I. DEFINITIONS AND BASIC CONCEPT :
1. S.I. Units; Fundamental Units or S.I. Base Units and S.I. Supplementary Units-I
2. Machine
3. The Science of Mechanics
4. Kinematics of Machine
5. Kinematic Link or Element
6. Structure
7. Difference between a Machine and a Structure
8. Kinematic Pair
9. Types of Kinematic Pairs
10. Kinematic Chain
11. Mechanism
12. Difference between Machine and Mechanism
13. Skeleton Outline of a Machine or Kinematic Representation of a Machine
14. Expansion of Pairs (Limit and Disguise of Revolute Pairs)
15. Inversions of Mechanism
16. Four-bar Chain or Quadratic Cycle Chain
17.i. Application of Quadric Cycle Chain
ii. Grashof’s Law
18. Special Cases of Four Bar Chains
19. Tasks performed by Four Bar Chain
20. Slider Crank Mechanism
21. Inversions of Slider Crank Chain
22. Double Slider Crank Chain
23. Binary, Ternary, Quatenary Links
24.i. Compound Chain
ii. Linkage of more than Four Bars with Constraint
25. Six-Bar Chains
26. Degrees of Freedom or Criteria of Constraint
Test Your Comprehension
Test Questions
Practice Problems
II. MOTION AND INERTIA :
1. Displacement
2. Velocity
3. Acceleration
4. Acceleration of a Particle Moving Along a Circular Path
5. Angular Displacement
6. Angular Velocity
7. Angular Acceleration
8. Force
9. Mass
10. Force
11. Centripetal Force
12. Centrifugal Force
13. Mass Moment of Inertia
14. Couple
15. Angular Momentum
16. Work, Power and Energy
17. Conservation of Energy and Conservation of Momentum
18. Impulse, Impact
19. Harmonic Motion
20. Simple Harmonic Motion
21. Compound Pendulum
22. Kinetically Equivalent System-Case I
23. Kinetically Equivalent System-Case II
24. D'Alembert's Principle
25. D'Alembert's Principle
26. Rolling without Slipping
27. Acceleration of Geared System
Test Your Comprehension
Test Questions
Practice Problems
III. VELOCITIES IN MECHANISM : INSTANTANEOUS CENTRE METHOD :
1. The Relative Linear Velocities of Points in a Link
2. Methods of Transmitting Motion
3.i. Line of Transmission
ii. Transmission Angle
iii. Deviation Angle
4. Angular Velocity Ratio Theorem
5. Instantaneous Centre of Rotation
6. Properties of Instantaneous Centre of Rotation
7. Mathematical Deduction
8. Special Cases of Instantaneous Centre of Rotation
9. Types of Instantaneous Centres of Mechanisms
10. The Three Centres in-line Theorem (Kennedy's Theorem)
11. Procedure to be Followed for Locating Instantaneous Centres
12. Important Suggestions
13. Space Centrode, Body Centrode
Test Questions
Test Your Comprehension
Practice Problems
IV. VELOCITIES IN MECHANISMS : VELOCITY POLYGONS :
1. Introduction
2. Relative Velocities of Points in Kinematic Link
3. Relative Angular Velocities of Two Kinematic Links or Rigid Bodies
4. Relative Velocities of Points on the Same Link
5. Relative Velocity of Coincident Points in Two Kinematic Links having Plane Motion and Successful Constraint
6. Applications
7. Relative Angular Velocities of Links in Mechanism and Rubbing Velocities on the Pin at the Pin Joints
8. Mechanical Advantage and Power Transmission in Mechanism
9. Kinematic Analysis of Complex Mechanism
10. Trial Solutions
Test Your Comprehension
Practice Problems
V. ACCELERATION IN MECHANISM-ACCELERATION POLYGON METHOD :
1. Acceleration Analysis
2. Acceleration diagram for a Link
3. The Acceleration Centre of a Link
4. Klein's Construction for Determining the Acceleration of the Piston
5. Special Cases of Klein's Construction
6. Ritterhau's Construction for Finding the Acceleration of Piston
7. Bennet's Construction for Finding the Acceleration of the Piston
8. Approximate Analytical Method of Finding the Displacement, Velocity and Acceleration of the Piston
9. Acceleration Polygon for a Four-bar Chain Mechanism
10. Corioli's Law
11. Acceleration Analysis of Link Sliding in a Swivelling Pin
12. The Geneva Wheel or Maltese Cross
Test Your Comprehension
Practice Problems
VI. MECHANISM WITH LOWER PAIRS : STRAIGHT LINE AND COPYING DEVICES :
1. Introduction
2. Pantograph
3. Straight Line Motions
4. Mathematically Exact Straight Line Mechanism; Paucellier's Mechanism
5. Paucellier-Lipkin Exact Straight Line Mechanism
6. Paucellier-Lipkin Exact Straight Line Mechanism (Alternative)
7. Hart's Straight Line Mechanism
8. Hart Exact Straight Line Mechanism (Alternate)
9. Hart Exact Straight Line Mechanism (Alternate)
10. Hart Exact Straight Line Mechanism (Alternate)
11. Kempe's Mechanism
12. Bricard Exact Straight Line Mechanism
13. Bricard Exact Straight Line Mechanism (Alternate)
14. Scott-Russel Mechanism, Straight Line Mechanism with a Sliding Pair
15.i. Straight Line Mechanism having a Link with Rectilinear Translation
ii. Straight Line Mechanism having a Link with Rectilinear Translation
iii Straight Line Mechanism with a Link having Rectilinear Translation (Perrolotz Principle)
16. Approximate Straight line Mechanism : Watt-Straight Line Mechanism
17. Modified Scott-Russel Mechanism
18. Grass-Hopper Mechanism
19. The Tchebiehoff Straight Line Motion
20. The Robert's Straight Line Motion
21. Straight Line Mechanism of Engine Indicator
22. Crosby Indicator Mechanism
23. Thomson Indicator Mechanism
24. Dobbie McInnes Indicator Mechanism
Test Your Comprehension
Test Questions
Practice Problems
VII. CAMS :
1. Definition
2. Types of Followers
3. Types of Cams
4. Terminology
5. Types of Motion of the Follower
6. Analysis of the Motion of Follower
7. Analysis of the Motion of Follower for Cams with Specified Countours
8. Analysis of Motion of Follower : Simple Harmonic Motion
9. Analysis of Motion of Follower : Uniform Acceleration and Deceleration
10. Analysis of Motion of Follower : Cycloidal or Sine Acceleration Motion Curve
11. Analysis of the Motion of the Follower for Cams with Specified Contour?
12. Cam with Concave Flank, Circular Nose and Roller Follower v
13. Convex Circular Arc Cam with Roller Follower
14.Circular Arc Cam with Flat-faced Mushroom Follower
15. Circular Arc Cam with Oscillating Roller Follower
16. Eccentric Circle Cam with Translating Flat Footed Follower
Test Your Comprehension
Test Questions
Practice Problems
VIII. GYROSCOPE :
1. A Gyroscope
2. Principles of Gyroscope
3. Gyroscopic Couple
4.i. Directions of Spin Vector, Precession Vector and Torque Vector with Forced Precession
ii. Analysis of the Forces on Bearing due to the Forced Processing of Rotating Disc Mounted on Shafts
5. Effects of Gyroscopic Couples on the Stability of an Automobile Negotiating a Curve
6. Gyroscopic Effects on Two Wheel Vehicle
7. Gyroscopic Stabilization
8. Stabilization of Sea Vessels
9. Analysis of Gyroscopic Effects on Sea Vessels
10. Gyroscopic Analysis for a Body Fixed to Rotating Shaft at Certain Angle
11. Gyroscopic Analysis of Grinding Mills
Test Your Comprehension
Test Questions
Practice Problems
IX. FRICTION :
1. Force of Friction
2. Types of Friction
3. Laws of Dry or Solid Friction
4. The Limiting Angle of Friction
5. Experimental Verification of the Limiting Angle of Friction
6. Minimum Force Required to Move a Body on Horizontal Plane
7. The Inclined Plane
8. Maximum Efficiency
9. The Inclined Plane with Guide Friction
10. Wedge
11. Friction of Screw and Nut
12. Screw Jack
13. V-Threads
14. Pivot and Collar Friction
15. Flat Pivot
16. Flat Coller Pivot
17. Conical Pivot
18. Development of Clutches for Automobiles
19. Single Plate Clutch
20. Multiple Plate Clutch
21. Theory of Plate Clutches
22. The Cone Clutch
23. Theory of Cone Clutch
24. Centrifugal Clutch
25. Theory of Centrifugal Clutches
26. Friction in Turning Pairs-Friction Circle
27. Power Loss in Friction at a Bearing
28. Friction Axis of a Link
29. Friction in a Slider Crank Mechanism
30. Film Lubrication in Rotating Shafts
Test Your Comprehension
Test Questions
Practice Problems
X. BELT, ROPE AND CHAIN DRIVE :
1. Belt, Rope and Chain Drives
2. Flat Belts
3.i. Angular Velocity Ratio
ii. Effect of Belt Thickness on Velocity Ratio
4. Effect of Slip on Velocity Ratio
5.i. Length of Flat Belts
ii. Angle of Contact
6. Law of Belting
7. Cone Pulleys
8. Graphical Method
9. Crowning of Pulleys
10. Ratio of Belt Tensions
11. Power Transmitted by Belt Drive
12. Effect of Centrifugal Tension on the Power Transmitted
13. Design of Belt Dimensions
14. Maximum Power Transmitted by Belt Drive
15. Phenomenon of Creep in Belts
16. Allowance for Creep of Belts
17.i. Initial Tension in Belts
ii. Effect of Initial Belt Tension on Maximum Power
18. V-Belts
19. Timing Belts
20. Ratio of Tension in a V-Belt and Rope Drive
21. Chain Drive
22. Kinematics of Chain Drive
23. Angular Velocity Ratio
24. Construction of Bush and Roller Chain
25. Mean Velocity Ratio and the Length of the Chain
26. Power Transmitted by Chain
27. Impact Loading
28. Other Classified Chains
Test Your Comprehension
Test Questions
Practice Problems
XI. BRAKES AND DYNAMOMETERS :
1. Definition
2.i. Types of Brakes
ii. External Shoe Brakes or Block Brakes
3. Block Brakes ; Angle of lap > 45°
4. Double Shoe Block Brakes
5. Graphical solution of the Pivoted Shoe Brake
6. Heat Generated in Braking
7.i. Band Brakes
ii. Different Arrangement of Band Brakes
8. Simple Band Brakes
9. Differential Band Brakes
10. Two-Way Band Brakes
11. Band and Block Brake
12. Internal Expanding Shoe Brakes ; Pin Anchored Shoe Brake
13. Vehicle Brakes
14. Vehicle Braking
15. Mechanical Brakes
16. Hydraulic Brakes
17. Force Multiplication Ratio
18. Brake Dive
19. Braking Effectiveness Relations
20. Internal Expanding Shoe Brakes (A Detailed Description on Different Types
of Internal Expanding Shoe Brakes)
21.i. Pressure Distribution
ii. Torque equation about the brake centre
22. Force Multiplication Ratio Rn/c Cam to Drum
23. Articulated Link Anchored Brakes (Huck Brake)
24. Duo-Serve Brake (Bendix Type Brake)
25. Disc Brakes
26. Locomotive Train Brakes; Vacuum Braking System
27. Dynamometers
28. Absorption Dynamometers (Mechanical)
29. Transmission Dynamometers; Belt Transmission Type
30. Water Brake Dynamometers
31. Hydraulic Dynamometer (Froude's Dynamometers)
32. Epicyclic Train Dynamometer
33. Torsion Dynamometer
34. Devis-Gibson Flash Light Torsion Dynamometer
Test Your Comprehension
Test Questions
Practice Problems
XII. TOOTHED GEARS :
1. Introduction
2. Classification of Gears
3. Terminology Used in Gears
4. Law of Gearing or Conditions of Correct Gearing
5. Velocities of Sliding in the Mating Teeth of The Gear Wheels
6. Forms of Teeth
7.i. Construction of an Involute
ii. Properties of the Involute of a Circle (Involute Function)
8.i. Involute Geer Teeth
ii. Involute Gear Teeth
9. Cycloidal Teeth
10. Effect of Center Distance Variation on the Velocity Ratio for Involute Profile Tooth Gears
11. Properties of Involute Profile Toothed Gears in Mesh
12. Standard Interchangeable Tooth Profile
13. Length of the Path of Contact and Number of Teeth in Contact
14. Interference and Undercutting in Involute Gears
15. Maximum Number of Teeth on Gear Wheel
16. Minimum Number of Teeth on Pinion to Avoid Interference
17. Minimum Number of Teeth for Involute Rack and Pinion
18. Unequal-Addendum Tooth Forms
19. Interference-Further Comments
20. Comparison of Cycloidal and Involute Tooth Forms
21. Friction between Gear Teeth
22. Path of Contact for Cycloidal Gear Teeth
23. Internal Gears
24. Manufacture of Spur Gears
25. Strength of Gear Teeth (Involute)
26. Wear of Gear Teeth (Involute)
27. Strength and Resistance to Wear of Cycloidal Teeth
28. Helical Teeth
29. Terminology for Helical Teeth
30. Spiral Gears
31. Efficiency of Spiral Gears
32. Worm and Worm Gears
Test Questions
Test Your Comprehension
Practice Problems
XIII. GEAR TRAINS :
1. Definition
2. Simple Trains of Gears and Velocity Ratio
3. Compound Trains of Gear
4. Reverted Gear Train
5. Epicyclic or Planetory Gear Train
6. Tooth Loads and Torques in Epicyclic Gear Trains
7. Ferguson's Paradox
8. Compound Epicyclic Gear Train
9. The Motor Car Gear Box
10. Cyclometer Mechanism
11. The Wilson Gear Box
12. Differentials
Test Your Comprehension
Test Questions
Practice Problems
XIV. INERTIA FORCE ANALYSIS IN MACHINES :
1. Mechanics of Principal Moving Part-Piston-Connected Rod-Crank System
2. Piston Side-Thrust and Connecting Rod Forces
3. Force along the Connecting Rod
4. Force Perpendicular to the Crank or Rotative Force
5. Effective Driving Force for Piston Effort
6. Inertia Force Analysis in a Reciprocating Engine (Considering the Mass of the Connecting Rod)
Test Your Comprehension
Test Questions
Practice Problems
XV. TURNING MOMENT DIAGRAMS AND FLYWHEEL :
1. Turning Moment Diagrams for Steam Engine
2. Turning Moment Diagram for Four Stroke Internal Combustion Engine
3. Turning Moment Diagram for Multi-cylinder Engines
4. Flywheel
5. Fluctuation of Energy and Speed in Flywheels
6. Determination of Maximum Fluctuation of Energy
7.i. Co-efficient of Fluctuation of Energy
ii. Co-efficient of Fluctuation of Speed
8. Size of Flywheel
9. Dimension of Flywheel Rim
10. The flywheel in Punching Press
Test Your Comprehension
Test Questions
Practice Problems
XVI. GOVERNORS :
1. Function of Governor
2. Comparison between Functions of Flywheel and Governor
3.i. Classification of Governors
ii. Simple Governor
iii. Terminology
iv. Watt Governor
4. Porter Governor
5. Proel Governor
6. Hartnell Governor
7. Spring Controlled Governors
8. Wilson Hartnell Governor
9. Definitions
10. Governor Effort and Power
11. Hartung Governor
12. Pickering Governor
13. Inertia Governors
14. Controlling Force
15. Stability of Spring Controlled Governors
16. Friction and Insensitiveness
17. Influence of Governor on Speed Torque Characteristics of an Engine
Test Questions
Test Your Comprehension
Practice Problems
XVII. BALANCING OF ROTATING AND RECIPROCATING MASSES :
1. Balancing of Rotating Masses
2. Balancing of Single Revolving Mass
3. Balancing of Several Masses Revolving the Same Plane
4. Reference Plane
5. Balance of Several Masses in Different Planes
6. Application of the Reference Plane Method to the Solution of Problems
7. The Effect of the Inertia Force of the Reciprocating Mass on the Engine Frame
8.i. Partial Primary Balance
ii. Partial Balance of Locomotives
9. Effects of Partial Balancing in Locomotives
10. Coupled Locomotives
11. Trailing Wheels
12.i. Balancing of V-Engines
ii. Direct and Reverse Cranks
13. Application of Direct and Reverse Cranks
14. Six Cylinder in Line Engine
15. Radial Engine
16. Single Cylinder Reciprocating Engine
17. Balancing of In-line Engine with N Cylinder
18. Balance of In-line Four-Cylinder Four-stroke Petrol Engine
19. Balance of Six-Cylinder Four-Stroke Engine
20. Ten-Cylinder Oil Engines Symmetrical about the Mid-Plane
21. V-Engine
22. V-8 Engine
23. V-12 Engine
24. W-Engine
25. Radial Engine with N-Cylinders
Test Your Comprehension
Practice Problems
XVIII. MECHANICAL VIBRATION :
1. Introduction
2. Definitions
3. Undamped Free Vibrations
4. Equilibrium Method
5. Energy Method
6. Rayleigh's Method
7. Transverse Free Vibrations
8. Longitudinal and Transverse Vibrations Considering the Mass of the Shaft
9. Natural Frequency of Free Transverse Vibrations
10. Transverse Vibration : Uniformly Loaded Shaft
11. Transverse Vibration : One Load Acting on the Shaft
12. Energy Method (Lord Rayleigh) or Maxwell's Theorem of Reciprocal Deflection
13. Dunkerley's Empirical Equation
14. Critical or Whirling Speed of the Shaft
15. Secondary Critical Speed
16.i. Torsional Vibration : Two Rotor System
ii. Torsional Vibration : Three Rotor System
17. Torsional Vibration of Geared System
18. Free Vibration with Viscous Damping or Damped Free Vibrations
19. Logarithmic Decrement
20. Additional Comment on Whirling of Shaft
21. Forced Vibrations
22. Reciprocating and Rotating Unbalance
23. Vibration Isolation and Transmissibility
24. Vibration of Mass Supported to Foundation Subject to Vibration
Test Your Comprehension
Test Questions
Practice Problems
XIX. HOOKE'S JOINT STEERING GEARS-TRIFILAR SUSPENSION :
1. Hooke's Joint
2. Hooke's Joint Analysis
3. Trifilar Suspension
4. Motor Car Steering Gear
5. The Davis Steering Gear
6. The Ackermann Steering Gear
Test Your Comprehension
Practice Problems
XX AUTOMOTIVE-VEHICLE PROPULSION :
1. Power Required for Propulsion
2. Power Available
3. Gradient Performance
4. Power Available (Manual and Automatic Transmission)
5. Calculation of Equivalent weight-We
6. Relative Drive Effectiveness for Four wheel, Front wheel and Rear wheel Drives
XXI. INTRODUCTION TO AUTOMATIC CONTROL :
1. Introduction
2. Un-monitored and Monitored Control Systems
3. Continuous and Discontinuous Controllers
4. System Response
5. Types of Input
6. Response to First Order System to Step Input
7. Second Order System Response
8. System Stability
9. Control Action-Proportional Control
10. Integral Control
11. Transfer Functions
12. Transfer Function Relationships
13. Open Loop and Closed Loop Transfer Function
14. Remote Position Controller
XXII. ANALYSIS OF MECHANISMS-ANALYTICAL APPROACH :
1. Introduction : Review of Complex Numbers
2. Loop-Closure Equation
3. Freudenstein's Equation : (Equation for Displacement)
4. Alternate Solution
5.i. Use of Cosine Law for Determining Angles for Four-bar Mechanism
ii. Slider Crank Mechanism
6. Additional Useful Information on Complex Numbers
7. Coupler Curves
8. Slider Crank Mechanism
9. The Geneva Wheel or Maltese Cross
XXIII. INTRODUCTION TO KINEMATIC SYNTHESIS :
1. Introduction
2. Type Synthesis
3. Tasks of Kinematic Synthesis
4. Scale Factor for Input and Output Motion
5. Chebyshev Spacing of Precision Points
6. Two Position Synthesis; Four Bar Mechanism
7. Three Position Synthesis; Four Bar Mechanism
8. Bloch's Synthesis Method
9. Freudensteins Equation for Three Point Function Generation
10. Complex-number Modelling in Kinematic Synthesis
11. Loop Closure-Equation Technique :
i. Application of Loop Closure Method for Function Generator
12. Position, Velocity and Acceleration Specification for the Four-bar Function
Generator
13. Synthesis for Slider Crank Mechanism
14. Number Synthesis : Associated Link Concept
15. Synthesis of Some Slider Mechanisms
16. Synthesis of Cam and Sliding Pivots
17. Synthesis of Some Gear Mechanism
18. Graphical Synthesis of Quick Return Mechanism
19. Six-bar Quick-Return Mechanism
20. Crank Slider Quick Return
Practice Problems
Test Your Comprehension
XXIV. INTRODUCTION TO Computer AIDED ANALYSIS OF MECHANSIMS :
1. Introduction
2. Four-bar Mechanism
3. Slider Crank Mechanism
XXV. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER-AIDED SYNTHESIS OF MACHINES :
1. Four Bar Mechanism
2. Least Square Technique
Keeping in view, the changing pattern of curriculum in various I.I.T.s, accredited teaching universities, diploma and post-diploma institutions in the country and the Institution of Engineers (India) as observed by the author in his effort of interaction with the curriculum development processes in the country, for Four Decades particularly, the increasing emphasis on analytical methods due to availability of sophisticated calculator and digital computer, it is constant endevour of the author to update and revise the book thoroughly.
This edition is a major step forward in that direction. The entire contents of the book have been re-cast and almost all the chapters have been substantially up-dated and enlarged. A new chapter 25 on "Introduction to Computer Aided Synthesis of Machines" has been added. With the Loop Closure Equations and Complex Number methods, the solutions of mechanisms become very simple. Even the mechanisms involving Coriolis component acceleration (Coriolis Law) have been solved with Loop Closure Equation and Complex Numbers. Novel feature of this chapter is that the level of information on complex numbers and Loop Closure Equation as required in the chapter is explained in the beginning of the chapter itself to make it self sufficient. However the emphasis on Analysis of Mechanisms by graphical methods is still retained at this stage. Many new mechanisms have been analysed like Geneva Mechanism, Slider Mechanism, Gear Mechanism, Six Bar Quick Return Mechanism, etc. Apart from this Associated link concept, synthesis of Cam and Sliding pivots and Crank Slider quick return has been added.
The chapter 23 on "Introduction to Kinematic Synthesis" has been enlarged, re-cast and re-written to cover more topics to comprehend the subject better without complexity.
Looking to the trend for use of digital computer chapter 24 on "Introduction to Computer Aided Analysis of Mechanisms" has been added. At this stage the Computer Programme in C++ is added for Four-Bar-Mechanism and Slider Crank Mechanism only.
Also where-ever possible, the solutions of problems have been given by both analytical and graphical methods.
The chapter on "Velocities in Mechanism Instantaneous Centre Method", has been enlarged to elaborate the concept of transmission line, transmission angles, deviation angles which are very important for comprehension of motion and force transmission in mechanisms.
The chapter on "Cams" has been enlarged to provide more useful information. Beside graphical methods, analytical approach is strengthened.
Chapter on Toothed Gears and Gear Trains have been re-written to incorporate more information and easier techniques to find solution.
Besides, there are additions, deletions and modification throughout the text book in almost all chapters.
Once again, it may be emphasised that, chapters on :
Brakes and Braking, with detailed discussion on Relative Brake Effectiveness (RBE) for Front wheel drive, rear wheel drive and four wheel drive, Clutches, gear, gear trains and transmission, vehicle propulsion with detailed discussion on Relative Drive Effectiveness for rear wheel drive, front wheel drive, four wheel drive, Vehicle streering gear geometry and application and universal joints (Hook's joint), are so tailored that besides being useful for Theory of Machines/Kinematics and dynamics of machines, courses, the student of Automotive Engineering and Automotive mechanics can draw heavily from the text book.
Unique feature of this Textbook is that all graphical solutions of numerous solved numerical problems are reproduced to scales measurable from the book and such scales of graphical solutions have been given in the book itself. It helps reader in checking the results conveniently at stages.
Last, but not the least, it is the pains taking attitude and full co-operation of Shri Romesh Chander Khanna, and his son Shri Vineet Khanna which has made it possible to bring out the extensively revised and enlarged edition of the text book.
Within the frame work of the main objectives of this work, the author and the compiler will be glad to receive any suggestions for further improvement and additions from valued collegues of teaching community, my beloved student community, and esteamed practicing engineers.