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Solid-State Fermentation in Biotechnology Fundamentals and Applications 1st Edition,8187680067,9788187680062

Solid-State Fermentation in Biotechnology Fundamentals and Applications 1st Edition

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Publisher:Asiatech Publishers Inc.
Published In:2001
ISBN-10:8187680067
ISBN-13:9788187680062
Binding Type:Hardback
Weight:1.37 lbs
Pages:pp. xii + 221, Figures, Tables, Graphs, Index, References

The Title "Solid-State Fermentation in Biotechnology Fundamentals and Applications 1st Edition" is written by Ashok Pandey. This book was published in the year 2001. The ISBN number 8187680067|9788187680062 is assigned to the Hardback version of this title. The book displayed here is a 1st Edition edition. This book has total of pp. xii + 221 (Pages). The publisher of this title is Asiatech Publishers Inc.. We have about 33 other great books from this publisher. Solid-State Fermentation in Biotechnology Fundamentals and Applications 1st Edition is currently Not Available with us.You can enquire about this book and we will let you know the availability.

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About the Book

This Book complements Others in biotechnology especially in industrial microbiology-biotechnology. It has been written with a research and academic readership in mind but will prove equally beneficial to the process technologists and scientists working in biotechnology-based Business and industries, large and small. The chapters include the information and facts based on the practically applicable knowledge gathered from up-to-date complete research published on the subject and related topics. The contents of each chapter deal with "How-to", as opposed to "a Review of Literature with citation of a large number of non-applicable references".

About the Author

Professor Ashok Pandey is presently Scientist & Head of Biotechnology Division of Regional Research Laboratory, CSIR, Trivandrum. He graduated from the University of Kanpur in 1974 (Biology) and took his Master's degree with a first class in 1976 in Chemistry. He followed this with a PhD in Microbiology from the University of Allahabad. During 1982-1986, he worked as scientist in India and Germany and in 1987 he joined RRLT. During this period, Professor Pandey undertook short/long visits to several institutions in Germany, France, Italy, Greece, UK, Argentina, Brazil, Malaysia Thailand and Hungary.

Professor Pandey has strong research interest in the area of Industrial Biotechnology, especially in Bioprocess Technology. The research carried out till-date has credited him with 270 publications including patents (3), books/journals as author/editor (11), technical reports (11), reviews and chapters in the books (50), original papers (101) and research communications in conferences/symposia. Currently he is Ed Bd member of four journals and ad-hoc reviewer for several other biotech journals.

Professor Pandey is the recipient of many national and international awards and fellowships, which include the award of UNESCO Professorship in 2000, Visiting Professorship for Brazil during 1998-2000, Raman Research Fellowship Award in 1995, GBF, Germany and CNRS, France Fellowships in 1992, 1993 and Young Scientist Award in 1989.

Professor Carlos Ricardo Soccol is presently working as the Head of the Process Biotechnology Laboratory and Co-ordinator of the Ph D programme in Biotechnology in the Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Brazil. He obtained his graduate degree in Chemical Engineering in 1979 and Master's degree in 1983 from UFPR, followed by the Ph D in Biotechnology from the Technological University of Compiegne, France in 1992. During 1994, he did his Professor Titular thesis in Industrial Biotechnology at UFPR. Professor Soccol has undertaken shorts visits to several institutions in France, UK, Mexico and Agrentina.

Professor Soccol has strong research interest in the area of Process Biotechnology, especially in the area of enzyme and fermentation technology. The research carried out till date has credited him with 236 publications including patents (2), books/journals as editor (2), review and chapters in the books (25), original papers (65) and research communications in conferences/symposia.

Professor Soccol has won several awards which include 'First Best Work' award in 10th Symposium of the International Society for Tropical Tuber Crops (1994), 'Best Scientific Work' award in First Latin-American Seminar on Potato Culture (1995), Science & Technology award of the Govt. Of Parana (1996), 'Best Scientific Work' award, VI South Regional Meeting of Food Science & Technology (1999), etc. He is occupying the position of the Editor of the Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology since 1997.

Dr. Jose Angel Rodriguez Leon is a Senior Researcher at the ICIDCA (Cuban Research Institute for Derivatives nom the Sugar Industry). He graduated as Chemical Engineer at the Havana University in 1968. Since 1968 to 1970 he worked as Chemical Instructor in the Unit Operations Department at the School of Chemical Engineering of the Havana University. In 1970 he was selected as member of the Bioengineering Division of the National Research Center of Cuba (CNIC). He obtained his Ph.
D. in Biological Sciences at the Academy of Sciences of Cuba in 1983. Since 1972 to 1986 he was the Head of the Biotechnology Laboratory of the Chemical and Biological Institute of the Academy of Sciences of Cuba. He was trained as post graduated at the Chemical Technology School of Prague and in the Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganism of the Academy of Sciences of Russia. Dr. Rodriguez-Leon is dedicated to the field of solid state fermentation since 1980 and published more than 30 scientific articles related with the subject and participated in more than 50 Scientific Congresses. He had obtained three patents related with solid state processes. Since 1992 he is. a permanent member of the Chemical Engineering Tribunal for Scientific Grades in Cuba. He was Member of the Expert Committee of the Ministry for Science, Technology and Environment of Cuba (CITMA) and collaborated in the field of Solid State Fermentation with other countries like Germany, Brazil, France, India and Mexico.

Dr. Poonam Nigam Ph D. 1985; 2-years R&D Germany (1985-1987), Chartered Biologist, London 1992; employed at the University of Ulster, UK since Jan. 1990. Twice nominated by Royal Society, London as visiting British Scientist to Indian National Science Academy. 20 years research experience in Microbial-Biotechnology, 10 years University-teaching experience. Invited author of six chapters in Encyclopaedia of Food Microbiology, 2000. Author of one European patent, 85 research papers, 25 reviews, 17 chapters in Encyclopaedia & books. Recipient of Grants from Royal-Society, UNESCO, Fed. Of Eur. Microbiol. Society, Eur. Reg. Dev. Fund, British Council & CSIR. Member of Editorial Boards of Bioresource Technology, World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, Brazilian Archives of Biology & Technology. Peer Reviewer three other biotech journals. Included as Expert & Mentor in European Handbook of Women-Experts in Science, Engineering & Technology, Consultant Universidad de Antioquia, Colombia, and Prophyta GmbH, Malchow, Germany, Course-Director Biotechnology & Food Biotechnology. Supervisor of Postdoctoral, PhD, M. Res., Mphil projects.

Contents

I. History AND DEVELOPMENT OF SOLID-STATE FERMENTATION :
1. Bioprocess Development
2. Aspects of Design of Fermented for SSF

II. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT SOLID-STATE FERMENTATION PROCESSES :
1. Estimation of Growth in SSP
2. Concept of Sterility
3. Academic Research vs. Industrial Applications
4. Comparison of Characteristics of SSP and Submerged Fermentation
5. Economically and Industrially Important Advantages of SSF

III. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE SOLID-STATE FERMENTATION :
1. Carbon Source and Carbon/Nitrogen Relationship (C/N)
2. Temperature
3. Moisture and Water Activity (aw)
4. pH
5. Aeration and Agitation
6. Particle Size

IV. KINETICS OF SOLID-STATE FERMENTATION :
1. Specific Growth Rate
2. Microbial Logarithmic or Exponential Growth Phase
3. Kinetics Measurement in Solid-State Fermentation
4. Oxygen Balance During Microbial Growth
5. Respiration Quotient and Some Considerations about Kinetic Determination in Solid-State Fermentation
6. Procedures to Determine the Specific Growth Rate in Solid-State Fermentation Processes

V. ENERGY BALANCE IN A SOLID-STATE FERMENTATION PROCESS :
1. Overall Energy Balance
2. Modeling of Cassava Solid-State Fermentation

VI. MODELING OF SOLID-STATE FERMENTATION :
1. Relation Between Oxygen Consumption Rate (Ro) and Substrate Consumption Rate(Rs
2. Relation Between Substrate Consumption Rate (Rs) and Biomass Synthesis Rate(Rob)
3. Relation Between the Oxygen Uptake Rate (OUR) and Biomass Synthesis Rate(Rob)
4. Heat Evolved in a Fermentation Process
5. Correlations Between the Heat Evolved in the Process with the Rate of Biomass Synthesis

VII. ASPECTS OF DESIGN OF FERMENTER IN SOLID-STATE FERMENTATION :
1. Process Classification

2. Fomenters Types
i. Tray Fermented
ii. Drum Fermented
iii. Column Fermented
iv. Miscellaneous Designs

VIII. APPLICATION OF TROPICAL AGRO-INDUSTRIAL RESIDUES AS SUBSTRATE FOR SOLID-STATE FERMENTATION PROCESSES :
1. Cassava and Cassava Bagasse
i. Industrial processing of cassava
ii. Microbial strains cultivated on cassava Bagasse
iii. Bioprocesses involving cassava Bagasse

2. Sugarcane Bagasse
i. Microbial strains cultivated on sugarcane Bagasse
ii. Pre-treatment of sugarcane bagasse
iii. Application of sugarcane Bagasse in SSF processes

3. Coffee and Coffee Husk/Pulp
i. Industrial processing of coffee cherries
ii. Composition coffee pulp and husk
iii. Microbial strains cultivated on Coffee pulp/husk
iv. Products and applications
v. Biological detoxification of coffee pulp and husk
Conclusions

IX. PRODUCTION OF ENZYMES BY SOLID-STATE FERMENTATION :
1. Micro-Organisms Used for the Production of Enzymes in SS
2. Substrates Used for the Production of Enzymes in SSF

3. Enzymes Produced by SSF :
i. Cellulase Xylonite and Xylosidase
ii. Ligninases
iii. Proteases. Lipases
v. Galactosidases and Pettiness
vi. Glutamines
vii. Amylases
viii. Photoset
ix. Indulines
x. Miscellaneous enzymes
4. Recovery of the Enzymes
Conclusions

X. PRODUCTION OF ORGANIC ACIDS BY SOLID-STATE FERMENTATION :
1. Citric Acid
i. Introduction
ii. Uses of Citric Acid
iii. Biosynthesis of Citric Acid
iv. Micro-organisms Used for Commercial Production
v. Production of Inoculums for SSF
vi. Solid-state Fermentation Process for Citric Acid Synthesis
vii. Fomenters for Citric Acid Production
viii. Factors Controlling Citric Acid Production in SSF.
ix. Role of Trace Elements
x. Role of the Lower Alcohols
xi. Recovery of Citric Acid from SSF
xii. Yields of Citric Acid in SSF
xiii. Statistical Optimization
xiv. Future Developments in Citric Acid Production
xv. Biochemistry of Citric Acid-biosynthesis
xvi. Yield of Citric Acid
xvii. Overproduction of Citric Acid

2. Lactic Acid
i. Introduction
ii. Uses of Lactic Acid
iii. Production of Lactic Acid in SSF
iv. Biosynthesis of Lactic Acid in SSF
v. Extraction and Recovery of Lactic Acid From SSF
vi. Factors Affecting Lactic Acid-SSF
vii. Further Developments

XI. APPLICATION OF SOLID-STATE FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIALLY VALUABLE SECONDARY METABOLITES :
1. Introduction

2. Secondary Metabolites
i. Characteristics of Secondary Metabolites
ii. Secondary-Metabolism : Transformation Within Cells
iii. Commercially Important Secondary Metabolites

3. Evaluation of SSF for Secondary Metabolites Production
i. SSF-process Operation for Secondary Metabolites
ii. Factors Affecting Secondary Metabolites Production in SSF
iii. Scaling up SSF of Secondary-Metabolites
4. Conclusion

XII. PRODUCTION OF MUSHROOMS AND PROTEIN BY SOLID-STATE FERMENTATIONS :
1. Biotransformation and Biological Upgradation of Crop and Residues
i. Suitability of Fungi in SSF
ii. Suitability of Substrate Composition for SSF
iii. Influence of Temperature on SSF
iv. Influence of SSF Period
v. Influence of Nitrogen Supplementation
vi. Influence of Composition of Gasin the Gaseous Phase
vii. Influence of the Ratio of Liquid to Gaseous Phase in SSF

2. Mushroom Cultivation
i. Technology of Mushroom Production
ii. Preservation of Mushroom
iii. Factor affecting Mushroom Production
iv. Cultivation of Shiitake Mushroom on Cassava Bagasse and Sugarcane Bagasse
v. Cultivation of Mushroom-Pleurotus sajor-caju on cassava fibrous wastes
vi. Cultivation of Three Varieties Mushrooms (Pleurotus stratus, Lentinus exodus and Flammulina velutipes) on Residues of Coffee-Industry

XIII. MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS OF SOLID-STATE FERMENTATION: PRODUCTION OF COLOUR (PIGMENTS), FLAVOURS, AROMA AND OTHER PRODUCTS :
1. Production of Colours by Fermentation
i. Solid State Fermentation of Meniscus Pigments

2. Production of Flavours by Fermentation
i. Biosynthesis of Flavours
ii. Important Commercial Flavours

3. Production of Aroma Compounds in Solid State Fermentation
i. Aroma Production on Immobilized Cell

4. Other Miscellaneous Compounds Produced in SSF
i. Production of Polysaccharides
ii. Production of Vitamins
iii. Production of Biosurfactants
iv. Production of Biopesticides
v. Production of Befoul

Suggested Readings

Preface

This book complements others in biotechnology especially in industrial microbiology-biotechnology. It has been written with a research and academic readership in mind but will prove equally beneficial to the process-technologists and scientists working in biotechnology-based business and industries, large and small. The chapters include the information and facts based on the practically applicable knowledge gathered from up-to-date complete research published on the subject and related topics. Therefore, the contents of each chapter deal with "How-to", as opposed to "a Review of literature with citation of a large number of non-applicable references". A bibliography has been added in the end of book as recommended reading.

Biotechnology is one of the most applied technologies "microbial-biotechnology" in modern biology. This technology is concerned with microbiological systems and their products, and their applications to agriculture, industry and the environment. Many applications are not new and well known to general population having no proper scientific knowledge or training, with examples in silage, the traditional food and drink industry (fermented foods and beer, wine and ethanol), and waste treatment and recycling (mushroom and compost production).

Between the traditional biotechnology and the recent innovations there is a history of research and developments with a number of achievements. In any research of these developments it is clear that strategic and economic necessities as well as the inventiveness of biologists particularly microbiologists, chemists and engineers have contributed necessary desire for advances. The traditional fermentation industries were an art of brewing, baking, cheese making and eastern fermented foods, which solely depended on local skills and marketing of the products was confined to the geographical area of distribution and consumption. In general the successful products of biotechnology are either foods, food ingredients and high value materials with applications in agriculture, industry and environment.

One most important methodology and technique employed in biotechnology is solid-state fermentation (microbial growth and product formation using solid materials with low moisture contents) or solid-substrate fermentation (dealing with solid and insoluble substrates). This technology commonly known as Koji in the East is traditionally used to manufacture oriental foods, whereas in the West this technology is used for the production of familiar Western foods, e.g. mould-ripened cheese, fermented sausages and mushrooms. Although such fermentations include a number of well-known microbial-processes such as composting and silage, wood rotting, soil-growth, and surface cultures, being an economically viable, practically acceptable for large-scale bioconversion and biodegradation processes, this technology has established its significant contribution in modern-biotechnology.

There have been only few books written on the topic of solid-state fermentation but chapters were written in style of a review of literature or in some cases one chapter represented just one research-paper. Therefore, this book has been written with the aim that each chapter includes the knowledge and information concluded from published research on a topic.

The contents of the book have been divided into three important sections. First general section includes two chapters describing the history and development of solid-state fermentation and general considerations about this technique. Second section deals with the fundamental aspects of this technology and its five chapters include the information on factors affecting solid state fermentation, kinetics of the process, energy-balance, modelling of the overall fermentation and fermenter designs to perform this process for various metabolites and products. The third and final section written in five chapters, discusses the important industrial applications of solid-state fermentation related to food, pharmaceutical and chemical industry, agriculture and environment.

This book is result of the international collaboration of India, Brazil, Cuba and U.K. It is hoped that the readers will find its useful and interesting.

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