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The Performance and Design of Alternating Current Machines Transformers, Three-Phase Induction Motors and Synchrounous Machines 3rd Edition, Reprint,8123910274,9788123910277

The Performance and Design of Alternating Current Machines Transformers, Three-Phase Induction Motors and Synchrounous Machines 3rd Edition, Reprint

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Book Information

Publisher:CBS Publishers & Distributors
Published In:2002
ISBN-10:8123910274
ISBN-13:9788123910277
Binding Type:Paperback
Weight:1.66 lbs
Pages:pp. xxi + 664, Figures (3 Folded), Tables, Graphs, Index

The Title "The Performance and Design of Alternating Current Machines Transformers, Three-Phase Induction Motors and Synchrounous Machines 3rd Edition, Reprint" is written by M.G. Say. This book was published in the year 2002. The ISBN number 8123910274|9788123910277 is assigned to the Paperback version of this title. The book displayed here is a 3rd Edition, Reprint edition. This book has total of pp. xxi + 664 (Pages). The publisher of this title is CBS Publishers & Distributors. We have about 2213 other great books from this publisher. The Performance and Design of Alternating Current Machines Transformers, Three-Phase Induction Motors and Synchrounous Machines 3rd Edition, Reprint is currently Available with us.

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Contents

Preface
Unit System
Beading Guide

Chap. I : INTRODUCTORY :
Alternating Current Machines-Alternating Current System-Circuit Behaviour-Transient and Steady States-Steady-State Conventions-Power-Per-Unit Values

Chap. II : FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES :
The Electromagnetic Machine-Induction and Interaction-Law of Induction-Law of Interaction-Generators and Motors-Transformers-Classification-Three-Phase Complexor Diagram-Symmetrical Components

Chap. III : TRANSFORMERS : THEORY :
Use of the Transformer-Mutual Induction-Linked Electric and Magnetic Circuits-Theory of the Power Transformer-The Complexor Diagram-Magnetizing Current and Core Loss-The Equivalent Circuit-Comploxor Diagram of the Transformer on Load-Efficiency-Short-Circuit Loss-Efficiency on Load-Regulation

Chap. IV : TRANSFORMERS : CONSTRUCTION :
Constructional Parts-Core Construction-Core Sections-Constructional Framework-Windings-Insulation-Leads and Terminals-Bushings-Cooling-Natural Oil Cooling-Forced Oil Cooling-Internal Cooling - Tanks-Transformer Oil

Chap. V : TRANSFORMERS : OPERATION :
Equivalent Circuits-Installation-Noise-Effect of Load - Factor on Losses-Connections for Transformers-Nomenclature-Star/Star-Delta/Delta-Star/Delta-Zig - Zag/Star-Three-Phase/Six-Phase-General Remarks on Three-Phase Connections-Three-Phase to Two-Phase Connections-Scott Three/Two-Phase Connection-Le Blanc Three/Two-Phase Connection-Three/One-Phase Connection-Auto-Transformers-Equivalent Circuit-Three - Phase Auto - Connection-Simple Voltage Regulation by Auto-Transformer and Reactor-Capacitor Booster,-Voltage regulation and tap-changing-Tappings-Off-Circuit Tap - changing-On - Load Tap - changing-Principles of Control-Transformer - type Voltage Regulators-Moving - coil Regulator-Parallel Operation-Voltage Ratio-Impedance-Polarity-Phase - Sequence-Tertiary Windings-Primary Current-Equivalent Circuit : Regulation-Tertiary Windings in Star/Star Transformers-Rating of Tertiary Windings-Harmonics in Transformers-Single - phase Transformers-Three - phase Banks of Single-phase Transformers-Three - phase Transformer Units-Effects of Transformer Harmonics-Harmonic Current Compensation-Transients-Switching - in Phenomena-Voltage Surges-Surge Protection-Mechanical Stresses-Radial Force-Axial Compression-Bracing-Low - voltage Transformers-High - voltage Testing Transformers-Industrial - frequency Testing Transformers - Transformers for Other Tests-Trans - former Protection : Buchholz System-Classification of Transformer Protection-Impedance of Three - phase Transformers to Phase - sequence Component Currents

Chap. VI : TRANSFORMERS : TESTING :
Objects of Tests-Phasing Out-Polarity-D.C. Resistance-Voltage Ratio-Magnetizing Current and Core Loss-Core - loss Voltmeter-Impedance and l2R Loss-Efficiency-Temperature Rise-Back to - back Connection-Delta/Delta Connection-Equivalent Short - Circuit Run-Equivalent no - load Run-Insulation Tests-Impulse Tests

Chap. VII : TRANSFORMERS : DESIGN :
Frames-Thermal Rating-Momentary Load Limitations-Output-Specific Loadings-Allocation of Losses-Design-Coils and Insulation-Reactance-Cylindrical Concentric Coils, Equal Length-Cylindrical Concentric Coils, Unequal Lengths-Sandwich Coils-Mechanical Forces-Magnetizing Current-Cooling Tanks-Specification-Example : 300 - kVA., 6 600/400-440-V., 50-c/s, Three - phase, Core - type Power Transformer-Example : 125-kVA., 2 OOO/440-V., 50-c/s., Single, Phase, Shell - type Power Transformer-Example : 25-kVA., 6 600/ 440-V., 50-c/s., Three - phase, Core - type Transformer-Example : 1 000-kVA., 6 600/440 V., 50-c/s., Three - phase, Core - type Transformer-Example : 15,000-kVA., 33/6-6-kV., 50-c/s., Three - phase, Core - type Transformer

Chap. VIII : ELECTROMAGNETIC MACHINES :
Energy Conversion-Operating Principles-Two - polo Machines-Reluctance Motors-Machines with Armature Windings-Windings-Stator and Rotor windings-M.m.f. of Windings-Conditions for Torque-E.m.f. Production-Machine Analysis-Equivalent Circuits

Chap. IX : MAGNETIC CIRCUITS :
Laws of the Magnetic Circuit-Core Losses-Surface and Pulsation Losses-Magnetic Materials-Laminated Materials-Materials for Steady Fluxes-Calculation of Magnetic Circuits-Air Gap-Gap - Density Distribution-Teeth : Real and Apparent Flux - Density-Tapered Teeth-Magnetizing Current-Leakage-Leakage of Salient Poles-Leakage of Non - salient Poles-Armature Leakage-Slot Leakage-Overhang Leakage-Zig - zag Leakage-Differential Leakage-Phase Reactance of an Induction Motor-Phase Reactance of a Synchronous Machine

Chap. X : ARMATURE WINDINGS :
Types of Windings for a.c. Machines-Armature Windings-Conductors, Turns and Coils-Connections Between Coil Groups-Nomenclature-Single - layer Windings-Double - layer Windings-Integral - slot Windings-Fractional - slot Windings-Coil Span-Types of Double - layer Windings-Choice of Armature Winding-Coil Manufacture-Slots-K.m.f. of Windings-Sinusoidal Gap - flux-K.m.f. of Windings : General Case-Distribution Factor - Coil Span Factor-Phase connection-The e.m.f. Equation-Tooth Harmonics-Armature Reaction-Rotating Field-Magnitude of Armature Reaction-Field Circuit Equivalents of Armature Reaction-Phase - sequence components-Conductors-Eddy - current Losses-Conductors in Slots-Conductors in Overhang-Transformers-Insulation

Chap. XI : VENTILATION :
Dissipation of Heat-Heat Flow-Types of Enclosure-Cooling - air Circuit-Quantity of Cooling Medium-Flow of Heat to Cooling Gas-Exponential Temperature - Rise/Time Curves-Cooling Coefficient-Temperature - rise-Hating

Chap. XII : INDUCTION MACHINES : THEORY :
Development-Action of the Plain Induction Motor-The Generalized Transformer-Cage and Slip - ring Rotors-Cage Rotor-Slip - ring Rotor-Machine with Constant Flux-Simple Theory of the Induction Machine with Constant Flux-Slip-E.m.f.'s-Currents-Power-Torque-Generator Action-Torque/Slip Curves-Mechanical Power-Simple Equivalent Circuit and Circle Diagram-Stator Circle Diagram-No - load Loss-Short - circuit Loss-Input and Output-Torque-Machine with Primary Impedance and, Varying Flux-Flux Variation-Equivalent Circuit Development-Deductions from the Equivalent Circuit-Losses and Efficiency-Calculation of Performance-Current Diagram-Inversion-Current Locus of an Induction Motor - Practical Current Diagram-Construction from no - load and Short - circuit Data-Equivalent Cage Rotor

Chap. XIII : INDUCTION MACHINES : PERFORMANCE AND CONTROL :
Performance-Types, Ratings and Applications-Motor Speeds-Starting-Starting of Slip - ring Motors-Rotor Rheostat Starter-Choice of Rotor Voltage-Starting of Cage Motors-Effects of Reduced Stator Voltage-Methods of Starting-Centrifugal Clutch-Current Peaks During Starting-Dynamics of Starting-Acceleration Time-Motor with Pure Inertia Load-Rotor Heating-Cogging, Crawling, and Noise Production in Cage Motors-Harmonic Induction Torques-Harmonic Synchronous Torques-Noise-Number of Biota in Cage Motor-High - torque Cage Machines-Comparison of Cage and Slip-Ring Motors-High - torque Rotors-Double-Rage Motor-Typos of Slotting-Equivalent Circuit-Current Locus-Design of Double - cage Rotors-Speed Control-Control by Rotor Rheostat-Pole - changing-Cascade Connection-Change of Supply Frequency-Other Methods of Speed Control-Power Factor Control-Static Capacitors-Synchronous - induction Motor-Phase Advancers-Phase - compensated Induction Motors-Control of Speed and Power Factor-Induction Generator-Externally - excited Induction Generator-Self - excited Induction Generator-Electric Braking-Regenerative Braking-Plugging-Dynamic braking-Other Methods-Braking Conditions-Operation on Unbalanced Voltage-Motor Control by Negative - sequence Torque-Single - phasing-Induction Regulators-Single - phase Regulators-Three - phase Regulators-Electromagnetic Pumps-Induction Pumps-Theory of the Linear Pump

Chap. XIV : INDUCTION MOTORS : TESTING :
Objects of Tests- D.C. Resistance-Voltage - ratio or Open - circuit Test-Running - up Test-No - load Test-Short - circuit (Locked Rotor) Test-Efficiency and Operating Data-Load Test-Temperature - rise Test -Insulation Test-Separation of Losses-No - Load Test with Rotor Driven-Friction Losses-Method of Loss Separation-Back - to - back Test-Equivalent Circuit

Chap. XV : INDUCTION MOTORS : CONSTRUCTION :
General Arrangement-Frames-Cores-Windings-Shafts, Bearings, etc-Induction generators

Chap. XVI : INDUCTION MOTORS : DESIGN :
Standard Frames-Windings-Design-Rating and Dimensions-Output Coefficient-Specific Loadings-Main Dimensions-Performance-Example : 5-h.p., 400-V., Three - phase, 50-c/s., 4 - pole Cage Motor-Example : 20-h.p., 420 - V., Three - phase 50-c/s., 6-pole Slip - ring Motor-Example : 160-h.p., 2 000-V., Three - phase 50-c/s. Slip - ring Motor-Further Examples

Chap. XVII : SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES : THEORY :
Types of Synchronous Machine-Action of the Synchronous Machine -Synchronous Generator-Synchronous Motor-Synchronous Reactance-Theory of Cylindrical - rotor Machines-Operation of Synchronous Generator with Constant Synchronous Reactance-Generator Load Characteristics-Generator Voltage - regulation-Generator Excitation for Constant Voltage-Generator Input and Output-Parallel Operation of Two Generators-Synchronous Machine on Infinite Busbars-General Load Diagram-Electrical Load Diagram-Mechanical Load Diagram-O - curves and V - curves-Power Angle : Generator and Motor Action-Synchronizing Power-Synchronous Motor-Theory of Salient - pole Machines-Two - reaction Theory-Determination of Direct - and Quadrature - axis Synchronous Reactance-Synchronous Generator-Synchronous Motor-Saturation Effects-Open - circuit and Short-Circuit Characteristics-Complexor Diagram-Assessment of Reactance-Short - circuit Ratio-Synchronous Reactance-Adjusted Synchronous Reactance-Potier Reactance-Voltage Regulation-Simple Ampere - turn Method-Synchronous - Impedance Method-Armature Reaction Method-Zero - power - factor saturation - curve Method-V - curves

Chap XVIII : SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES : OPERATION AND CONTROL :
Performance of Alternators-Operating Charts for Largo Generators-Starting, Synchronizing and Control of Generators-Synchronizing-Control-Voltage Control-Automatic Voltage - regulators-Dynamics of Synchronous Machines-Stability-Dynamical Analysis-Causes of Divergence-Cyclic Disturbing Torque-Damping and Flywheel Effort-Short Circuit-Initial Conditions-Armature Current During Three - phase Short Circuit-Field Current During Short Circuit-Single - phase Short Circuit-Short - circuit Reactance-Field Suppression-Short - circuit Forces-Surge Voltages-Generator Protection-Performance of Synchronous Motors-Starting-Induction - starting a Synchronous Motor-Starting on Full Voltage-Starting on Reduced Voltage-Synchronous - induction Motor-Secondary Winding-Equivalent Secondary Current-Salient - polo Synchronous - induction Motors-Current Diagram-Performance-Pulling into Stop-Choice of Constant - speed Motors-The Synchronous Capacitor-The Inductor Alternator-Theory

Chap. XIX : SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES : TESTING :
Methods of Testing-Resistance-Open - circuit Test-Short - circuit Test-Zero - power - factor Test-Temperature - rise-Efficiency-Stray Losses-Loss Measurement-Electrical Methods- Mechanical Method-Calorimetric Method-High - voltage Tests-Voltage Regulation-Synchronous Motor-Reactance-Sudden - short-Circuit Test-Factory Tests on Large Machines-Temperature - rise

Chap. XX : SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES : CONSTRUCTION :
Mechanical design-Centrifugal Force-Hoop Stress-Critical Speed-Balancing-Bearings-Flywheel Effect-Turbo - alternators-Rotors-Windings-Cooling-Overhang-Fans-Slip - rings-Stators-Core-Windings-Ventilation-Air Cooling-Hydrogen Cooling-Direct Cooling-High - voltage Generators-Salient - pole Machines-General Construction-Rotors-Poles-Windings-Damper Windings-Bearings-Thrust Bearings-Braking and Jacking-Stators-Cores-Windings-Ventilation-Synchronous and Synchronous - induction Motors-Exciters-Auxiliaries

Chap. XXI : SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES : DESIGN :
Types-Specification-Rating and Dimensions-Low - speed Machines-Turbo - generators-Specific Loadings-Main Dimensions-Stray Losses-Design-Example : 1 250-kVA., 1 000-kW., Three - phase 50-c/s., 3 000-V., 300-r.p.m., Engine - driven Alternator-Example : 25 000-kVA., 20 000-kW., Three - phase, 50-c/s., 6 600-V. 1 500-r.p.m Turbo-Alternator-Further Examples

Chap. XXII : CONVERTING MACHINERY :
Converting Plant-The Synchronous Converter-The Motor Generator-The Motor Converter-The Synchronous Motor - generator-Operation-Induction Motor - generator-Operation

Chap. XXIII : SYNCHRONOUS CONVERTERS :
General Arrangement-Voltage Ratios-Current Ratios-Armature Hating-Current and Heating in an Armature Conductor-Heating and Output-Armature Reaction-Commutation-Voltage Limitations-Construction-Connections-Starting-Starting as an Induction Motor-Starting by Auxiliary a.c. Motor-Voltage Regulation-Reactance Control-Booster Control-Transformer Tappings-Induction Regulator Control-D.C. Booster-Inverted Running-Performance

Chap. XXIV : MOTOR - CONVERTERS :
Theory-Voltage and Current Ratios-Action-Operation-Starting -Voltage Regulation-Reversal

Chap. XXV : THE E.M.F. OF THE GENERAL ELECTRICAL MACHINE :
General Equation for the Induced e.m.f. in a Coil-Particular Cases

Chap. XXVI : THE CIRCUIT THEORY OF ELECTRICAL MACHINES :
The Machine as a Circuit-Circuit Elements-Conventions-Transformers-Magnetically - coupled Coils-Ideal Transformer-Transformer with Leakage-Circuit Equations-Per - unit Transformer-Rotating Machines-The Basic Machine-Armature e.m.f.'s-Armature Applied Voltages-Axis Fluxes-Circuit Equations-Equations in Matrix form-Torque-D.C. Machine-Other Variants-Synchronous Machines-Armature Phase Inductance-Armature to Axis Current Transformation-Synchronous Generator in the Steady State-Synchronous Generator on Sudden Short - circuit-Generator without Dampers or Resistance-Generator with Field Resistance-Generator with Damping Circuits-Other Applications-Induction Machines-Steady Load-Transient State

Preface

The original plan of combining performance with design has proved to be an acceptable one, particularly as the emphasis is on the performance rather than on the design. Most readers are users rather than designers, and they will find as comprehensive a discussion of a. c. machines, their basic theory of operation and application, as can be concentrated into a. volume of this size. The considerable range of a. c. machines has made it necessary to limit the scope to transformers, three-phase induction machines and synchronous machines. All other machines are to some degree special and of subsidiary importance.

The book is not intended as an instruction in commercial design : that is an art best knowr to practising designers. An adequate study of turbo-alternator design, for example, would take a volume in itself, at least one-half of which would be devoted to subject-matter of entirely mechanical concern.

In this third edition the opportunity has been taken of a complete conversion to rationalized M. K. S. units. All formulae, whether concerned with electrical, magnetic, mechanical or thermal quantities, are consistent among themselves in respect of units. Only in numerical examples arc decimal multiples or submultiples employed, if convenient, and whore ratings are given in units of MVA. or kVA. instead of the basic volt-ampere, the fact is stated.

The text has been largely re-fashioned to give emphasis to the essential unity of all electromagnetic machines, a unity that has been obscured by the technological accretions in which each class of machine has, in the last half-century become separately embedded. Further, an introduction is now given to the general circuit theory of machines, a powerful method of dealing with their behaviour under transient conditions.

Thanks are again due to the author's good friends in the industry, whose help has been warm and unstinted. Mr. E. Openshaw Taylor, B. sc., D. I. C., Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering at the Heriot-Watt College, has rendered invaluable help and critical advice during the new revision. He is also the author of a companion volume The Performance and Design of A. C. Commutator Motors.

The author has had many letters with suggestions for improvement of the text, and will continue to welcome the comments of his readers.

List of Figures

36 Construction of Core-type Transformer Limb
43 5 000-kVA., 66-kV. Single-phase Transformer
105 300-kVA., 6000/440-V., Mesh/Star, 50-c/s., Three-phase, Core-type Power Transformer

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