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Switchgear Protection and Power Systems Theory, Practice and Solved Problems

Switchgear Protection and Power Systems Theory, Practice and Solved Problems

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Book Information

Publisher:Khanna Publishers
Published In:2010
Binding Type:Paperback
Weight:4.43 lbs
Pages:pp. xxxviii + [ii] + 1339, Figures, Charts, Tables, Map, Graphs, Index, Appendices, Biblio., Acknowledgement

is written by Sunil S. Rao. The publisher of this title is Khanna Publishers.

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About the Book

The Book presents in-depth knowledge about the principles and practices of Modern Power System Engineering. It gives an integrated approach to the complex phenomena related with Switchgear, Protection, Fault-Calculations, Power System Analysis-Operation-Control-Automation, Digital Relays, Micro-processor based Relays and Microprocessor based Integrated Control and Protection Systems, Energy Systems, Electrical Safety and Applications of Switchgear.

With many advancement taking place in the field, old conventional protection and switching devices have been retained in brief along with new type of devices and techniques.

The technology of protection and automation have been revolutionized by the introduction of microprocessor based combined protection, control, monitoring systems. Such systems have been introduced for substation protection, generator protection, HVDC protection. This book covers the principles and applications of this latest technology, along with the Principles of Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems.

A Section covering the important topics in Interconnected Power Systems is also given. The book gives detailed overview of EHV-AC Transmission, HVDC Transmission Systems, Interconnections, Power System Automation with SCADA Systems, Power System Planning, Latest Power map in India, Microprocessor based Protection, along with chapter on Energy Technology-Renewable and Non-conventional and Conventional. The correlation between Energy sector and Power sector has also been illustrated. Apart from this the book covers Power System Calculations and Load Flow Studies to give wide coverage to the subject in a single volume. The principles and procedures of network calculations and load flow studies have been simplified and explained by A Few solved examples. New chapters on Applications on Switchgear, Electrical Safety, Recent Advances' in Intelligent Circuit Breakers, Fiber-optics Cable Applications, Compact Intelligent Substations, ISO-9000 and TQMI have been added to make book more useful.

This book will serve as source material cum reference and benefit the students pursuing their B. E. , B. Tech. , M. E. (Electrical), Technical Teacher's Training, Power Engineering Training Courses. It is also a ready reference book for Engineers in Electricity Boards, Projects, Consultants, Switchgear Industry, Power Sector covering every topic on Switchgear Protection and Power System Operation and Automation.

Contents

Section A : SWITCHGEAR AND SUB-STATION APPARATUS :
I. Introduction :
1. Switchgear and Protection
2. Sub-station Equipment
3. Faults and Abnormal Conditions
4. Fault Calculations
5. Fault Clearing Process
6. Protective Relaying
7. Neutral Grounding (Earthing) and Equipment Grounding
8. Over-voltages and Insulation Co-ordination
9. Some Terms in the Test
10. Standard Specifications
11. Electro-mechanical Relays and Static Relays
12. Applications of On-line Digital Computers Microprocessors And Static Protective/control Devices in Power System
13. Interconnected Power System
14. Load-frequency Control, Load Shedding
15. Voltage Levels in Network and Sub-stations
16. Voltage Control of AC Network
17. Static Var Sources (SVS)
18. Power System Stability
19. HVDC Obtion
20. Power System Analysis
21. Power System Network Calculations and Load Flow
22. Objective and Tasks

II. High-voltage A.C. Circuit-breakers :
1. Introduction
2. The Fault Clearing Process
3. The Trip-circuit
4. Recent Advances
5. Classification Based on Arc Quenching Medium
6. Technical Particulars of a Circuit-breaker
7. Assembly of Outdoor Circuit-breakers
8. Structural Form of Circuit-breakers
9. Operating Mechanisms :
i. Closing Operation
ii. Opening Operation
iii. Closing Followed by Opening Operating
iv. Types of Mechanisms

10. Interlocks, Indication and Auxiliary Switch
11. Circuit-breaker Time (Total Break Time)
12. Auto Reclosure
13. Auto Reclosure of EHV Circuit Breakers for Transmission Lines
14. Auto Reclosure for Distribution Lines (Upto 33 kv)
15. Weight Operated Reclosing, Pole Mounted Circuit-breakers
16. Trip-free Feature
17. Materials
18. Design and Development

III. Fundamentals of Fault Clearing, Switching Phenomena and Circuit-Breaker Rating
1. Introduction
2. Network Parameters : R, L, C
3. Voltage Equation of an RLC Series Circuit
4. Sudden Short Circuit of R.L. Series Circuit
5. Sub-transient, Transient and Steady State
6. Current Interruption in A.C. Circuit-breakers
7. Transient Recovery Voltage (TRV) :
i. Effect of Natural Frequency of TRV
ii. Effect of Power-factor on TRV
iii. Effect of Reactance-drop on Power-frequency Recovery Voltage
iv. Effect of Armature Reaction on Recovery Voltage
v. Effect of the First-pole-to-clear
vi. The First-pole-to-clear Factor

8. Single Frequency Transient
9. Double Frequency Transients
10. Rate of Rise of TRV
11. Resistance Switching, Damping of TRV, Opening Resistors
12. Interruption of Low Magnetizing Current, Current Chopping
13. Use of Opening Resistors :
i. Switching of Capacitor Banks
ii. Switching of Unloaded Transmission Lines and Unloaded Cables

14. Interrupting the Terminal Faults
15. Interrupting Short Line Faults (Kilometric Fault)
16. Phase Opposition Switching
17. Specifying the TRV Wave
18. Rated Characteristics of Circuit-breakers :
i. Rated Voltage
ii. Rated Insulation Level
iii. Rated Frequency
iv. Rated Normal Current (Rated Current)
v. Rated Short Circuit-breaking Current
vi. Rated Short-circuit Making Current
vii. Rated Duration of Short-circuit (Rated Short Time Current)
viii. Rated Operating Sequence (Duty Cycle)
ix. Rated Transient Recovery Voltage for Terminal Faults
x. Representation of a TRV Waveform by Four Parameter Method
xi. Representation of TRV Waveform by Two-parameter Method
xii. Rated Peak Withstand Current
xiii. Rated Quantities for Auxiliary Circuits and Operating Mechanisms for Opening and Closing
xiv. Rated Pressure of Supply for Pneumatic and Hydraulic Operating Devices
xv. Rated Pressure of Interrupting Medium and Insulating Medium
xvi. Summary of Rated Characteristics of HV (A.C.) Circuit-breakers
xvii. Rated Out-of-phase Breaking Current
xviii. Rated Cable-charging Breaking Current
xix. Rated Single Capacitor Bank Breaking Current
xx. Permissible Maximum Switching Over-voltages When Interrupting Line-Charging, Cable-charging and Single Capacitor Bank Breaking Current
xxi. Rated Capacitor Bank Inrush Making Current
xxii. Rated Small Inductive Breaking Current

19. Reignition and Restrike

IV. The Arc-Extinction :
1. Introduction
2. The Matter and Plasma
3. Ionization of Gases
4. Deionization
5. Electric Arc
6. Arc Formation in A.C. Circuit-breakers
7. Modes At Arc Extinction :
i. High Resistance Interruption, Blow-out Coils
ii. Low Resistance of Zero Point Extinction

8. Arc Interruption Theories
9. Arc Extinction in Oil
10. Arc Extinction in Vacuum
11. Arc Extinction in Air-blast
12. Arc Extinction in SFG Gas
13. Arc Time Constant

V. Air-break Circuit-breaker :
1. Introduction
2. Construction of Air-break Circuit-breaker
3. Arc Extinction in A.C. Air-break C.B
4. Lengthening of Arc by Means of Magnetic Fields
5. Description of a Low Voltage Air-breaker Circuit-breaker
6. Operating Mechanisms for Air-break Circuit-breakers
7. Series Connected Over Load Trip Coil Arrangement
8. Air-break D.C. Circuit-breakers for Medium Voltages
9. Miniature Circuit-breaker, Moulded Case Circuit-breakers

VI. Air Blast Circuit-Breaker :
1. Introduction
2. Construction of an Air Blast Circuit-breaker
3. Principle of Arc Quenching in Abcbs
4. Circuit-breakers with External Extinguishing Energy
5. Resistance Switching in Abcb
6. Voltage Distribution in Multi-break Circuit-breakers (abcb-mocb, SF6)
7. Reducing Switching Over-voltages by Pre-closing Resistor
8. Generator Circuit Breakers
9. Compressed Air System for ABCB

VII. Sulphur Hexafluoride (SF6) Circuit-Breaker and SF6 Insulated Metalclad Switchgear (CIS) :
Part a : Properties of SF6 Gas :
1. Introduction
2. Physical Properties of Sf6 Gas
3. Chemical Properties of SF6 Gas
4. Dielectric Properties of SF6 Gas
5. Arc Extinction in SF6 Circuit-breakers :
i. Single Pressure Puffer Type Circuit-breaker with Single Flow of Quenching Medium
ii. Double Flow of Quenching Medium

Part b : Outdoor SF6 Circuit Breakers :
6. Types Design
7. Single Pressure Puffer Type SF6 Circuit-breaker :
i. Configuration of-a Single Pressure Puffer Type EHV Circuit-breaker

8. Double Pressure Dead Tank SF6 C.B. (Now Obsolete)
9. Merits of SF6 Circuit-breakers
10. Some Demerits of SF6 Circuit-breaker
11. SF6 Filled Load Break Switches
12. Gas Monitoring and Gas Handling Systems

Part C : SF6 Insulated Metalcad Switchgear (Sub-Station) :
13. Introduction to SF6 Switchgear (CIS)
14. Advantages of SF6 Switchgear
15. Demerits of SF6 Insulated Switchgear
16. General Constructional Features of SF6-Gas Insulated Switchgear (CIS)
17. Gas Monitoring
18. Gas Filling and Monitoring System for SF6 Switchgear
19. Transportation and Handling of SF6 Gas
20. Gas Transfer Units
21. SF6 Insulated EHV Transmission Cables (GIC)

VII-A. Routine, Site/Field Testing of CIS :
22. Routine Testing of GIS
23. Site/Field Testing of GIS

VIII. Minimum oil Circuit-breaker and Bulk Oil Circuit-breaker :
1. Introduction
2. Tank Type Bulk Oil Circuit-breaker (now Obsolete)
3. Minimum Oil Circuit-breaker
4. Principle of Arc-extinction on Oil Breakers
5. Pre-arcing Phenomenon
6. Sensitivity to TRV
7. Circuit-breakers with Internal Sources of Extinguishing Energy-critical Current
8. Contact Assembly

IX. Vacuum Interrupter and Vacuum Circuit-breaker :
1. Introduction
2. Electrical Breakdown in High Vacuum
3. Arc Extinction in Vacuum Interrupters
4. Construction of a Vacuum Interrupter
5. Arc Interruption in High Vacuum
6. Degree of Vacuum in Interrupters :
i. Construction of a Vacuum Interrupter

7. Interruption of Short-circuit Currents in Vacuum Interrupters
8. Design Aspects of Vacuum Interrupters :
i. Length of Interrupter
ii. Contact Travel (Contact (GAP)
iii. Contact Shape
iv. Contact Size and Shape for Required Short-circuit Breaking Current
v. Contact Material

9. Time/Travel Characteristics
10. Contact Pressure
11. Contact Acceleration during Opening
12. Contact Erosion
13. Vacuum Level and Shelf Life of Interrupters
14. Checking of Vacuum
15. Range of Vacuum Switchgear, Vacuum Controlgear and Vacuum Circuit-breakers
16. Merits of VCB's
17. Demerits of VCB's
18. Switching Phenomena with VCB :
i. Reignition in Vacuum Circuit-breakers
ii. Capabilities of Modern Circuit Breakers for Medium Voltages
iii. Switching Over-voltage Problem with Vcb for Motor Switching Duty, RC Surge Suppressors

X. Testing of High Voltage A.C. Circuit-breaker :
1. Classification of the Test
2. Type Tests :
i. Mechanical Test (Endurance Tests)
ii. Temperature-rise Tests
iii. Measurement of D.C. Resistance
iv. Millivolt Drop Tests
v. No-load Operation Tests and Oscillographic and Other Records
vi. Dielectric Tests
vii. Basic Short-circuit Test Duties

3. Routine Tests
4. Development Tests
5. Reliability Tests
6. Commissioning Tests
7. Insulation Resistance Measurement at Site
8. High Voltage Power Frequency Withstand Test (Routine Test)
9. Routine Tests on Circuit-breakers :
i. Mechanical Operating Tests (Routine Test)

XI. Short Circuit Testing of Circuit-Breakers :
1. Introduction
2. Stresses on Circuit-breaker During Short-circuit Tests

Part a : Short-circuit Test Plants :
3. Short-circuit Testing Plants

Part b : Direct Testing :
4. Direct Testing
5. Rules for Type Tests
6. Short-time Current Tests on Circuit-breakers, Isolators, Busbars, CTS Etc
7. Basic Short-circuit Test Duties
8. Critical Current Tests
9. Short-line Fault Tests
10. Line Charging Breaking Current Tests
11. Out-of-phase Switching Tests
12. Capacitive Current Switching Tests :
i. Single Capacitor Bank Current J3reaking Test

13. Cable-charging Breaking Current Test :
i. Small Inductive Current Breaking Tests
ii. Recommendations for Small Inductive Current Switching Tests

14. Reactor Switching Test

Part c : Indirect Testing :
15. Unit Testing or Element Testing
16. Synthetic Testing
17. Substitution Test
18. Capacitance Test
19. Compensation Test
20. Development Testing of Circuit-breakers

XII. Insulation Requirement and High Voltage Testing of Circuit Breakers :
1. Introduction
2. Overvoltages
3. Design Aspects
4. Causes of Failure of Insulation
5. Purpose of H.V. Testing of Circuit-breakers
6. Tests on a High Voltage Circuit-breakers
7. Some Terms and Definitions
8. Impulse Voltage Tests and Standards Impulse Waves
9. Impulse Generator
10. Test Plant for Power Frequency Tests
11. H.V. Testing Transformer
12. Sphere Gaps

XIII. Installation and Maintenance :
1. Introduction
2. Break Down Maintenance Versus Preventive Maintenance
3. Inspection, Servicing, Overhaul
4. Guidelines for Maintenance of Switchgear
5. Field Quality Plans (FQP)
6. Maintenance of Circuit Breakers
7. Typical Maintenance Record Card
8. Maintenance of Air Break Circuit Breaker, Fusegear for Low and Medium Voltages
9. Maintenance of Vacuum Circuit-breaker
10. Maintenance of SF6 Circuit-breaker
11. Insulation Resistance Measurement
12. Insulation Resistance Measurement at Site
13. Likely Troubles and Essential Periodic Checks
14. Installation of Drawout Metalclad Switchgear
15. Safety Procedures
16. Installation of Outdoor Circuit-breakers

XIV. HRC Fuses and their Applications :
1. Introduction
2. Types of Devices with Fuse
3. Definitions
4. Construction :
i. HRC Fuses for Semiconductor Devices and Thyristors

5. Fuse Link of HRC Fuse
6. Action of HRC Fuse
7. Shape of Fuse Element
8. Specification of a Fuse Link
9. Characteristic of a Fuse
10. Cut-off
11. Classification and Categories
12. Selection of Fuse Links
13. Protection of Motor
14. Discrimination
15. Protection of Radial Lines
16. Protection of Meshed Feeders with Steady Load-by HRC Fuses
17. Equipment Incorporating Fuses
18. High Voltage Current Limiting Fuses
19. Expulsion Type High-voltage Fuse
20. Drop-out Fuse
21. Test on Fuse

XV-A. Metal-enclosed Switchgear, Controlgear and Contactor :
1. Introduction
2. Types of Switchgear

Part a : High Voltage Indoor Metal Enclosed Switchgear :
3. General Features of Indoor Metal-enclosed Switchgear
4. Draw-out Type Metal-enclosed Switchgear
5. Switchgear with Vacuum Interrupters

Part b : Low-voltage Metal Clad Switchgear and Low Voltage Circuit Breakers :
6. Unit Type Metal Clad Low Voltage Switchgear and Motor Control Centers
7. Low Voltage Circuit Breakers :
i. Classification
ii. Rated Quantities
iii. Test on Low-voltage Circuit-breakers

8. 'Explosion-proof' or 'Flame-proof' Switchgear

Part c : Low Voltage Controlgear and Contractors :
9. Low Voltage Control Gear
10. Contactors
11. Some Terms and Definitions
12. Contactor Starters for Motors
13. Rated Characteristics of Contactors
14. Tests on Contactors

Part d : Control Boards :
15. Control Boards or Control Panels
16. Control Room-layouts

XV-B. Medium Voltage Metal Enclosed Switchgear with SF6 CB and VCB :
Part a : Applications and Range :
17. Type and Range
18. Ice and Cired Classification

Part b : Constructional Aspects :
19. Configuration and Variants
20. Drawings and Diagrams
21. Designation for the Degree of Protection

Part c : Switchgear Phenomens with Medium Voltage Switchgear with SF6 C.B. with VCB :
22. Cable Terminations Systems
23. General Assessment Criteria
24. Interruption of Inductive Currents and Small Inductive Currents
25. Switching-on of a Motor, Voltage Surge Due to Multiple Reignition
26. Motor Switching with Puffer Type SF6 Circuit-breakers
27. Capacitor Switching

XV-C. Low-Voltage Controlgear and Switchgear :
28. Applications and Basic Requirements
29. Components and Modular Structural Configuration
30. Switching Devices
31. Mechanical Rated Life of a Switching Device
32. Design Aspects for Long Mechanical Life
33. Main Electrical Circuit and Components in a Switching Device
34. Main Circuit Components Associated with Contactor Starters of LV
35. Protection Aspects
36. Contact Travel Characteristics of LV Switching Device During Operating and Closing Operations, Switching Time Definitions
37. Connection and Cross Sectional Area of Cables
38. Contact Configuration and Design Aspects
39. Contact Materials
40. Contact Speed During Opening Operation
41. Auxiliary Switches
42. Tripping Device and Relays
43. Degree of Protection, IP Code
44. Medium Voltage Vacuum Contactors for 3.6 to 12 KV

XVI. HVDC Circuit-Breaker and Metallic Return Transfer Breaker (MRTB) :
1. Introduction to HVDC Switching System
2. Schematic of a 2-terminal, Bipolar Long Distance HVDC Trans-Mission System
3. Back-to-back HVDC System
4. Multi-terminal HVDC Systems (MTDC)
5 .Schematic of DC Switching System and Waveform of IDC with Artificial Current Zeros
6. Conclusion
7. Energy Consideration in Breaking Direct Current in HVDC Circuit-Breakers
8. HVDC Switching System :
i. Commutation Principle of HVDC Circuit-breaker

9. Control of dl/dt and dv/dt
10. Triggered Vacuum Gaps (TVG)
11. Surge Suppression
12. Complete Circuit of HVDC Switching System
13. Main Circuit-breaker for HVDC Switching
14. Switching Devices in Present Bipolar HVDC Substations
15. Types of HVDC Circuit-breakers
16. HVDC Circuit-breaker Capabilities and Characteristics
17. Definitions of Switching Time for HVDC Circuit-breakers
18. Short-circuit Ratio (SCR) of HVDC System
19. Conclusions

XVII. Electrical Substations, Equipment and Bus-bar Layouts :
1. Introduction
2. Substation Equipment and Outdoor Yard Layout
3. Isolator and Earthing Switch :
i. Requirement and Definitions
ii. Types of Construction of Isolators
iii. Pantograph Isolator
iv. Ratings of Isolators and Tests

4. Bus-bar Arrangements in Switchyards :
i. Bus-bar System Recommended for Large Important Sub-stations
ii. Maintenance Zoning

5. Use a Load Break Switches
6. Switchgear in Generating Stations :
i. Main Switchgear Schemes
ii. Unit System of Generator Connections : (Scheme without Generator-circuit-breaker)
iii. Unit Scheme Employing Generator Circuit Breaker
iv. Main Switchgear in Generating Stations
v. Single and Multiple Generator Transformer Unit

7. Auxiliary Switchgear in Power Stations
8. Isolated Phase Bus Systems
9. Continuous Housing Type Isolated-phase Buses
10. Switching Sub-stations
11. Layout the Switchyard Equipment
12. Location of Current Transformers
13. Typical Substation in Distribution System
14. Switchgear for a Medium Size Industrial Works
15. Bus-bars
16. Some Terms and Definitions
17. Materials for Bus-bars
18. Bus-bar Design
19. Electrodynamic Forces on Bus-bars During Short-circuits
20. Important Techno-economic Consideration for Construction of Sub-stations/switchyards :
i. Activities in Construction of Sub-station
ii. Cost Effectiveness
iii. Ways and Means of Economizing
iv. Construction Activities
v. Maintenance of Over-head Transmission Lines
vi. Maintenance and Repair

XVIII-A. Transient Overvoltage Surges, Surge Arresters and Insulation Co-Ordination :
1. Introduction
2. Terms and Definitions
3. Choice of Insulation Levels of Sub-station Equipment
4. Protective Ratio, Protective Margin
5. Lightning
6. Overhead Shielding Screen (Earthed)
7. Lightning Stroke on OH Lines (Overhead Line)
8. Protective Devices against Lightning Surges
9. Rod Gaps or Spark Gap
10. Surge Arresters (Lightning Arresters)
11. Surge Arrester Specifications and Terms
12. Tests on Surge Arresters
13. Rated Voltage of Surge Arrester
14. Coefficient of Earthing (Ce) is the Ratio:

XVIII-B. Neutral Grounding (Neutral Earthing) :
15. Introduction to Neutral Grounding
16. Terms and Definitions
17. Disadvantages of Ungrounded Systems
18. Advantages of Neutral Grounding
19. Types of Grounding
20. Reactance in Neutral Connection
21. Connection of the ARC Suppression Coil
22. Neutral Point Earthing of Transformer L.V. Circuits
23. Neutral Grounding Practice
24. Earthing Transformer
25. Ratings of Neutral Devices

XVIII-C. Substation Earthing System and Equipment Earthing :
26. Equipment Earthing (Grounding)
27. Functions of Substation Earthing System
28. Connection of Electrical Equipment to Station-earthing System
29. Substation Earthing System
30. Earth Electrodes
31. Integrated Earthing Systems for Two or More Installations
32. Step Potential and Touch Potential
33. Earth-resistance of Earthing System
34. Earth Resistance Measurement
35. Earthed Screens

Section B : FAULT CALCULATIONS :
XIX. Introduction to Fault Calculations :
1. Introduction
2. Procedure of Fault Calculations
3. Representation of Power Systems
4. Per Unit Method
5. Advantages of Per Unit System
6. Selection of Bases
7. Single Phase Circuits : Determinations of Base-impedance (or Resistance or Reactance)
8. Change of Base
9. Circuits Connected by Transformer
10. Reactances of Circuit Elements
11. Induction Motors
12. Synchronous Motor
13. Thevenin's Theorem
14. Some Terms
15. Star-delta Transformation

XX. Symmetrical Faults and Current Limiting Reactors :
1. Fault Mva and Fault Current (Steady State)
2. Solved Examples
3. Procedure Recommended by Standards for Short-circuit Calculations in Distribution Systems
4. Reactors in Power Systems
5. Principle of Current Limiting Reactors
6. Design Features of Current Limiting Reactors
7. Dry, Air Cored Series Reactor
8. Oil Immersed Non-magnetically Shielded Reactor
9. Oil Immersed Shielded Reactors
10. Terms and Definitions
11. Physical Arrangement of Series Reactors
12. Selection of Reactors
13. Location of Series Reactors
14. Effective Short Circuit Level (ESCL) by Considering Kvar Contribution of Shunt Capacitor Banks
15. Effective Short Circuit Ratio (ESCR)

XXI. Symmetrical Components :
1. Introduction
2. Symmetrical Components of 3-phase Systems
3. Operator 'α'
4. Some Trigonometric Relations
5. Zero Sequence Currents
6. Phase Displacement in Star-delta Transformers

XXII. Unsymmetrical Faults on an Unloaded Generator :
1. Sequence Impedances
2. Sequence Networks of Alternator
3. Voltage Equations
4. Single Line to Ground Fault on an Unloaded Three-phase Alternator at Rated Terminal Voltage
5. Double Line to Ground Fault on an Unloaded Generator
6. Line to Line Fault on Unloaded Alternator (Generator)

XXIII. Faults On Power Systems :
1. Sequence Networks

XXIV. Use of A.C. Network Analyser and Digital Computer In Fault Calculations :
1. Introduction
2. A.C. Network Analyzer (A.C. Calculating Board)
3. Digital Computers
4. Organization of a Digital Computers
5. Process of Solving Engineering Problems on Digital Computers
6. Short Circuit Studies on Digital Computer

Section C : POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION :
XXV. Introduction to Protective Relaying :
1. About Protective Relaying
2. Faults, Causes and Effects
3. Importance of Protective Relaying
4. Protective Zones
5. Primary and Back-up Protection
6. Back Up Protection by Time Grading Principle :
i. Back-up Protection by Duplication Principle
ii. Monitoring

7. Desirable Qualities of Protective Relaying :
i. Selectivity and Discrimination
ii. Relay Time and Fault Clearing Time
iii. Sensitivity
iv. Stability
v. Reliability
vi. Adequateness

8. Some Terms in Protective Relaying
9. Distinction Between Relay Unit, Protective Scheme and Protective System
10. Protective Current Transformers and Voltage Transformers
11. Actuating Quantities
12. Electro-mechanical Relays and Static Relays
13. Power Line Carrier Channel (PLC)
14. Programmable Relay
15. System Security
16. Role of Engineers

XXVI. Electromagnetic Relays :
1. Introduction
2. Basic Connections of Trip Circuit
3. Auxiliary Switch, Sealing, and Auxiliary Relays :
i. Auxiliary Switch
ii. 'Sealing', 'Holding', 'Repeat Operation'

4. Measurement in Relays :
i. Magnitude Measurement
ii. Product Measurement
iii. Ratio Measurement
iv. Vector Difference (or Vector Sum)

5. Type of Relays Units
6. Pick-up
7. Reset or Drop-off
8. Drop Off/Pick-up Ratio
9. Attracted Armature Relay (Electromagnetic Attraction)
10. Balanced Beam Relay (Electromagnetic Attraction Principle)
11. Induction Disc Relay (Electromagnetic) :
i. Plug Setting and Time Setting in Induction Disc Relays
ii. Effect of Time-setting

12. Induction Cup Relay (Electromagnetic)
13. Permanent Magnet Moving Coil Relay
14. Rectifier Relay Systems :
i. Relays for One Quantity
ii. Relays for Two Quantities

15. Thermal Relays, Bimetal Relays, Thermocouples
16. Directional Relays :
i. Principle of Measurements
ii. Directional Relays
iii. Principle of Operation of Directional Element

17. Polarized Moving Iron Relays
18. Frequency Relays
19. Under-voltage Relays
20. D.C. Relays
21. All-or-nothing Relays
22. Plug Setting
23. Time Setting
24. Test Facility

XXVII. Overcurrent Protection and Earth Fault Protection :
1. Introduction
2. Applications of Over-current Protection
3. Relays Used in Over-current Protection
4. Characteristics of Relay Units for Over-current Protection :
i. Connection Scheme with Three Over-current Relays

5. Earth-fault Protection
6. Connections of Ct's for Earth-fault Protection :
i. Residually Connected Earth-fault Relay
ii. Earth-fault Relay Connected in Neutral to Earth Circuit

7. Combined Earth-fault and Phase-fault Protection
8. Earth-fault Protection with Core Balance Curren Transformers. (Zero Sequence CT)
9. Frame-leakage Protection
10. Directional Over-current Protection
11. Directional Earth-fault Protection

XXVIII. Differential Protection :
1. Differential Protection
2. Applications of Differential Protection
3. Principle of Circulating Current Differential (Merz-prize) Protection
4. Difficulties in Differential Protection
5. Differential Protection of 3-phase Circuits
6. Biased or Per Cent Differential Relay
7. Settings of Differential Relays
8. Balanced Voltage Differential Protection

XXIX. Distance Protection :
1. Introduction to Distance Protection
2. Principle of R-X Diagram
3. Theory of Impedance Measurement :
i. R-X Diagrams of Plain Impedance-Relay
ii. Plain Impedance Characteristics
iii. Disadvantages of Plain Impedance Relay
iv. Time Characteristic of High Speed Impedance Relay

4. Methods of Analysis
5. Directional Impedance Relay
6. Torque Equation of Directional Impedance Relay
7. Modified (Shifted) Characteristic
8. Reactance Type Distance Relay
9. Mho Type Distance Relay
10. Application of Distance Protection :
i. R-X Diagram
ii. Line Characteristics
iii. Condition for Relay Operation
iv. Operating Time
v. Stages of Relay Time Characteristics
vi. Coordinated Characteristics of Distance Relays in Three Stations
vii. Significance of R-X Diagram and Method of Analysis
viii. Load Impedance
ix. Line Impedance
x. Power Swings
xi. Choice of Characteristic Mho/reactance Mho/static

XXX. Protection of Transmission Lines :
1. Introduction

Part a : Overcurrent Protection of Transmission Lines :
2. Non-directional Time Graded System of Feeder (or Line) Protection
3. Directional Time and Current-graded System
4. Setting of Directional Over-current Relays of a Ring Main
5. Current Graded Systems
6. Definite Time Overcurrent Protection of Lines
7. Earth Fault Protection of Lines
8. Summary of Overcurrent Protection of Lines

Part b : Distance Protection of Transmission Lines :
9. Introduction to Distance Protection of H.V. and E.H.V. Lines :
i. Plain Impedance Protection
ii. Directional Impedance Relay
iii. Reactance Relay
iv. Mho Relay Admittance Relays
v. Offset Mho Characteristic

10. Distance Schemes
11. Starting Element (Fault Detectors)
12. Stepped Characteristic
33. Three Step Distance-time Characteristic
14. Power Swings
15. Carrier Assisted Distance Protection :
i. Carrier Transfer (Intertripping)
ii. Carrier Blocking Scheme (Directional Comparison Method)
iii. Carrier Acceleration

16. Distance Schemes for Single Pole and Triple-pole Auto-Reclosing
17. Connections of Distance Relays

Part c : Protection of Based on Unit Principle Lines :
18. Pilot Wire Protection Using Circulating Current Differential Relaying

Part d : Carrier Current Protection of Transmission Lines :
19. Carrier Current Protection
20. Phase Comparison Carrier Current Protection
21. Applications of Carrier Current Relaying
22. Radio Links or Microwave Links

XXXI. Protection of Induction Motors :
1. Introduction
2. Abnormal Operating Conditions and Causes of Failures in Induction Motors
3. Protection Requirements
4. Protection of Low Voltage Induction Motor, (below 1000V AC) :
i. Scheme of Starting Circuit
ii. Bimetal Overload Devices
iii. Short Circuit Protection by Hrc Fuses

5. Protection of Large Motors
6. Overload Protection of Induction Motors
7. Protection against Unbalance
8. Protection against Single-phasing (Phase Failure)
9. Phase Reversal Relay
10. Phase to Phase Fault Protection
11. Stator Earth-fault Protection
12. Faults in Rotor Winding

XXXII. Protection of Transformers :
1. Protection Requirements
2. Safety Devices with Power Transformers
3. Low Oil Level-fluid Level Gauge
4. Gas Actuated Devices :
i. Pressure Relief and Pressure Relay
ii. Rate-of-rise Pressure Relay
iii. Buchholz Relay (Gas Actuated Relay)

5. Biased Differential Protection, Percentage Differential Protection of Power Transformer
6. Problems Arising in Differential Protection Applied to Transformers
7. Harmonic Restraint and Harmonic Blocking
8. Differential Protection of Three-winding Transformer
9. Differential Protection of Auto-transformers
10. Earth-fault Protection
11. Restricted Earth Fault Protection
12. Protection of Transformers in Parallel
13. Overcurrent Protection of Power Transformers :
i. Overload Protection

14. Thermal Over-heating Protection of Large Transformers
15. Over-fluxing Protection
16. Protection of Arc Furnace Transformers :
i. Power Supply Requirements of Arc Furnace Plants

17. Protection of Rectifier Transformer
18. Protection of Grounding Transformer

XXXIII. Protection of Generators :
1. Introduction
2. Abnormal Conditions and Protection Systems :
i. External Faults
ii. Thermal Overloading
iii. Unbalanced Loading
iv. Stator Winding Faults
v. Field Winding Faults
vi. Overvoltages
vii. Other Abnormal Conditions

3. Percentage Differential Protection of Alternator Stator Windings
4. Restricted Earth-fault Protection by Differential System
5. Overcurrent and Earth-fault Protection for Generator Back-up
6. (α) Sensitive Stator Earth-fault Protection
7. Protection against Turn-to-turn Fault on Stator Winding
8. Rotor Earth Fault Protection
9. Rotor Temperature Alarm
10. Negative Sequence Protection of Generators against Unbalanced Loads
11. Negative Phase Sequence Circuit
12. Stator-heating Protection
13. Loss of Field Protection
14. Reverse Power Protection
15. Over-speed Protection
16. Field Suppression
17. Other Protections
18. Protection of Small, Standby Generators
19. Generator Transformer Unit Protection :
i. Combined Differential Protection for Generator Main Transformer

20. Static Protection of Large Turbogenerators and Main Transformer
21. Static, Digital, Programmable Protection System for Generator and Generator-transformer Unit

XXXIV. Station Bus-Zone Protection :
1. Introduction
2. Bus Protection by Overcurrent Relays of Connected Circuits
3. Bus Protection by Distance Protection of Incoming Line as a Remote Back-up
4. Bus-zone Protection by Directional Interlock
5. Bus-zone Protection by Differential Principle
6. Problems in Bus-zone Differential Protection
7. Selection of CTS for Bus-zone Protection
8. Biased Differential Bus-zone Protection
9. High Impedance Circulating Current Differential Bus-zone Protection
10. High Impedance Differential Protection Based on Voltage Drop
11. High Impedance-voltage Differential System
12. Check Features in Bus Protection
13. Location, of CT's
14. Monitoring of Secondary Circuits
15. Interlocked Overcurrent Protection for Buszone and Generator-unit Zone
16. Non-auto Reclosure and Simultaneous Three-pole Operation
17. Bus Transfer Schemes for Auxiliary Switchgear and Industrial Switchgear

XXXV. Current Transformers and their Applications :
1. Introduction
2. Terms and Definitions
3. Accuracy Class
4. Burden on CT
5. Vector Diagram of CT
6. Magnetization Curve of CT
7. Open Circuited Secondary of CT
8. Polarity of CT and Connections
9. Selection of Current Transformers of Protection Ratings
10. CT's for Circulating Current Differential Protection
11. CT's for other Protection Systems; CT's for Distance Protection
12. Type of Construction CT's
13. Core Shapes for Multiturn Wound Primary Type CT
14. Current Transformer for High Voltage Installations
15. Intermediate CT
16. Testing of CT's (Brief)
17. Transient Behaviour of CT's

XXXVI. Voltage Transformers and their Applications :
1. Introduction
2. Theory of Voltage Transformers
3. Specifications for Voltage Transformers
4. Terms and Definitions
5. Accuracy Classes and Uses [B.S. 3914 (1965)]
6. Burdens on Voltage Transformer
7. Connections of VT's
8. Residually Connected VT (Zero Sequence Voltage Filter)
9. Electromagnetic Voltage Transformer
10. Capacitor Voltage Transformers (CVT) :
i. CVT with Stepped Output
ii. Protection of Voltage Transformers

11. CVT as Coupling Capacitor for Carrier Current Applications
12. Choice of Capacitance Values for CVT
13. Transient of Behaviour of CVT
14. Ferro-resonance (FR) in CVT
15. Testing of Voltage Transformer (BRIEF)
16. Application of Capacitor Type Voltage Transformer for Protective Relaying

XXXVII. Testing and Maintenance of Protective Relays :
1. Importance of Maintenance and Setting
2. Tests on Relays
3. Test Equipment
4. Routine Maintenance Tests
5. Inspection and Testing for Acceptance
6. Some Tests on CT's
7. Some Tests on PT's
8. Some Test Circuits and Procedures for Secondary Injection Tests
9. Manufacturer's Tests
10. Commissioning Tests

Section D : STATIC RELAYS AND STATIC PROTECTION SCHEMES :
XXXVIII-A. Introduction to Static and Microprocessor-Based Integrated Programmable Protection, Monitoring and Control Systems :
1. Introduction and Definition
2. Static Versus Electromagnetic Relays
3. Limitations of Static Relays
4. Reliability and Security of Static Relays
5. Historical Review in Brief
6. Recent Development of Static Relays
7. Present Trends in Protection and Control Technology
8. Modular Concept, Building-block Principle Used in Predominantly Static Protection Systems
9. Static Relay Functional Circuits and Index of Functions
10. Types of Measuring and All-or-nothing Relay Units
11. Analogue and Digital Sub-systems in Protective Relaying
12. Analogue Protection Systems
13. Limitations of Analogue Systems
14. Digital and Programmable Electronic Static Relays
15. Hardwire Digital Systems
16. Programmable Digital Protective and Control Systems
17. Forms of Digital Electronic Circuits
18. Integration a Control and Protection for High Voltage AC Substation

XXXVIII-B. Introduction to Analogue and Digital Static Relays :
Section a : Solid State Devices :
19. Semiconducting Materials
20. Solid-state Devices : (Brief Introduction) :
i. Semiconductor Diode
ii. Zener-Diodes (Voltage Regulating Diodes)
iii. Pnpn Devices and Thyristor Tripping Circuit
iv. Power Switching Techniques with "Thyristors"
v. Triac
vi. Thermistors
vii. Resistors
viii. Capacitors

21. Printed Circuit Boards with Discrete Components
22. Static Relays with Integrated Circuits :
i. Reed Relays

23. Static Directional Units

Section b : Digital Circuits and their Applications in Protective Relaying :
24. Logic Circuits
25. And Function
26. Or Function
27. Not Function
28. Combined Functions
29. Memory Function (Storage Function)
30. Families of Logic Circuits
31. Applications of Logic Circuits in Protective Relaying
32. Definition and Application
33. Symbol of Operational Amplifier
34. Characteristics of Ideal Operational Amplifier
35. Some Applications of Operational Amplifiers :
i. Analogue Level Detector or Comparator
ii. Analogue/Digital Conversion
iii. Digital to Analogue Conversion
iv. Digital Multiplexers
v. Encoders and Decoders
vi. Programmable System
vii. Microprocessor
viii. Microprocessor Module
ix. Hybrid of Analogue and Digital Systems

36. Auxiliary Voltage Supply for Static Relays
37. Full-wave Rectifier
38. Smoothing Circuits
39. Voltage Stabilization (Regulation) by Zener Diodes
40. Time-delay Circuits
41. Frequency Filters
42. Symmetrical Component Filters

XXXIX. Comparators and Level Detectors :
1. Static Relay Functional Circuits
2. Comparators
3. Amplitude Comparators
4. Phase Comparators
5. Phase Comparator Based on Rectangular (or Squared) Pulses
6. Phase Comparators Based on Vector Product Devices
7. Direct (Instantaneous) and Integrating Type Comparators
8. Integrating Amplitude Comparator
9. Operating Time
10. Coincidence Techniques in Phase Comparators
11. Spikes and Block Coincidence Technique in Phase Comparator
12. Phase Comparator with Phase Splitting Technique
13. Hybrid Comparator
14. Level Detector
15. Level Detector by pnp Transistor
16. Npn Transistor as Level Detector
17. Schmitt Trigger with Operational Amplifier
18. Schmitt Trigger with Two NPN Transistor

LX. Static Overcurrent Relays :
1. Introduction to Static Overcurrent Relays
2. Single Actuating Quantity Relays
3. Double Actuating Quantity Relays
4. Basic Principle of Static Overcurrent Relays
5. Time Characteristic
6. Timing Circuit
7. Directional Overcurrent Relay
8. Static Instantaneous A.C. Measuring Relays
9. Static Time-lag Over-current Relays
10. Static Directional Relay

LXI. Static Differential Protection of Power Transformers :
1. Introduction
2. Differential Protection of Two-winding Transformer
3. Differential Protection of Three-winding Transformer
4. Inrush-proof Qualities
5. Requirements to be Fulfilled by the Main CT
6. Auxiliary C.T

LXII. Static Distance Relays and Distance Protection of EHV Lines :
1. Introduction
2. Voltage Comparator and Current Comparator
3. Three-input Amplitude Comparator
4. Hybrid Comparator
5. Four Input Phase Comparator with Quadrangular Characteristic
6. Errors in Distance Measurement
7. Influence of Power Swings on Distance Protection :
i. Power Swings
ii. Effect of Power Swing on the Starting Elements in Distance Schemes
iii. Effect of Power Swing on the Measuring Elements in Distance Schemes
iv. Representation of Power Swing on R-X Diagram

8. Protection of Teed Lines by Distance Relays
9. Back-up Protection with Intermediate Infeed
10. Compensation or Compounding in Distance Relays
11. Setting of Distance Relays
12. Solved Examples on Distance Relay Setting

LXIII-A. Important Assorted Topics and Static Protection Schemes :
1. Combating Electrical Noise and Interferences
2. Transient Overvoltages in Static Relays
3. Protection of Static Relay Circuit
4. Recommended Protection Practices for Static Relaying Equipment
5. Testing of Static Relays with Regard to Over-voltage Transients
6. Reliability, Dependability, Security
7. Static Relay for Motor Protection
8. Static Busbar Protection Based on Directional Comparison
9. Disconnection of Mains Supply from Inplant Auxiliary Supply during System Faults
10. Breaker Back-up Local Back-up
11. Use of Micro Processor for Local Back-up
12. Computer Based Centrally Coordinated Back-up
13. Programmable Equipment for Protective Relaying Measure Ments and Control (PPRMC)
14. Principle of Centralized Back-up Protection (CBP)
15. Post-faulty Control (PFC) by Digital Computers
16. Communication Links for Protection Signalling
17. Fibre Optic Data Transmission
18. Local Breaker Back-up Protection : Breaker Fail Protection; Stuck-breaker Protection
19. Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS)
20. Directional Wave Relays for Fault Detection and Protection of Overhead Lines

LXIII-B. Digital Relays, Microprocessors Based Relays, Fault Recorders and Fault Locators :
21. Enter Microprocessors in Protection Technology
22. Block Diagram and Components of a Digital Relay
23. Basic Principles of Digital Relays
24. Microprocessor Based Relays
25. Description of a Microprocessor Based Protective Relay for Motor Protection
26. Advantages of and Special Features of Microprocessor Based Protective Relays
27. Block Diagram of a Microprocessor Based Distance Relay for Protection of Transmission Line
28. Architecture of a Microprocessor
29. Programming of Microprocessors Based Relays
30. Self-checking and/or Self Monitoring in Microprocessor based Relay
31. On Line Microprocessor Based Fault Monitoring
32. Microprocessor Based Fault Locators
33. Principle of Fault Detection in on Line Digital Relays, Fault Locators and Fault Recorders

LXIII-C. Modern Protection System :
34. Introduction
35. Numerical Relays
36. Traditionally Separate Networks
37. Ethernet just a Physical Layer Standard
38. The IEC's Initiative

LXIII-D. Microprocessor Based Substation Protection Control and Monitoring :
39. Introduction
40. Equipment to Automatic Control Substations
41. Two Subsystems in Substations
42. Two Hierarchical Levels in a Substation
43. Substation Level (Upper Level) :
i. Unit Level
ii. Inter-level Communication

44. Functions Performed by Protection and Control Equipment
45. Protection and Control Configuration

Section E : POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS, INTERCONNECTION AND POWER SYSTEM CONTROL SCADA SYSTEMS :
LXIV. Power System Stability, Auto-Reclosing Schemes, Methods of Analysis and Improvement of Transient Stability :

Part a : Concept of Power System :
1. Power System Stability
2. Concept of Power System Stability
3. Single Machine Against Infinite Bus

Part b : Swing Oupyes and Swing Equation, Equal Area Criterion :
4. Dynamics of Synchronous MacTHnes, Kinetic Energy, Inertia Constant and Stored Energy :
i. Kinetic Energy of a Rotating Mass
ii. Inertia Constant H
iii. Stored Energy in Rotor of a Syn. Machine

5. Swing Curve
6. Derivation of Swing Equation from Fundamentals
7. Equal Area Criterion of Transient Stability
8. Critical Clearing Angle
9. Method of Improving Transient Stability Limit

Part c : High Speed Protection and Circuit Breakers :
10. High Speed Circuit Breakers and Fast Protective Relaying for Improved Transient Stability
11. Auto-reclosure Improves Transient Stability
12. Single Pole Reclosing of Circuit-breakers
13. Independent Pole Mechanism
14. Single Pole Tripping
15. Selective Pole Tripping
16. Segregated Phase Comparison Relaying (SPCR)
17. Influence of Power Swings on Transmission Line Protection

Part d : Autoreclosing :
18. Autoreclosing Schemes
19. Terms and Definitions Regarding Autoreclosing
20. Rapid Autoreclosing Scheme
21. Delayed Autoreclosing Scheme
22. Synchronism Check
23. Control Schemes for Auto-reclosing

Part e : Modern Definitions of Power System Disturbance, Stability :
24. Terms and Definitions in Power System Stability Studies (1980)
25. Operational Limits with Reference to Steady State Stability Limit and Transient Stability Limit
26. Methods of Improving Transient Stability Limit

LXV-A. Load-frequency Control, Load Shedding and Static Frequency Relay :
1. Introduction to System Frequency Control
2. Load-frequency Characteristics of Rotating Machines
3. Primary Load-frequency Control
4. Secondary Load Frequency Control
5. Load-frequency Control of a Grid
6. Load Shedding
7. Use of Frequency Relays for Load Shedding
8. Static Frequency Relay :
i. Turbine Frequency Capability and Under-frequency Limits

9. Network Islanding
10. Other Application of Frequency Relay
11. Load Dispatching and Network Controller

LXV-B. Voltage Control and Compensation of Reactive Power :
12. Voltage Control in Network (Power System)
13. Permissible Voltage Variation
14. Methods of Voltage Control
15. Compensation of Reactive Power
16. Effect of Reactive Power Flow on Voltage at Sending-end and Receiving end of Transmission Line
17. Series Capacitors
18. Applications of Power Capacitors in Electric Power Systems
19. Installation of Shunt Capacitors
20. Reactive Power Requirements and Voltage Regulation of Ehv/uhv A.C. Lines. Surge Impedance Loading
21. Reactive Power Management

LXV-C. Voltage Stability of Electrical Network :
22. Introduction to Voltage Stability Studies
23. Explaining Voltage Instability
24. Increasing Voltage Stability Limit by Supply of Reactive power
25. Sequence of Switching-on and Switching-off Shunt Capacitor Bafiks
26. Q-V Characteristics
27. Voltage Collapse Occurances, and Their Time-spans
28. Preventive Measures Against Voltage Collapse
29. Definitions

LXV-D. Automatic Voltage Regulators, Voltage Control and Stability of Synchronous Generators :
30. Introduction
31. Operation of Synchronous Generator
32. EMF and No Load Terminal Voltage, Saturation Curve and Air Line
33. Terminal Voltage of an Isolated Generator with Constant Field Current and Without AYR
34. Types of Excitation Systems and AVRS
35. Synchronous Generator in Parallel with the Grid (Infinite Bus)
36. Types of AVR and Excitation Systems
37. Terms and Definitions on AVR and Excitation Systems
38. Excitation Systems and AYR (Synchronous Machine Regulators)
39. Steady State Performance Excitation Systems and AVRS
40. Transient Performance of AVKS
41. Excitation System Voltage Response
42. Generator Capability Curves
43. Electrical Load Diagram of a Synchronous Generator Operating In Parallel with the Grid (VT Constant)
44. Control and Protective Circuits of an Excitation System
45. Voltage-reactive Power Characteristic for Constant Power

LXVI-A. Digital Computer Aided Protection and Automation :
1. Introduction to Power System Control and Operation
2. Terms Related with Computers and Microprocessors
3. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System for Power-system Operation and Control
4. Data Collection Equipment, Data Loggers
5. Data Transmission Equipment (Telemetry)
6. Applications of Power Line Carrier
7. Man-machine Interface
8. Application of Computers in Network Automation
9. Microprocessors
10. Micro-processor Based Micro-computer
11. Applications of Digital Computer and Micro-processors in Power System Protection
12. Microprocessor Based Inverse Time Overcurrent (IOT) Relay
13. Digital Computers for Power System Operation
14. On Line Digital Computer for Protection of Line

LXVI-B. Economic Operation of Power System and Automatic Economic Load Dispatch :
15. Classical Method of Loading the Units in a Plant
16. Economic Load Distribution within a Generating Station by Modern Method
17. Modern Method of Economic Load Distribution between Various Generating Stations in a Region
18. Distribution of Load between Generating Stations by Taking Into Account the Transmission Losses : Penalty Factor
19. Automatic Load Dispatch Incorporating Load Frequency Control and Economic Load Dispatch
20. Transmission Loss as a Function of Output Power of Generating Station
21. Network Controller in Load Control Centre

LXVII. HVDC Transmission Systems :
1. Introduction Choice of HVDC Transmission
2. HVDC Transmission Systems :
i. Applications of HVDC Transmission Systems
ii. Choice of HVDC Transmission System
iii. Types of HVDC Systems and Brief Description
iv. Long Distance, High Power Bipolar HVDC Transmission Systems
v. Power Rating of Long Bipole HVDC Transmission System
vi. Configuration and Description of a Bipolar Scheme
vii. Economic Comparison of Bipolar HDVC Transmission System with Ehv-ac System
viii. EHV-AC Versus HVDC
ix. HVDC Cable Transmission
x. HVDC System Interconnection
xii. HVDC Coupling System
xiii. EHV-AC Versus HVDC Transmission
xiv. Limitations of HVDC Transmission
xv. Terms and Definitions Regarding Hvdc

3. Control of Hvdc Link :
i. Steady-state UD/ID Characteristic of Converters
ii. Intersecting Characteristics of Rectifier and Inverter Under Normal Operating Mode
iii. Intersecting Characteristic Under Steady Condition with Current Margin Control
iv. Power Transmission Characteristic with Constant Current Regulation of Rectifier and Constant Extinction Angle Regulation of Inverter
v. Reversal of Power Through an HVDC Link : Necessity of Reversal of Power
vi. Alternatives of HVDC Control

4. Circuit Arrangements
5. Thyristor Valves for HVDC Converter
6. Reversal of Power
7. Typical Layout of HVDC Conversion of Sub-station
8. Over-voltage Surge Protection
9. D.C. Surge Arresters
10. Line Protection System
11. AC Harmonics
12. Harmonic Filters
13. HVDC Simulator
14. Protection Systems in HVDC Sub-station :
i. Protection of HVDC Transmission System

15. Line Insulation
16. Maintenance of HVDC Links
17. D.C. Breakers and Load Switches
18. Control and Protective Equipment

LXVIII-A. EHV-AC Transmission Systems and Static Var Sources :
1. General Background of EHV-AC Transmission
2. Voltage Levels for Transmission Lines
3. Hierarchical Levels of Transmission and Distribution
4. Tasks of Transmission Systems
5. Functional Requirements of Transmission Systems and Design Aspects
6. Configuration of EHV-AC Transmission System and Bipolar HVDC Transmission System
7. Power Transferability of AC Line
8. Line Losses
9. Conductor Cost
10. Transient Stability Limit of AC Line
11. Control of Power Flow through Line
12. Short Circuit Levels
13. Voltage Control of AC Lines and Compensation of Reactive Power
14. Insulation Co-ordination and Surge Arrester Protection
15. Line Insulation, Clearance and Creepage Distances
16. Right-of-way (ROW)
17. Corona
18. Towers (Supports)
19. Bundle Conductors (Multiple Conductor)
20. Switching Phenomena Associated with EHV-AC Line Switching
21. Audible Noise (AN)
22. Biological Effect of Electric Field and Limiting Value of Electric Field Strength
23. Radio Interference and Television Interference
24. Rapid-auto Reclosing and Delayed Auto-reclosing of Circuit Breakers
25. Surge Impedance Loading of AC Transmission Lines
26. Sub-synchronous Resonance in Series Compensated Ac Lines
27. Static Var System (SVS)
28. Applications

LIX. Interconnected Power Systems :
1. Introduction
2. System Configuration and Principle of Interconnection :
i. Individual System (Region or Area)
ii. Total Generation in Interconnected Systems (national Grid)

3. Merits of Interconnected Power System
4. Limitations of Interconnected Power Systems
5. Obligations of Each Interconnected Systems
6. Objectives of Automatic Generation Control and Tie-line Power Flow Control
7. Overall Objective and Co-relation between Real Power and Reactive Power Control and Tie-line Power Flow
8. Tie-line Power Flow Control in 2-area System
9. Tie-line Power Flow in 3-area System
10. Alternative Principles of Control and the Tie-line Bias Control
11. Equations of Tie-line Power Flow Control Reviewed
12. Actions by the Control Room Operators to Change Tie-line Power
13. Actions by Control Room Operators for Voltage Control
14. Controlling Tie-line Power by Means of Phase Shifting Trans-Former (Regulating Transformers)
15. Phase Shifting Transformer (Regulating Transformer)
16. Types of Interchanges in Interconnected System :
i. Control of Power Flow through Interconnector

17. National Grid and Growth of Power System in India

L. Operation and Control of Interconnected Power Systems, AGC and SCADA :
1. Introduction
2. Main Tasks in Power System Operation :
i. Planning of Operations
ii. Operational Tasks
iii. Operating Accounting and Financial Control

3. Automatic Generation Control (AGC)
4. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) System :
i. Division of Tasks between Various Control Centres
ii. Functions of SCADA Systems
iii. Common Features of All SCADA Systems
iv. Alarm Functions
v. Integration of Measurement Control and Protection Functions by SCADA Systems

5. Automatic Sub-station Control
6. SCADA Configurations
7. Energy Management Systems (EMS)
8. System Operating States :
i. Normal State (Secure State)
ii. Alert State (Insecure State)
iii. Emergency State
iv. Islanding (In Extermis) State
v. Restoration State

9. System Security :
i. Security Control

10. State Estimation
11. Expert Systems Using Artificial Intelligence for Power System Operation :
i. What is an Expert System?
ii. Components of Expert System
iii. Example of an Expert System's Working
iv. Applications in Power Systems

12. Centralized Diagnostic Expert System Using Artificial Intelligence
13. SCADA Systems for Power System

LI. Power System Planning :
1. Scope of Power System Planning and Design
2. Significance of System Planning and Design
3. Computer Programmes for Planning

LII. Improving Dynamic Stability by Flexible AC Transmission System (FACT) and FVDC Systems :
1. Inter-relationship Between Voltage, Active Power, Reactive Power, Power Angle, Oscillations and Various Types of Stabilities :
i. Review of Concepts of Power System Stability and Basic equations

2. Parameters for Dynamic Control
3. Fundamental Requirements of AC Transmission System
4. Time Ranges of Abnormal Conditions and Disturbances
5. Enter Thyristor Control
6. First Swing Period and Oscillators Period
7. Review of Power System Problems and Methods for Improvement
8. Flexible AC Transmission (FACT)
9. Damping of Oscillations in AC Networks by Means of HVDC Damping Control
10. Stabilization of Adjacent AC Lines
11. Damping of AC Networks Oscillations with Different Conditions of DC Control for Synchronous HVDC Link

LIII. Computer Aided Power System Studies :
1. Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) for Power System Studies
2. Purpose and Need of System Studies
3. Basic Power System Studies
4. Preparation for System Studies
5. Software Programmes on Power System Engineering
6. Tools for Power System Studies

LIV. Power System Reliability Studies :
1. Introduction
2. Terms and Definitions
3. Reliability Indexes
4. Procedure of System Reliability Evaluation
5. Service Interruption
6. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA)
7. Availability
8. Scheduled Outage
9. Forced Outage

LV. Power System Security and Optimum Load Flow :
1. Power System Security
2. Purpose of Security Analysis
3. Ems Configuration and Security Analysis
4. Power System Monitoring as Essential Part of Security Improvement
5. Softwares in Energy Management System :
i. Alarm Processing
ii. Topology Processor, (Status Processor)
iii. State Estimation Program
iv. Contingency Analysis (Security Analysis)

6. Optimal Load Flow

LVI. Renewable and Conventional Energy and Power Plants :
1. Energy Resources and Forms of Energy
2. Units of Electrical Energy
3. Electrical Load and Demand
4. Load Curves and Peak Load
5. Base Load, Intermediate Load and Peak Load
6. Load Duration Curve8
7. Types of Generating Units for Base Load, Intermediate Load and Peaking Load
8. Plant Factors and Reserves
9. Power Plants with Conventional Energy Resources
10. Coal Fired Steam-turbine Power Plants :
i. Fluidized Bed Combustion Chamber Boilers

11. Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Power Plants (ICGCC)
12. Hydro Electric Power Plants
13. Nuclear Fission Reactor Power Plants
14. Gas Turbine Power Plants
15. Combined Cycle Power Plants :
i. Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Plants

16. Diesel Electric Power Plants
17. Age of Renewable and Alternatives
18. Energy Storage Plants
19. Power Quality
20. Interconnected Power System
21. Projected Growth of Energy Supply System India
22. Significance of Switchgear Protection and Power System Automation

LVII-A. Power Flow Calculations-Part I :
1. Introduction to Power Flow Calculations
2. Need of Power Flow Studies
3. Outlines of the Procedure of Power Flow Study
4. Branch Admittance and Source Transformation
5. Admittance Form of Calculations
6. Branch Admittance
7. Source Transformation : Current Source-voltage Source
8. Bus Nodal Current Equations from Kirchoff’s Current Law
9. Self and Mutual Admittance of the Buses
10. Bus Admittance Matrix
11. Interation Process
12. Steps in Interation
13. Power Flow in a Two Bus AC System (Single Branch)

LVII-B. Power Flow Calculations-Part II :
14. Introduction
15. Power Flow in a Multi-bus AC System
16. Procedure
17. Equations for Power Flow in Gauss Method and Gauss Seidel Method for Multi-Bus System
18. Gauss Method
19. Solution of Power Flow Equations by Gauss-seidel Method
20. Treatment to Voltage Controlled Buses in Gauss-seidel Method
21. Acceleration Factors (α) for Gauss Seidel Method of Interation
22. Introduction and Comparison between Gauss Seidel Method and Newton Raphson Method
23. Tailors Series for Two Equations with Two Variables
24. Newton Raphson Method Applied to Load Flow Problem
25. Importance and Objectives of Power Flow Studies
26. Power Flow through a Bipolar Two Terminal HVDC Link
27. Important Conclusions about Power Flow through AC and HVDC Links
28. Power Flow through AC Line and Parallel HVDC Line

LVIII. Applications of Switchgear :
1. Low-voltage Installations :
i. Switchgear Apparatus
ii. Technical Requirements of Various Devices
iii. Selectivity of Devices

2. Low-voltage Switchgear Assemblies
3. Low-voltage Switchgear Installations and Distribution Boards
4. Medium-voltage Installations
5. High-current Isolated Phase Busducts (Generator Busducts) :
i. Types and Constructional Features
ii. Design Considerations
iii. Construction
iv. Earthing Switch
v. Switchgear Installations

6. High-voltage Switchgear :
i. Definitions and Electrical Characteristics for HV Switchgear Apparatus
ii. Electrical Characteristics

7. Disconnectors and Earth Switches :
i. Circuit Breakers Function
ii. Quenching Medium and Operating Principle for Different Insulating & Quenching Medium
iii. Different Types of Operating Mechanisms of HV, CB
iv. Electrical Control of H.V. Circuit Breakers
v. Instrument Transformers for Switchgear Installations
vi. Current Transformers
vii. Inductive Voltage Transformers
viii. Capacitive Voltage Transformers

8. Surge Arresters :
i. Types of Surge Arresters
ii. Application and Selection
iii. Typical Values of Surge Arresters for the Major Voltage Ratings
iv. Circuit Configurations for High- and Medium-voltage Switchgear Installations

LIX. Electrical Safety :
1. Introduction
2. Requirements for Electrical Safety
3. Relevant Indian Standards
4. Special Precautions in Design, Installation Maintenance of Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Locations :
i. Elements for Ignition
ii. Classifications of Hazardous Areas & its Sub-groups

5. Hazardous Areas Classification-zones/Divisions
6. Gas/Dust/Fibre Groups
7. Temperature Class
8. Weather Protection
9. Material of Construction, Design Characteristics and Conformity Type Test Report
10. Marking on Ex-protected Design Electrical Equipment
11. Maintenance of Ex-protected Equipment
12. Duties and Obligations
13. Selection of Right Variety of Ex-protected Equipment
14. Explosion Protection Techniques
15. Lightning Protection of Structures with Explosive or Highly Flammable
16. General Principles of Protection
17. Types of Lightning Protection System
18. Bonding
19. Other Considerations
20. Group Classification of Inflammable Gas/Vapor

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