENTS OF THE LAST TWENTY YEARS/E.W. JONES :
1. The Changing Outlook in Europe :
i. The Relation of Silviculture to Management
ii. The Biology of the Forest as the Basis of Silviculture
iii. The Economic Background
iv. Genetics and Forestry

2. Developments in Silvicultural Practice :
i. Europe
ii. South African Practice
iii. Natural Regeneration in Tropical Forests :
a. Rain Forest
b. Regeneration of Sal

iv. Coppice Conversion and Reclamation of Scrub :
a. France
b. Great Britain
c. Enrichment of Tropical Forests and Scrub

Preface

The lack, in the English language, of any comprehensive work on silvicultural systems is a sufficient reason for devoting to this important subject the first of a series of manuals dealing with different branches of forestry, which will appear from time to time. Forestry is now passing through a critical stage. The depletion of natural forests that has taken place during the past hundred years in many parts of the world gives genuine cause for alarm, and steps have been taken in many countries to conserve and protect at least some small proportion of their original forest area. This, however, is only an initial step; if the problem of future timber supplies is to be solved, it is also of the utmost importance that the reduced forest area now available should be treated in such a way as to produce the highest possible sustained yield of suitable timber compatible with economic and other considerations. Certain European countries were faced with this problem centuries ago, and as a result of long experience have evolved methods of treatment, termed 'silvicultural systems', which are an object-lesson to the whole world. The detailed study of these systems under as many different conditions as possible is the only means of acquiring that special knowledge which will lead to their intelligent application in practice.

Lest it may be held that systems which have been evolved in Europe are not applicable to other parts of the world where totally different conditions prevail, the fact may be mentioned that for more than fifty years past the silvicultural systems of Europe, with suitable modifications, have been applied successfully in many parts of India under a variety of conditions and in many types of forest; and it may be truly said that the great progress which forestry has made in that country during the past half-century has been due to a large extent to the fact that the officers of the higher branch of the Forest Service have received their practical training in the forests of continental Europe. The close study of European systems does not imply that they should be followed slavishly under all conditions; a proper understanding of these systems, however, is an essential preliminary to their adoption in such modified form as may be indicated by local conditions. In Great Britain the successful application of some of the systems would be impossible at present for two reasons : in the first place many British woodlands are in a derelict state through faulty treatment, and in the second place the country is so infested with rabbits that economic forestry in any form is often difficult if not impossible. If the rabbit scourge were eliminated and the woodlands were brought into a better condition, there would be no reason, in so far as soil, climate, and other factors are concerned, why the silvicultural system of continental Europe should not be practised in Great Britain with results far more satisfactory from the economic point of view than those attained under the methods so frequently practised hitherto.

In preparing this book every endeavour has been made to elucidate principles by giving a sufficiency of actual examples, while avoiding a superfluity of local detail which might tend to confuse the reader. The plan has therefore been followed of explaining the systems on general lines and giving only a few local examples to illustrate important or special points. The historical information given is necessarily brief, but it may prove of interest in throwing light on the influences under which systems have been evolved, developed, and in some cases superseded. French and German terminology has been given with the object of assisting those conversant with these languages who may wish to study the literature or visit the forests of continental Europe.

The application of silvicultural systems presents problems of an essentially practical kind; hence the descriptions and discussions in this book have been based as far as possible on the results of personal investigations extending over a number of years in the forests of several different European countries. Apart from this, experience gained in India has proved invaluable in helping towards the appreciation of the more important points connected with the introduction and practice of silvicultural systems under conditions often very different from those prevailing in Europe'. Although every endeavour has been made to describe the various systems as they are actually practised, and the descriptions have been supplemented by photographs taken personally in different countries, the reader is asked to regard this book not as a means of acquiring a complete knowledge of silvicultural systems, but rather as a guide towards the practical study of systems in the forest.

List of Illustrations

1. Clear-cutting system on level ground, showing 5 cutting sections
2. Clear-cutting system; single cutting section
3. Clear-cutting system in hilly country, with vertical coupes
4. Clear-cutting system in hilly country, with horizontal coupes
5. Clear-cutting system, Saxony
6. Natural regeneration of Douglas fir, &c., Vancouver Island
7. Clear-cutting system with natural regeneration of maritime pine, Landes
8. Ditto
9. Clear-cutting by progressive fellings with natural regeneration
10. Clear-cutting of Austrian pine with natural regeneration from adjoining woods, Austria
11. Clear-cutting of Scots pine in alternate strips, Rouvray, France
12. Uniform system; successive stages of regeneration in beech forest
13. Uniform system; seeding felling in beech forest, Lyons la Foret, France
14. Uniform system; beech crop in seeding stage, Spessart
15. Uniform system; beech crop 60-70 years old, Lyons la Foret
16. Uniform system; secondary stage in beech forest, Harz Mts
17. Uniform system; seeding felling in oak forest, Belleme, France
18. Ditto
19. Uniform system; final felling in oak forest
20. Uniform system; young oak crop
21. Uniform system with artificial regeneration, Spessart
22. Uniform system; seeding stage in Scots pine forest, Rouvray, France
23. Uniform system; final stage in Scots pine forest, Roumare, France
24. Uniform system in spruce and silver fir forest, La Joux, French Jura
25. Uniform system; final stage in Pinus longifolia forest, NW. Himalaya
26. Uniform system in forest of deodar, blue pine, and spruce, NW. Himalaya
27. Group system; successive stages of regeneration
28. Group system in forest of spruce and silver fir, N. Kelheim, Bavaria
29. Group system in forest of spruce, silver fir, N. Kelheim
30. Group system of spruce, silver fir, and beech, Bohmerwald
31. Group system in forest of spruce, silver fir, &c., Riedenburg, Bavaria
32. Irregular shelter-wood system (Swiss Femelschlag)
33. Irregular shelter-wood system, Bienne, Switzerland
34. Irregular shelter-wood system, Bienne, Switzerland
35. Ditto
36. Irregular shelter-wood system (Baden Femelschlag), Herrenwies, Black Forest
37. Shelter-wood strip system, showing progress of fellings
38. Shelter-wood strip system, Pfalzgrafenweiler, Black Forest
39. Shelter-wood strip system, Schonmunzach, Black Forest
40. Shelter-wood strip system; Bavarian felling key
41. Shelter-wood strip system; vertical strip fellings on southern slope
42. Shelter-wood strip system on level ground
43. Shelter-wood strip system on a hill-side
44. Wagner's Blendersaumschlag, Gaildorf, Wurttemberg
45. Ditto
46. Ditto
47. Ditto
48. Wagner's Blendersaumschlag; step fellings
49. Wagner's Blendersaumschlag; fellings advancing diagonally
50. Wagner's Blendenaumschlag; felling key
51. Organized Blendersaumschlag forest
52. Strip and group system; progress of fellings
53. Strip and group system in forest of spruce and silver fir, Schifferschaftswald, Black Forest
54. Strip fellings in combination with Swiss Femelschlag, Winterthur, Switzerland
55. Wedge fellings on level ground
56. Wedge system in forest of spruce, silver fir, and Scots pine, Langenbrand
57. Ditto
58. Wedge system in forest of Scots pine with hornbeam and other hardwoods, Rhine plains
59. Wedge fellings on a southern slope
60. Selection system
61. Selection system in forest of spruce and silver fir, La Joux, French Jura
62. Selection system in forest of spruce and silver fir, Couvet, Switzerland
63. Selection system in forest of spruce and silver fir, Oberwolfach, Black Forest
64. Two-storied high forest of oak and beech, Spessart
65. Ditto
66. Two-storied high forest of Scots pine and silver fir, Vosges
67. High forest with standards, Scots pine and silver fir, Wurttemberg Black Forest
68. High forest with standards, Scots pine, Hesse-Darmstadt
69. Coppice of blue gum (Eucalyptus Globulus), Nilgiri Hills, S. India
70. Beech coppice selection system, E. Pyrenees
71. Ditto
72. Coppice with standards
73. Coppice with standards, Louviers, France
74. Coppice with standards, Tintern, England
75. Ditto
76. Conversion of coppice with standards to high forest by the method of futaie fleine, France. Stage (1)
77. The same. Stage (2)
78. The same. Stage (3)
79. The same. Stage (4)
80. The same. Stage (5)
81. Conversion of coppice with standards to high forest by Aubert's method of balivage intensif. Ecouves, France
82. Conversion of oak bark coppice to coniferous high forest, Odenwald, Hesse-Darmstadt
83. Scots pine treated as Dauerwald, Barenthoren
84. Ditto
85. Ditto
86. Ditto

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