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The Roots of Indian Art A Detailed Study of the Formative Period of Indian Art and Architecture - 3rd & 2nd Century B.C.-Mauryan and late Mauryan,8176467669,9788176467667

The Roots of Indian Art A Detailed Study of the Formative Period of Indian Art and Architecture - 3rd & 2nd Century B.C.-Mauryan and late Mauryan



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Publisher:B.R. Publishing Corporation
Published In:2011
Binding Type:Hardback
Weight:4.08 lbs
Pages:pp. xx + 378, Figures, Illus. (Some Col.), 120 Pages of Plates (4 Leaves Col.), Chart (Folded), Maps, Index, Appendices, Biblio.

The Title "The Roots of Indian Art A Detailed Study of the Formative Period of Indian Art and Architecture - 3rd & 2nd Century B.C.-Mauryan and late Mauryan" is written by S.P. Gupta. This book was published in the year 2011. The ISBN number 8176467669|9788176467667 is assigned to the Hardback version of this title. This book has total of pp. xx + 378 (Pages). The publisher of this title is B.R. Publishing Corporation. We have about 1711 other great books from this publisher. The Roots of Indian Art A Detailed Study of the Formative Period of Indian Art and Architecture - 3rd & 2nd Century B.C.-Mauryan and late Mauryan is currently Available with us.

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About the Book

Civilization, sophistication and curtains apparently go together; for as urbanization grows, man closes the Windows of his house, veils them with colourful drapes and shuts out light. So too does he screen his mind with cherished beliefs and makes them proof against doubts and new concepts. Occasionally, some one arrives, begins to doubt and starts questioning the established views. S.P. Gupta does exactly this in The Roots of Indian Art. He has pushed aside the blinds, thrown open the Oeil-de-boeui and allowed light to pour in so that the Formative Period (300-200 B.C. Mauryan and Late Mauryan) of Indian art and Architecture is better illuminated.

The root of the huge tree of Indian Art goes deep into time and spreads over a large part of the Oriental world. To trace the roots of this towering evergreen is no mean task. The colossal nature of the undertaking can be gauged from the fact that the geographical territories covered here include vast areas from three continents — Europe, Asia and Africa—with their diverse traditions in art, architecture, culture, language, race and people. Yet The Author has encompassed his them within the confines of a single, fully documented and comprehensive volume. He has marshalled a large array of facts and figures and presented them in six chapters, such as The Pillars, The Ringstones, The Sculptures and Art Motifs, The Terracottas, The Rock-cut Caves, and the Architecture, each one neatly divided into short bibliography arranged in historical perspective, complete documentation and highly penetrating discussion. He has provided aids to comprehension in the shape of hundreds of illustrations, such as maps, charts, sketches, photographs and coloured plates. Further, he has encapsulated the quintessence of his thesis in the chapter, titled The Polemics' and also 'Summing Up'. The 'Backdrop' discusses some of the fundamental questions regarding the background of the Formative Period of Indian art.

This Book shall serve as a beacon to all research scholars, students and interested readers tormented by doubts and questions and enable them to appreciate the art and architecture of Early India more intimately than hitherto.

About the Author

Swaraj Prakash Gupta (1931-2007) was a well-known Indian Archaeologist and Art historian.
From childhood Gupta was a member of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. He was a scholar, writer of great repute and an authority on Indian art history He has written scores of articles and books on the subject of his interest.

Dr. Gupta also undertook several excavations in Harappan sites. Dr. Gupta remained a bachelor throughout his life. At the time of his death he was busy establishing the Indian History and Culture Society as a full-fledged research centre.

Dr. S.P. Gupta was born in 1931, and at the time of his death in late 2007 was Chairman, Indian Archaeological Society, New Delhi.

He worked and lectured in more than 30 countries of the world. He authored a number of books including Disposal of the Dead and Physical Types in Ancient India (1971), Tourism, Museums and Monuments (1975), Archaeology of Soviet Central Asia and the Indian Borderlands—two volumes (1978), The Roots of Indian Art (1980)—the French edition of which was published in 1990 and Cultural Tourism in India (2002). Dr. S.P. Gupta 3 retired as Director, Allahabad Museum.

He was also the editor of several volumes of the Puratattva, the Bulletin of the Indian Archaeological Society. He was a distinguished archaeologist and art historian who was awarded several gold medals and the Sir Mortimer Wheeler Prize for excellence in archaeology. The ,first "Dr. Vishnu Shridhar Wakankar; National Award" of Madhya Pradesh State Government was presented to the celebrated archaeologist Dr. S.P. Gupta in recognition of his devotion and contribution to archaeological research.



Backdrop :-
General : Origin of Mauryan art; Source Material; West-Asian centric approach; Second Urbanization :its impact on Indian art: Factors of change in art :King's Will and Social Mobility; Oral Tradition

1. The Pillars
General : Directional changes in the study of Asokan Pillars and short Bibliography; Documentation; Discussion—Irwin's theory of Gilded-copper capitals on wooden shafts; Structural considerations; Who erected the pillars and for what purpose ?; The problem of pre-Asokan pillars.

2. The Ringstones
General : Background and short Bibliography; Documentation; Discussion-Differing views on the nude Mother Goddess and rituals connected with her.

3. The Sculpture and Art Motifs
General : Background and short Bibliography; Documentation; Discussion -I: Sculptured motifs; Complete figures; Fragments; The Architectural bulls; Stone-brackets; Discussion—II: Human figures; Free-standing yakshas and yakshas
Motifs :General; Leaf-and-Dart; 'Honeysuckle' or palmette or nagapushpa; Lion; Symbolism of Sarnath Pillar Capital: A fresh interpretation; About other pillars

4. The Terracottas
General : Background and short Bibliography; Documentation; Discussion: Do terracottas represent only Folk Art ?; Terracotta art and Urbanism; Icons and non-Icons in terracottas; The temple plaques; Directional changes in the art of terracottas; Distributional pattern of Pottery and Terracottas; Terracotta vs. Stone; Growth of the Middle class; Use of burnt bricks and stone; Role of Organized Religions and the Middle Class; Some terracotta styles; The evaluation ISO; Conclusion

5. The Rock-cut Caves
General : Background and short Bibliography; Documentation; Discussion; A Fresh Look : The Developmental stages of Mauryan and Late Mauryan Caves; Functional approach to Mauryan caves; Some problems of Lomas Rishi Cave—Excavation techniques; Polishing; Slippage in rock; Was facade a later addition ?; The dale of Lomas Rishi Cave; Fresh Look at the Lomas Rishi Facade; Fresh Look on plans of Early caves

6. The Architecture
General : Background :md short Bibliography; The Palisade; Location of Old Pataliputra and the Pillared Hall at Kumrahar; The pillars: Architectural details; Discussion; The Stupa—background; Vaisali; Piprahwa; Lauriya-Nandangarh; Amaravati; Yidisa; Bairat temple; Discussion

7. The Polemics
General; I. An Outline History of Western Asia; II. The Men behind the Mauryan Art A Reappraisal; III. Pre-Mauryan and Mauryan Crafts; IV. Engravings; V. The problem of Pataliputra-Sarnath School of Late Mauryan Art; VI. The Legacy of Mauryan Art; VII. Do the Bulandibagh and Buxar Terracottas show Greek influence?; VIII. Do Asokan Pillars represent Indradvajas?; IX. The problem of Rubble Fortification of Rajgir; X. Did the Egyptians get Padma lotus from India? The evidence of Herodotus; XI. The Lion :in Nature and Art; XII. Naga and Nagapushpa motif; XIII. The problem of Origin of Srivatsa, Triratna and Trisula motifs; XIV. The earliest Copper Plate from Sahgaura
Summing Up

List of Plates

1. Part of a discstone from Murtaziganj, Patna, showing three panels of mother goddess flanked by various animals, such as the elephant, winged lion, horse and duck. Each panel is marked by a highly stylized palm tree. In the centre is a fully blown lotus.

2. A discstone from Murtaziganj, Patna, showing mother goddess, palm trees and birds in geometric panels.

3. (Upper) General view of the rock-cut cave of Lomas Rishi at Barabar; (Lower) General view of the rock-cut cave of Visvakarma or Visva Jhopari at Barabar.

4. (Upper) Close-up of the facade of the Lomas Rishi cave; (Lower) The path-way leading to the caves on the top of the Barabar hills of granitic out-crop.

List of Figures

Top 1. Sketch showing the interaction between Town and Folk; Folk and Town, directly as well as indirectly, through the villages. It is a basic model presented by Robert Redfield to show how cultures grew in India through the interaction between the Higher Traditions (Vedic) and Little Traditions (Folk). Villages play the intermediary role : the role of transmission of traditions through their preservation

Fig. 1. Map showing culture-interaction between Mauryan India and Seleucid West Asia during the third century B C.

Fig. 2. Map showing major centres of art in India and West Asia from 1000 B.C. to 200 B.C. It may be marked that in northern India there were two major culture areas—the Eastern and (1) Western (3) the Ganga Basin (2) brought them, near each other,-. Area 4 is Bactrian whose emergence is post-Alexandrian. Area 5 is very crucial, it is Persian of pre-Alexandrian period and Seleucid of the post-Alexandrian period. It was a transitional zone between India and West Asia of Irwin's definition. The area from 6 to 12 have their own historical and cultural interactions and had direct influence on Persia (5). Beyond that India received only filtered impulses. See for details Section I of the Polemics. There it has been made clear that historical events created a culture area in which Greece owed as much to West Asia as West Asia owed to Greece; India's geographical location kept it far away from this drama.

Fig. 3. Model showing major stages of two urbanizations. It shows the dynamics of Indian culture history in an evolutionary framework through an interlude. After the First Cycle of Harappan Bronze Age Cultures, in the north as well as the south iron technology develops, around 1000 B.C. The village cultures of the late chalcolithic period slowly and gradually develop potentiality of a new kind in the material culture. From steatite to quartzite and crystal, hard minerals could now be fashioned with case. Quarries of sandstone were just no problem. By the third century B.C., even granite could be handled on a large scale. From Barabar to Amaravati granite was chiselled on a large scale

During the Sunga-Satavahan period stones of every kind yielded to the sharpness of iron and steel implements. Natural caves in granite with man-made benches in Tamil Nadu took one more clue from Barabar-Amaravati experiments, and the monks polished selected parts of their dwellings to the mirror like gloss. Thus from 1000 B.C. to 500 B.C., i.e., during the first phase of second urbanization, India had developed perfect technological potentiality for every kind of take off. What held her back from going for the monumental structure in stone is, therefore, not the lack of technological progress but her love for traditions—not only in the field of religion and literature but also in art and architecture. It just needed someone's will to break this self-imposed limitations. Asoka did it.
Pictorial Chart I Schematic section of the ancient mound of Ropar showing cultural materials from different periods.

Top. Rampurva Bull Capital.
Fig. 1 Map showing important sites of'Asokan' pillars
Fig. 2 Drawing of the Allahabad Pillar as it existed in 1851 with a muslim chhatri or sttipi at the top
Fig. 3 Engraved symbols on the copper dowel from Rampurva Lion pillar
Fig. 4 Left. The stone shaft of the Rampurva lion pillar Right a copper dowel in a wooden shaft with horizontal binding
Fig. 5 Diagram showing the hypothetical construction of a portable dhvja
Fig. 6 Gilt copper lion on pillar, etc.
Fig. 7 Two figures from Bharhut
Fig. 8 A few ghata shaped beads
Fig. 9 Figure of the muchakunda flower
Fig. 10 Art motifs on Sankisa Capital
Fig. 11 Art motifs on Allahabad Capital
Fig. 12 Art motifs or. Rampurva Bull Capital.
Fig. 13 Art motifs on the Bansi (Distt. Basti) Lion Capital
Fig. 14 Art motifs on Sanchi Capital.
Fig. 15 Art motifs on Lauriaya-Nandangarh Capital
Fig. 16 Art motifs on Rampurva Lion Capital
Fig. 17 Asokan pillars
Fig. 18 Two methods of foundation for the Asokan pillars
Fig. 19 Section against the Sanchi Pillar as originally drawn by Marshall.

Top; Ringstone from Rajghat showing lizards, and men (outer frieze), and mother goddess (inner frieze).
Fig. I; Ringstone with elephants from Bhir Mound, Taxila.

Top; The lion head from Mararh.
Fig. 1 The Yaksha head from Shahabad, Hardoi.
Fig. 2 Griffin from Kumvahar etc.
Fig. 3 Reconstruction of structural pillars with 'double bull" capitals.
Fig. 4 Different types of lotus.
Fig. 5 Egypt : Drawings showing papyrus and lotus.
Fig. 6 Ovolo ornament with astragal ornament below. The Siphian Treasury, Delphi.
Fig. 7 Ovolo moulding and ornament.
Fig. 8 Leaf-and-dart motif on Cyma Reversa moulding.
Fig. 9 The Egyptian Lotus (left) and Lily (right).
Fig. 10 The Assyrian 'knop-and-flower'.
Fig. 11 Ivory from Nimrud, Assyrian.
Fig. 12 Base of a column in the archaic temple of Aretemis, Ephesus, 550 B.C.
Fig. 13 Early Greek anthemion.
Fig. 14 Mature Greek anthemion.
Fig. 15 Anthemion and bead-and-reel motif on cyma recta moulding.
Fig. 16 Achnemcnian anthemion.
Fig. 17 Palmette (nagapushpa) motif on Vajrasana at Bodh Gaya.
Fig. 18 A pillar from the palace at Persepolis.
Fig. 19 Detail of miniature pilaster with Egyptian lotus capital and bead-and-reel motif etc.
Fig. 20 West Asian Capitals with lotus and sepal motifs (seventh-sixth century B.C.)
Fig. 21 Bharhut: Palmette with Padma lotus. Crest of the gateway.
Fig. 22 Bharhut (Medallion 89) 'honeysuckle' or nagapushpa with lotus.
Fig. 23 Bharhut (Medallion 131) 'honeysuckle' or nagapushpa with lotus.
Fig. 24 Bharhut (Medallion 79) snake-hoods.
Fig. 25 Bharhut : Two forms of the nagapushpa or 'honeysuckle' motif.
Fig. 26 A 'honeysuckle' motif in Greek art.
Fig. 27 Crown of Indra (?) 'honeysuckle' or nagapushpa motif, Kushan.
Fig. 28 The lion from the Lion Gate, Boghazkeui, Asia Minor.
Fig. 29 Guardian lion from Zincirli.
Fig. 30 Lion, 'tree of life', winged eagle, and kings. From Zincirli.
Fig. 31 Birth of the sun over two lions. Egypt (XXI Dynasty).
Fig. 32 Representations of the lion and bull on steatite vase from Khafaje (third millennium)
Fig. 33 A pin from Luristan Bronzes (Iran) showing lion type, second millennium.
Fig. 34 Asokan pillar at Sarnath.
Fig. 35 Egypt : Lotus pillar with lions on top.

Top; Handmade pre-Mauryan human figures with animal heads, from Pataliputra.
Pictorial Chart II. Ahichchhatra : Sequence of cultures.
Fig. 1 A female figure with elaborate head-dress from Mathura, Mauryan.
Fig. 2 Pre-Mauryan male head from Sonkh.
Fig. 3 The mother goddess figurine from Mauryan levels at Sonkh.
Fig. 4 The mother goddess figurine from Late Mauryan or Sunga levels at Sonkh.
Fig. 5 A mother goddess or matrika plaque from Sunga levels at Sonkh.
Fig. 6 A hand-modelled mother goddess, Mauryan.
Fig. 7 A hand-modelled mother goddess from Kausambi, Mauryan.
Fig. 8 Terracotta figurine from Kausambi.
Fig. 9 Terracotta figurine from Kausambi.
Fig. 10 An extremely stylized figurine of a mother goddess from Rajghat.
Fig. 11 Torso of a mother goddess from the pre-Mauryan levels at Rajghat.
Fig. 12 Head of a female figurine. From Rajghat.
Fig. 13 Bust of a seated female from Rajghat. Mauryan levels.
Fig. 14 Bust of a female figurine from Rajghat. Mauryan levels.
Fig. 15 Torso of a hand-modelled mother goddess from Rajghat. Mauryan levels.
Fig. 16 A dancing girl from Bulandibagh, Patna.
Fig. 17 A dancing girl from Bulandibagh, Patna, in Kathakali type skirt.
Fig. 18 A dancing girl from Bulandibagh, Patna, in short skirt.
Fig. 19 The laughing boy from Pataliputra.
Fig. 20 The smiling girl from Pataliputra.
Fig. 21 A hand-modelled flat Naga figure with human body.
Fig. 22 A mongoose in the round, from Pataliputra.
Fig. 23 A female torso from Patna.
Fig. 24 A female figurine. Late Mauryan. From Patna.
Fig. 25 An extremely charming figure of mother goddess. Mauryan. From Buxar.
Fig. 26 The most popular sitting mother goddess from Buxar. Mauryan.
Fig. 27 An elephant with white decorations from Buxar.
Fig. 28 A dancing girl of Bulandibagh type from Sonpur, Bihar.
Fig. 29 An excavated trench at Sonepur showing period II levels which have yielded the Mauryan terracotta figurines.
Pictorial Chart III; Cultural sequence of Taxila.

Top; Rock-cut cave at Kondivte, Andhra Pradesh.
Fig. 1 Map of northern Bihar showing important sites.
Fig. 2 Plan, Section and Elevation of Lomas Rishi cave.
Fig. 3 Plan, Section and Elevation of Sudama cave.
Fig. 4 Plan and Section of Viswamitra cave,
Fig. 5 Plan and Section of Karna Chaupar cave.
Fig. 6 Plan, Section and Elevation of Gopi or Gopika cave, Nagarjuni.
Fig. 7 Plan and Section of two adjacent caves, Vapi and Vadathika, Nagarjuni.
Fig. 8 Five rock-cut caves arranged in evolutionary sequence.
Fig. 9 Map of Rajgir.
Fig. 10 Rock-cut-caves showing plans in evolutionary order.
Fig. 11 Plan and elevation of Lomas Rishi cave.
Fig. 12 Detailed drawings of the Lomas Rishi.
Fig. 13 Elevation of the hut in the Sudama cave.
Fig. 14 Detailed drawing of the facade of the Lomas Rishi.
Fig. 15 Grid-drawing of the facade of the Lomas Rishi.
Fig. 16 Development of arches in early rock-cut caves.
Fig. 17 Lattice screen of Lomas Rishi.

Top: Reconstruction of the method of foundation of the pillars in the Pillared Hall at Kumrahar (Measurements after Altekar and Mishra).
Fig. 1 Map of Patna (old Pataliputra) showing important sites.
Fig. 2 Plan and section of the wooden palisade at Bulandibagh.
Fig. 3 Plan of the Pillared Hall at Kumrahar.
Fig. 4 Section of the Pillared Hall.
Fig. 5 Section of the Pillared Hall showing the pillars of the porch, etc.
Fig. 6 Figure showing the steps and the porch of the Pillared Hall.
Fig. 7 The excavated remains around the Pillared Hall.
Fig. 8 Reconstruction of the Pillared Hall at Kumrahar.
Fig. 9 The cultural sequence of Vaisali.
Fig. 10 Figure showing the remains of Vaisali stupa.
Fig. 11 Schematic section of Piprahwa stupa.
Fig. 12 Map showing Lauriya-Nandangarh mounds.
Fig. 13 Section of Amaravati deposits.
Fig. 14 Archaeological remains at Vidisa.
fig. 15 Details of the excavations of the apsidal temple at Vidisa.
fig. 16 The Vidisa Pillar with two underpinning stone
fig. 17 The stone Yupa from Isapur, first century A.D.
fig. 18 Round temples in Greek land.
fig. 19 The Palace complex at Persepolis.

Top: The double-bull capital from Hajipur.
Fig. 1 Map showing countries and places Alexander conquered.
Fig. 2 Reconstruction of section though Scorpion Gate, Tell Halaf.
Fig. 3 Main entrance to Sargon's throne.
Fig. 4 Map showing politico-cultural interaction between Greece and Asia Minor.
Fig. 5 Map of Western Mediterranean.
Fig. 6 Map showing three major theories regarding the roots of Mauryan art.
Fig. 7 Egyptian died pillar talismans.
Fig. 8 The Uttarapatli according to Irwin.
Fig. 9 A relief from Nineveh.
Fig. 10 A bronze figurine with four lions from Taxila.
Fig. 11 Acanthus leaf in nature and art.
Fig. 12 Asokan capitals and Persian pillar bases.
Fig. 13 Basal drum of a Persian pillar.
Fig. 14 A Greek temple at Ai-Khanum.
Fig. 15 Early Rock-cut caves : Origin and Diffusion.
Fig. 16 Corinthian capital of a pillar at Ai-Khanum.
Fig. 17An ivory figure from Champa.
Fig. 18 A wooden figure from Pataliputra.
Fig. 19 An engraved elephant at Kalsi.
Fig. 20 Engravings on Rampurva lion capital.
Fig. 21 A terracotta Greek goddess (1400-1200. B.C.)
Fig. 22 A terracotta Greek mourner (670 H.C.).
Fig. 23 Seated Athena (500 B.C.).
Fig. 24 A seated woman (430 B.C.).
Fig. 25 A Tanagra style woman (250 B.C.).
Fig. 26 A Myrina style Aphrodite (100 B.C.).
Fig. 27 The fortification wall of Rajgir.
Fig. 28 The constructional details of the rubble wall at Rajgir.
Fig. 29 A moon-stone from Kesanpalle.
Fig. 30 Srivatsa forms.
Fig. 31 'Nagapushpa1 of Bodh Gaya and Triratna of Sanchi.
Fig. 32 Trisula types.
Fig. 33 Copper plate from Sahgaura.
Top: Terracotta head of a Western from Sarnath.
Fig. 1 Some West Asian sculptures.

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