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Systematic Experiments in Chemistry 1st Edition,8122421369,9788122421361

Systematic Experiments in Chemistry 1st Edition

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Publisher:New Age International (P) Ltd.
Published In:2009
ISBN-10:8122421369
ISBN-13:9788122421361
Binding Type:Paperback
Weight:3.05 lbs
Pages:pp. xxix + 850, Figures, Tables, Index, Appendices, Biblio., Abbreviations

The Title "Systematic Experiments in Chemistry 1st Edition" is written by Arun Sethi. This book was published in the year 2009. The ISBN number 8122421369|9788122421361 is assigned to the Paperback version of this title. The book displayed here is a 1st Edition edition. This book has total of pp. xxix + 850 (Pages). The publisher of this title is New Age International (P) Ltd.. We have about 2529 other great books from this publisher. Systematic Experiments in Chemistry 1st Edition is currently Available with us.

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About the Book

The University Grants Commission periments in Chemistry" has been written as a text cum reference book not only for the B. Sc. (Chemistry) and M. Sc. (Chemistry) students but also for those who are pursuing various courses like Pharmacy (Pharmaceutical Chemistry), Environmental Science, Analytical Chemistry, Industrial Chemistry at various Engineering and Technical Institutes and also for researchers and academicians who are involved in the isolation and synthesis of medicinal compounds. The subject matter is based on the new curriculum recommended by the University Grants Commission for all Indian Universities. The book provides an exhaustive list of compounds, methods of their identification and their derivations. Exercises included in the book not only describe methods/techniques involved in the synthesis but also the theoretical background of these reactions. It also describes different methods for the isolation of important class of compounds, analytical techniques involved in the estimation of elements and simple functional groups. Great emphasis has been laid on theoretical and conceptual approach in order to explain practicals related to physical chemistry. The subject matter related to Qualitative Inorganic analysis at macro and semi-micro scale, Quantitative Inorganic analysis-Volumetric and Gravimetric analysis, have been explained in sufficient details to meet the aspirations of the students. The chapter on Water Analysis has been included so as to provide a better and explicit understanding of methods which arc today being adopted for control of pollution. On the whole, this book promotes self-reliance since it is complete in itself, requiring no reference or other textbooks.

About the Author

Dr. Arun Sethi presently Reader in the Department of Chemistry. Lucknow University, Lucknow. He has 19 years of leaching experience and has been instrumental in introducing courses pertaining to modem chemistry. He has specialized in the area of Steroid Chemistry and has published papers in both national as well as Internationl journals of repute. He is associated with several academic bodies in various capacities. He is also the author of the book entitled "Systematic Lab Experiments in Organic Chemistry" published by New Age International (P) Ltd. Publishers.

Contents

Preface
Abbreviations and Symbols Used
Some Two, Three and Multistep reactions included in this book

Section I : LABORATORY SAFETY AND FIRST AID :
1. Simple Laboratory Techniques and Apparatus :
a. Apparatus for organic Reactions
b. Stirrers
c. Heating
d. Cooling
e. Drying
f. Filtration
g. Distillation
h. Crystallization
i. Sublimation

2. Chromatography :
a. Thin Layer Chromatography
b. Column Chromatography
c. Paper Chromatography

3. Separation of Organic Mixtures
4. Identification of Organic Compounds :
A. Preliminary Tests :
a. Colour and odour
b. Combustion and ignition test
c. Determination of melting and boiling point
d. Test for acidic or basic character
e. Test for unsaturation
f. Test for additional element
g. Solubility behaviour

B. Determination of Functional Groups and their Derivatives :
a. Compounds containing carbon and hydrogen :
i. Hydrocarbons

b. Compounds Containing carbon, Hydrogen and oxygen :
i. Carbonyl compounds
ii. Quinones
iii. Alcohols
iv. Carbohydrates
v. Phenols
vi. Carboxylic acids
vii. Esters
viii. Lactones
ix. Ethers

c. Compounds Containing Carbon, Hydrogen and Nitrogen (with or without Oxygen) :
i. Amines
ii. Heterocyclic bases
iii. Amino phenols
iv. Nitro compounds
v. Nitro carbonyls
vi. Nitro carboxylic acids
vii. Nitro phenols
viii. Nitro ethers
ix. Nitro amino compounds
x. Amides
xi. Anilides

d. Compounds Containing Carbon, hydrogen and halogens (with or without nitrogen and oxygen) :
i. Halogenated hydrocarbons
ii. Halogenated carbonyls
iii. Halogenated phenols
iv. Halogenated carboxylic acids
v. Halogenated nitro compounds
vi. Halogenated amines

e. Compounds containing carbon, hydrogen and sulphur (with or without oxygen, nitrogen and halogens) :
i. Thioamides

Section II : SYSTEMATIC ORGANIC PREPARATIONS :
1. Esterification Type Reactions :
a. Esterification :
i. Synthesis of methyl benzoate from benzoic acid
ii. Synthesis of dimethyl oxalate from oxalic acid
iii. Synthesis of methyl coumalate from coumalic acid
iv. Synthesis of ethyl p-amino benzoate from benzoic acid

b. Acetylation :
i. Synthesis of p-acetoanisidide from p-anisidine
ii. Synthesis of Benzoin acetate from benzoin
iii. Synthesis of acetanilide from aniline
iv. Synthesis of acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin) from salicylic acid
v. Synthesis of 2, 4, 6-tribromo acetanilide from 2, 4, 6-tribromoaniline
vi. Synthesis of ά-glucose Pentacetate from ά-D-glucose
vii. Synthesis of ß-glucose pentacetate from ά-D-glucose
viii. Synthesis of mannitol hexacetate from mannitol
ix. Synthesis of p-hydroxy acetanilide (paracetomol) from p-amino phenol
x. Synthesis of p-acetotoluidide from p-toluidine
xi. Synthesis of hydroquinone diacetate from hydroquinone
xii. Synthesis of acetyl glycine from glycine
xiii. Synthesis of E and Z stilbenediacetate from benzyl

c. Thiele Acetylation :
i. Synthesis of 1, 2, 4-triacetoxy benzene from benzoquinone

d. Benzoylation :
i. Synthesis of Phenyl benzoate from phenol
ii. Synthesis of Glucose penta benzoate from ά-D-glucose
iii. Synthesis of benzoyl glycine (Hippuric acid) from glycine
iv. Synthesis of Benzoin benzoate from benzoin

2. Addition Reactions :
i. Synthesis of benzalacetone dibromide from benzalacetone
ii. Synthesis of benzalacetophenone dibromide from benzalacetophenone
iii. Synthesis of 2, 3-dibromo 3-phenyl propionic acid from cinnamic acid
iv. Synthesis of ά, ß-dibromo succinic acid from fumaric acid
v. Synthesis of 1, 2-dibromo phenylethane from styrene
vi. Syntheis of ά-bromo ß-phenyl ß-hydroxy propionic acid from cinnamic acid
vii. Synthesis of cis diol from cinnamic acid
viii. Synthesis of stilbene dibromide from stilbene

3. Elimination Reactions :
i. Synthesis of diphenyl acetylene (Tolan) from stilbene dibromide
ii. Synthesis of ά-bromo benzalacetone from benzalacetone dibromide
iii. Synthesis of ά-bromo benzal acetophenone from benzalacetophenone dibromide
iv. Synthesis of ά-bromo cinnamic acid (cis) and ά-bromo allo cinnamic acid (trans) from cinnamic acid dibromide
v. Synthesis of phenyl acetylene from cinnamic acid dibromide

4. Dehydration :
i. Synthesis of acetone dicarboxylic acid from citric acid
ii. Synthesis of aconitic acid from citric acid

5. Hydrolysis :
i. Hydrolysis of p-nitroacetanilide to p-nitro aniline
ii. Hydrolysis of p-bromo acetanilide to p-bromo aniline
iii. Hydrolysis of 2-nitro 4-methoxy aniline from 2-nitro 4-methoxy acetanilide
iv. Hydrolysis of m-nitrophenol diazonium salt to m-nitrophenol
v. Hydrolysis of 3-bromo-4-acetamido toluene to 4-amino-3-bromo toluene
vi. Hydrolysis of 4-nitro phthalimide to 4-nitro phthalic acid
vii. Hydrolysis of m-nitrobenzoate to m-nitrobenzoic acid
viii. Hydrolysis of p-nitro benzylidene diacetate to p-nitro benzaldehyde

6. Oxidation :
i. Oxidation of anthracene to anthraquinone (9, 10 anthraquinone)
ii. Oxidation of hydroquinone to p-benzoquinone
iii. Oxidation of isoborneol to camphor
iv. Oxidation of p-nitro toluene to p-nitro benzaldiacetate
v. Oxidation of p-nitro toluene to p-nitro benzoic acid
vi. Oxidation of cyclohexanol to cyclohexanone
vii. Oxidation of benzil to diphenylacetylene
viii. Oxidation of phthalic anhydride to monoperphthalic acid
ix. Oxidation of naphthalene to phthalaldehydic acid
x. Oxidation of acenapthene to acenaphthenol
ix. Oxidation of benzoin to benzyl

7. Reduction Reactions :
i. Reduction of benzophenone to benzhydrol (diphenyl methanol)
ii. Reduction of nitrobenzene to N-phenyl hydroxylamine
iii. Reduction of 2-nitro fluorene to 2-amino fluorene
iv. Reduction of nitrobenzene to hydrazobenzene (sym diphenyl hydrazine)
v. Reduction of m-nitro benzaldehyde to m-hydroxy benzaldehyde
vi. Reduction of anthraquinone to anthroned
vii. Reduction and hydrolysis of 3-nitro methyl benzoate to 3-amino benzoic acid
viii. Reduction of p-nitro benzoic acid to p-amino benzoic acid
ix. Reduction of m-dinitro benzene to m-phenylene diamine
x. Reduction of benzil to mesohydrobenzoin
xi. Reduction of m-dinitro benzene to m-nitro aniline
xii. Reduction of cinnamic acid to b-amino b-phenyl propionic acid
xiii. Reduction of benzilic acid to diphenyl acetic acid
xiv. Reduction of phthalic anhydride to phthalimide
xv. Reduction of phthalic acid to trans 1, 2 dihydro phthalic acid
xvi. Reduction of 2, 4-dinilro aniline to 1, 2-diamino 4-nitrobenzene
xvii. Reduction of anthranilic acid to thio-salicylic acid
xviii. Reduction of p-nitro aniline to p-nitro phenyl hydrazine
xix. Reduction of o-nitroaniline to o-phenylene diamine

a. Clemmensen Reduction :
i. Reduction of benzil to dibenzy
ii. Reduction and dehydration of benzoin to trans-stilbene

8. Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution :
a. Sulphonation :
i. Synthesis of toluene p-sulphonic acid from toluene
ii. Synthesis of sodium benzene sulphonate from benzene
iii. Synthesis of sodium toluene p-sulphonate from toluene
iv. Synthesis of camphor sulphonic acid from camphor

b. Nitration :
i. Synthesis of p-nitroacetanilide from acetanilide
ii. Synthesis of m-dinitro benzene from nitrobenzene
iii. Synthesis of 3, 5-dinitro benzoic acid from benzoic acid
iv. Synthesis of methyl 3-nitro benzoate from methyl benzoate
v. Synthesis of m-nitro benzaldehyde from benzaldehyde
vi. Synthesis of 1-nitro naphthalene from naphthalene
vii. Synthesis of o-and p-nitro phenol from phenol
viii. Synthesis of 4-nitro phthalimide from phthalimide
ix. Synthesis of 1, 5-dichloro 2, 4-dinitro benzene from m-dichlorobenzene
x. Synthesis of 2-nitro fluorene from fluorene
xi. Synthesis of 2, 4, 6-trinitro phenol (picric acid) from phenol
xii. Synthesis of 2-nitro-4-methoxy acetanilide from p-acetoanisidide
xiii. Synthesis of 6 and 8-nitro-4-methyl-7-hydroxy coumarin from 7-hydroxy coumarin
xiv. Synthesis of 9-nitro anthracene from anthracene
xv. Synthesis of 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene from chlorobenzene

c. Friedel Crafts reaction :
i. Synthesis of 9-acetyl anthracene from anthracene
ii. Synthesis of (3-benzoyl acrylic acid from benzene
iii. Synthesis of (3-benzoyl propionic acid from benzene
iv. Synthesis of p-chloro acetyl acetanilide from acetanilide
v. Synthesis of resacetophenone from resorcinol
vi. Synthesis of triphenyl methane from benzene
vii. Synthesis of 1, 4-di t-butyl 2, 5-dimethoxy benzene from hydroquinone dimethyl ether
viii. Synthesis of ά, ß, ß,-triphenyl propionic acid from dibromohydrocinnamic acid
ix. Synthesis of triphenyl chlormethane from benzene

d. Halogenation :
i. Synthesis of p-bromo acetanilide from acetanilide
ii. Synthesis of sym tri bromo phenol from phenol
iii. Synthesis of sym tri bromo aniline from aniline
iv. Synthesis of m-bromo nitro benzene from nitrobenzene
v. Synthesis of 4-acetamido-3-bromo toluene from acetotoluidide
vi. Synthesis of 9-chloro anthracene from anthracene
vii. Synthesis of p-iodo aniline from aniline
viii. Synthesis of o-nitro benzyl pyridinium bromide from o-nitro toluene
ix. Synthesis of phenacyl bromide from acetophenone

9. Decarboxylation :
i. Synthesis of phenylethylene (styrene) from cinnamic acid
ii. Synthesis of imidazole from imidazole-4, 5-dicarboxylic acid

10. Deamination :
i. Synthesis of sym-tribromobenzene from sym-tribromoaniline

11. Aromatic Nucleophilic Substitution :
i. Synthesis of 2, 4-dinitro phenyl hydrazine from 1-chloro 2, 4-dinitrobenzene

12. Condensation Reactions :
a. Aldol condensation
b. Claisen-Schmidt reaction :
i. Synthesis of benzalacetone from benzaldehyde
ii. Synthesis of dibenzalacetone from benzaldehyde
iii. Synthesis of benzalacetophenone from benzaldehyde and acetophenone
iv. Synthesis of benzafluorene from benzaldehyde and fluorine

c. Benzoin condensation :
i. Synthesis of benzoin from benzaldehyde
ii. Synthesis of benzoin from Vitamin B1

d. Reimer Tieman reaction :
i. Synthesis of 2-hydroxy 1-naphthaldehyde from 2-naphthol

e. Perkin reaction :
i. Synthesis of cinnamic acid from benzaldehyde
ii. Synthesis of 3-nitro cinnamic acid from m-nitro benzaldehyde
iii. Synthesis of coumarin from salicylaldehyde

f. Lederer Manasse reaction :
i. Synthesis of o and p-hydroxy benzyl alcohol from phenol

g. Knovenagel reaction :
i. Synthesis of m-nitro cinnamic acid from m-nitro benzaldehyde
ii. Synthesis of cinnamic acid from benzaldehyde

h. Ullmann Condensation :
i. Synthesis of N Phenyl anthranilic acid from o-chlorobenzoic acid

i. Gomberg reaction :
i. Synthesis of 4-bromo biphenyl from p-bromoaniline

13. Rearrangements :
a. Beckmann rearrangement
i. Synthesis of acetophenone oxime and its rearrangement to acetanilide
ii. Synthesis of benzophenone oxime and its rearrangement to benzanilide
iii. Synthesis of fluorenone oxime and its rearrangement to 6-phenanthridone

b. Benzilic acid rearrangement :
i. Synthesis of benzilic acid from benzyl

c. Pinacol-Pinacolone rearrangement :
i. Synthesis of benzopinacolone from benzopinacol

d. Hoffmann rearrangement :
i. Synthesis of anthranilic acid from phthalimide
ii. Synthesis of methyl acetyl urea from acetamide
iii. Synthesis of ß-alanine from succinimide

e. Fries Rearrangement :
i. Synthesis of 2, 5-dihydroxyacetophenone from hydroquinone diacetate

f. Benzidine rearrangement :
i. Synthesis of benzidine from hydrazobenzene

g. Schmidt rearrangement :
i. Synthesis of 3, 5-dinitroaniline from 3, 5-dinitrobenzoic acid

h. Intramolecular rearrangement of aromatic amine sulphates :
i. Synthesis of p-amino benzene sulphonic acid from aniline
ii. Rearrangement of salicylic acid to p-hydroxy benzoic acid
iii. Rearrangement of N phenyl hydroxylamine to p-amino phenol

14. Organic Photochemistry :
i. Synthesis of benzopinacol from benzophenone
ii. Synthesis of stilbene dibromide from bibenzyl
iii. Dimerization of anthracene

15. Sandmayer's Reaction :
i. Synthesis of p-chloro toluene from p-toluidine
ii. Synthesis of o-chloro benzoic acid from anthranilic acid
iii. Synthesis of m-nitro chloro benzene from nitroaniline

16. Cannizaro Reaction :
i. Synthesis of benzoic acid and benzyl alcohol from benzaldehyde
ii. Synthesis of pentaerythritol from acetaldehyde
iii. Synthesis of 4-chlorobenzyl chloride and 4-chlorobenzoic acid from 4-chlorobenzoldehyde

17. Diels Alder Reaction :
i. Synthesis of 9, 10-dihyroanthracene endo ά, ß succinic acid anhydride from anthracene
ii. Synthesis of 3, 6-oxo 1,2,3,6-tetrahydro phthalic anhydride from furan

18. Japp Klingermann Reaction :
i. Synthesis of diethyl mesoxalate o-nitrophenylhydrazone from o-nitroaniline
ii. Synthesis of methyl glyoxal- ω-phenylhydrazone from ethyl acetoacetate

19. Chloromethylation Reaction :
i. Synthesis of 2 hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl chloride from p-nitrophenol
ii. Synthesis of 1-chloromethylnaphthalene from naphthalene

20. Heterocyclic Synthesis :
i. Fischer Indole synthesis
ii. Pechmann reaction
iii. Erlenmeyer azlactone synthesis
iv. Knorr Quinoline synthesis

21. Dyes :
a. Azo dyes :
i. Synthesis of para red from p-nitroaniline
ii. Synthesis of methyl orange from sulfanilic acid
iii. Synthesis of orange II from sulfanilic acid
iv. Synthesis of methyl red from anthranilic acid

b. Nitro dyes :
i. Synthesis of martius yellow from 1-naphthol
ii. Synthesis of naphthol yellow from 1-naphthol

c. Xanthene dyes :
i. Synthesis of fluorescein from resorcinol
ii. Synthesis of Eosin

d. Triphenylmethanc dyes :
i. Synthesis of malachite green from benzaldehyde

22. Grignard Reaction :
i. Synthesis of triphenylcarbinol from benzophenone
ii. Synthesis of triphenycarbinol from methyl benzoate

23. Alkylation Reacion :
i. Synthesis of Ethyl-n butyl acetoacetate

24. Miscellaneous Preparations :
i. Synthesis of biphenic acid from anthranilic acid
ii. Synthesis of p-iodobenzoic acid from p-amino benzole acid
iii. Synthesis of p-iodo nitrobenzene from p-nitroaniline
iv. Synthesis of DOT from chlorobenzene
v. Synthesis of benzilic acid from benzoin
via. Synthesis of maleic acid from malic acid
b. Conversion of maleic acid to fumaric acid

vii. Synthesis of 2, 4-dinitroaniline from 1-chloro 2, 4-dinitrobenzene
viii. Synthesis of cis methoxy cinnamic acid from coumarin
ix. Synthesis of p-nitrobenzoyl chloride from p-nitrobenzoic acid
x. Synthesis of 2, 4-dinitrophenol from dinitrochlorobenzene

Section III : NATURAL PRODUCT-ISOLATION :
1. Flavonoids :
a. Isolation of Hesperdin from Orange peel

2. Carotenoids :
a. Isolation of lycopene from tomatoes
b. Isolation of ß-carotene from carrot

3. Lipids :
a. Isolation of lecithin from egg yolk
b. Isolation of trimyristin from nutmeg

4. Phenol :
a. Isolation of Eugenol from cloves

5. Amino Acids :
a. Isolation of glutamine from red beet

6. Alkaloids :
a. Isolation of caffeine from tea
b. isolation of nicotine from tobacco
c. Isolation of piperine from black pepper

7. Carbohydrates :
a. Isolation of lactose and caesin from milk
b. Isolation of a cellobiose octaacetate from cotton

8. Steroids :
a. Isolation of stigmasterol from soya bean oil

Section IV : QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATIONS :
1. Estimation of Sulphur (Messenger's method)
2. Estimation of Nitrogen (Kjeldahl Method)
3. Estimation of Molecular Weight of Acid :
a. Silver salt method
b. Titration with alkali solution method

4. Estimation of Saponification Value of an Ester (oil or fat)
5. Estimation of Hydroxyl Groups
6. Estimation of Phenols :
a. Acetylation method
b. Bromination method

7. Estimation of Number of Acetyl Groups
8. Estimation of Amino Acids
9. Estimation of Sugars
10. Estimation of Amino Groups :
a. Acetylation Method
b. Bromination Method

11. Estimation of Carbonyl Groups
12. Estimation of Iodine Value
13. Estimation of Acid Value

Section V : PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY :
1. Density
i. To determine the density or specific gravity of an unknown liquid

2. Viscosity :
i. To determine the coefficient of viscosity of amyl alcohol at laboratory temperature
ii. To determine the percentage composition of the given mixture consisting of two liquids A and B (non interacting system) by viscosity method
iii. To determine the molecular weight of a polymer (polystyrene or polymethyl metharylate or cellulose acetate) by means of viscosity measurement

3. Surface Tension :
i. To determine the relative surface tension of a liquid by stalagmometer
ii. To determine the percentage composition of a given binary mixture (acetone and ethyl methyl ketone) by surface tension method

4. Chemical kinetics :
i. To determine the specific reaction rate of the hydrolysis of methyl acetate catalyzed by hydrogen ions (acid) at laboratory temperature
ii. To determine the relative strength of HC1 and H2SO4 by studying the kinetics of hydrolysis of ethyl acetate.
iii. To study kinetically the reaction rate of decomposition of iodine by hydrogen peroxide
iv. To study the kinetics of Acetone-Iodine reaction catalyzed by H+ ions

5. Distribution Law :
i. To determine the partition coefficient of iodine between water and carbon tetrachloride at constant temperature
ii. To determine the partition coefficient of benzoic acid between water and benzene and show that it dimerizes in benzene

6. Colloids :
i. To prepare arsenious Sulphide sol and compare the precipitating power of mono (NAC13) anions

7. Colligative properties of dilute solutions :
i. To determine the molecular weight of non-volatile solute (glucose or sucrose or urea) cryoscopically using water as solvent
ii. To determine the molecular weight of non-volatile solute (glucose or sucrose or urea) ebullioscopically

8. Molecular weight determination by Rast's method :
i. To determine the molecular weight of naphthalene or acetanilide or anthracene by Rast's method

9. Thermochemistry :
i. To determine water equivalent of calorimeter
ii. To determine heat of solution of potassium nitrate or potassium chloride or ammonium chloride
iii. To determine the heat of neutralization of an acid (HCI) with a base (NaOH) by calorimeter method

10. Solubility :
i. To determine the solubility of benzoic acid at different temperatures by weighing method and to determine heat of solution of the dissolution process
ii. To determine the solubility of benzoic acid at different temperatures by volumetric method and to determine heat of solution of the dissolution process
iii. To determine the solubility of potassium nitrate in water by gravimetric method

11. Phase Equilibria :
i. To study the effect of solute (sodium chloride and succinic acid) on the critical solution temperature of two partially miscible liquids (phenol-water) and determine the concentration of that solute in the given phenol-water system
ii. To construct the phase diagram of two component system (diphenylamine-benzophenone) by cooling curve method

12. Transition temperature :
i. To determine the transition temperature of MgCl2,4H2O or SrCl2,6H2O by solubility method
ii. To determine the transition temperature of MgCl2,4H2O or SrCl2,6H2O by solubility dilatometric method
iii. To determine the transition point of MgCl2,4H2O or SrCl2.6H2O by solubility method

13. Adsorption :
i. To study the adsorption of acetic acid on activated charcoal

14. pH determination :
i. To determine the pH of different solutions by indicator method

15. Electrolytic conductance :
i. To determine the cell constant of a given conductivity cell using N/50 KCl solution
ii. To determine the equivalent conductance of a strong electrolyte at several concentrations (including infinite dilutions) and verify Onsager's equation
iii. To determine the equivalent conductance of a weak electrolyte at different concentrations and verify Oswald's dilution law. Also to determine the dissociation constant of a weak electrolyte conductometically
iv. To determine the solubility and solubility product of a sparingly soluble electrolyte (PbSO4) conductometrically

16. Conductometric titrations :
i. To determine the strength of the given acid solution (HCl) by conductometric titration with the standard alkali (NaOH) solution
ii. To study the rate constant and saponification of ethyl acetate conductometrically
iii. To titrate the given ferrous ammonium sulphate solution with potassium dichromate potentiometrically and hence, determine the redox potential

17. Refractometry :
i. To verify law of refraction for mixtures (glycerol and water) using Abbe's refractometer

18. Optical activity :
i. To determine the specific rotation of an optically active compound

19. Spectroscopic techniques :
i. determine the composition of Fe (III) Salicylic acid complex by

Section VI : INORGANIC CHEMISTRY :
1. Systematic Qualitative Inorganic Analysis :
a. Systematic identification of acid radicals :
i. Preliminary examination
ii. Confirmatory examination
iii. Interfering acid radicals
iv. Identification of acid radicals present in combinations
v. Interfering acid radicals and their removal

b. Systematic identification of basic radicals :
i. Dry tests
ii. West tests
iii. Analysis of group I radicals
iv. Analysis of group II radicals
v. Analysis of group III radicals
vi. Analysis of group IV radicals
vii. Analysis of group V radicals
viii. Analysis of group VI radicals

2. Semi-micro analysis :
a. Semi-micro analysis of acid radicals
ii. Analysis of group I radicals
iii. Analysis of group II radicals
iv. Analysis of group III radicals
v. Analysis of group IV radicals
vi. Analysis of group V radicals
vii. Analysis of group VI radicals

3. Volumetric analysis :
A. Apparatus used for volumetric analysis
B. Terms, expressions and calculations used in volumetric analysis
C. Preparation of standard solution
D. Indicators
E. Redox titration :
a. Potassium permanganate titrations :
1. Determination of the strength of unknown oxalic acid solution by titrating against KMnO4 solution
2. Determination of the strength of unknown ferrous ammoniun sulphate (Mohr's salt) solution by titrating against standard KMnO4 solution
3. Estimation of ferrous and ferric ions in the given iron solution
4. Estimation of the percentage of manganese dioxide (MnO2) and available oxygen in given pyrolusite-a manganese ore
5. Estimation of calcium content in chalk as calcium oxalate by permagnatometry
6. Determination of the compostion of sodium trioxalato ferrate (III) trihydrate Na3[Fe(C2O4)].4H2O

b. Potassium dichromate titrations :
1. To determine the strength of ferrous ammonium sulphate solution by titrating against potassium dichromate using potassium ferricyanide as an external indicator
2. To determine the strength of unknown potassium dichromate solution using ferrous ammonium sulphate as an intermediate and potassium ferricyanide as an external indicator
3. To determine the strength of unknown potassium dichromate solution using ferrous ammonium sulphate as an intermediate and N-phenyl anthranilic acid as an external indicator
4. To estimate ferrous and ferric ions in a given iron solution
5. To determine the strength of iron present in given iron ore such as haematite and spathatite

c. Iodine titrations :
1. To determine the strength of given copper sulphate solution using sodium thiosulphate as intermediate and starch as internal indicator
2. To determine the strength of given potassium permanganate solution by titrating against sodium thiosulphate solution
3. To determine the strength of given potassium permanganate solution by titrating against sodium thiosulphate solution iodometrically

d. Acidimetry and Alkalimetry titrations :
1. To determine the percentage of acetic acid in commercial vinegar
2. To determine the strength of alkali content in an antacid tablet using HCl
3. To determine the strength and percentage composition of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate in a given mixture
4. To determine the strength in gms/litre and percentage composition of sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate in a given mixture
5. To determine the percentage of sodium carbonate present in washing soda

e. Complexometric titrations:
1. Determination of concentration of Mg2+ ions by EDTA using Eriochrome Black as indicator
2. Determination of concentration of Ca2+ ions by EDTA using Eriochrome Black as indicator
3. Determination of concentration of Zn2+ ions by EDTA using Eriochrome Black as indicator

f. Precipitation titrations :
1. Determination of the strength of given silver nitrate solution using sodium chloride as intermediate and potassium chromate as indicator by Mohr's method
2. Determination of the strength of given silver nitrate solution using potassium thiocyanate as intermediate and ferric alum as indicator (Volhard's method)

g. Miscellaneous volumetric titration :
1. To determine the strength of unknown ZnO solution (in H2SO4) in grams/litre using potassium ferro-ferricyanide solution as an intermediate and N,N' diphenyl benzidine as indicator

4. Gravimetric Analysis :
A. Steps involved in gravimetric analysis
B. Estimations :
1. Estimation of barium as-barium sulphate
2. Estimation of sulphate as barium sulphate
3. Estimation of zinc as zinc oxide
4. Estimation of copper as copper oxide
5. Estimation of copper as copper thiocyanate
6. Estimation of nickel as nickel dimethylglyoxime
7. Estimation of silver as silver chloride
8. Estimation of chloride as silver Chloride
9. Estimation of zinc as zinc ammonium Phosphate
10. Estimation of zinc as zinc pyrophosphate
11. Estimation of lead as lead Sulphate
12. Estimation of iron as iron Oxide
13. Estimation of chromium as chromium Oxide

C. Gravimetric Estimation of Mixed Metal Ions :
1. Estimation of copper as Cuprous thiocyanate and zinc as zinc ammonium phosphate
2. Estimation of silver as silver chloride and copper as copper thiocyanate
3. Estimation of lead as lead sulphate and copper as copper thiocyanate
4. Estimation of silver as silver chloride and zinc as zinc ammonium phosphate
5. Estimation of lead as lead sulphate and zinc as zinc ammonium phosphate
6. Estimate iron as ferric oxide and nickel as nickel dimethylglyoxime

5. Inorganic Preparations :
1. Sodium thiosulphate pentahydrate (Na2S2O3,5H2O)
2. Chrome alum (K2SO4,Cr2SO4,24H2O)
3. Hexa-amine cobalt (III) Hexa-nitro cobalt (III)
4. Dichlorodipyridino cobalt (II) [ Co(py)2Cl2]
5. Potassium trioxalato ferrate K3[Fe(C2O4)3],3H2O
6. Carbonatotetra-aminecobalt (III) nitrate [Co(CO3)(NH3)4]NO3
7. Tris (acetyl acetonato) manganese (III) Mn(acac)3
8. Ferrous ammonium sulphate [Mohr salt, FeSO4,(NH4)2SO4,6H2O]
9. Tetraamine copper (II) sulphate monohydrate [Cu(NH3)4] SO4,H2O
10. Hexamine nickel (II) chloride [Ni(NH3)6]Cl2
11. Mercury tetrathiocyanatocobaltate (II) Hg [Co(SCN)4]
12. Bis (2, 4 pentanedionato) Vanadium IV oxide or Bis (acetyl acetonato) vanadium IV oxide VO (acac)4
13. Trinitrotriamine cobalt (III) Co(NO2)3(NH,)3
14. Sodium ammonium hydrogen phosphate [Microcosmicsalt, Na(NH4)HPO4,4H2O]
15. Chloropenta-aminecobalt (III) chloride [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2
16. Cis and trans-Potassium dioxalatodiaquo chromate (III) K[Cr(C2O4)2(H2O)2]
17. Tris (thiourea) copper (I) sulphate {Cu[CS(NH2)2]3 }SO4.2H2O
18. Sodium tri oxalatoferrate {Sodium ferri oxalate, Na3[Fe(C2O4)3J.9H2O}
19. Prussian blue Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3
20. Tris (acetylacetonato) silicon chloride hydrochloride [Si(acac)3]Cl,HCl
21. Potassium tris (oxalato) aluminate (III) K3[Al(C2O4)3],3H2O
22. Potassium trioxalato manganate(III) K3[Mn(C2O4)3]
23. Lead Tetra-acetate [Pb(CH3COO)4]
24. Dipyridinium hexachloroplumbate (IV) (C5H5NH)2PbCl6
25. Bis (dimethylglyoximato) nickel (II) Ni(C4H7O2N2)2

6. Organometallic preparations :
1. Dibutyl tin dibenzoate [n(C4H9)2 Sn (OCOC6H5)2]
2. Sodium tetra phenylborate, Na[B (C6H5)4]
3. Ammonium tetrathiocyanato diamine chromate (III) {Reinecke's salt, NH4[Cr(NH3)2(SCN)4],H2O
4. Sodium tetrathiocyanato diamine chromate (III), Na[Cr(NR3)2(SCN)4]

7. Solvent Extraction :
1. Selective extraction of iron metal cation from a mixture of iron and magnesium and determination of their respective concentrations

Section VII : WATER ANALYSIS :
1. Water Analysis :
a. Physical parameters
b. Chemical parameters :
1. To determine chloride concentration in a supplied water sample using Mohr method (Argentometric)
2. To determine the percentage of available chlorine in the given sample of bleaching powder
3. To determine the total hardness (temporary and permanent) of water

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