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Transformers and Induction Machines Includes Solved VTU Questions,8184318375,9788184318371

Transformers and Induction Machines Includes Solved VTU Questions

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Book Information

Publisher:Technical Publications
Published In:2010
ISBN-10:8184318375
ISBN-13:9788184318371
Binding Type:Paperback
Weight:2.18 lbs
Pages:Various Pagings, Figures, Tables, Graphs, Appendices

is written by U.A. Bakshi. The publisher of this title is Technical Publications.

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Contents

Chap. I : BASIC CONCEPTS AND TYPES OF TRANSFORMERS :
1. Introduction
2. Self Inductance
3. Mutual Inductance
4. Coefficient of Coupling or Magnetic Coupling Coefficient
5. Dot Convention and Equilibrium Equations :
i. Sign Convention for KVL
ii. Writing Equilibrium Equations for Coupled Coils

6. Inductive Coupling in Series :
i. Series Aiding
ii. Series Opposing

7. Inductive Coupling in Parallel :
i. Parallel Aiding
ii. Parallel Opposing

8. Energy in a Pair of Coupled Coils
9. Introduction to Transformers
10. Principle of Working :
i. Can D.C. Supply be used for Transformers?

11. Construction :
i. Types of Windings

12. Construction of Single Phase Transformers :
i. Core Type Transformer
ii. Shell Type Transformer
ii. Berry Type Transformer

13. Construction of Three Phase Transformers :
i. Core Type Construction
ii. Shell Type Construction

14. Comparison of Core and Shell Type Transformers
15. Types of Transformers
16. Power and Distribution Transformers :
i. Power Transformers
ii. Distribution Transformers

17. Constant Voltage Transformer :
i. Specifications
ii. Advantages and Applications

18. Constant Current Transformer
19. Variable Frequency Transformer
20. Introduction to Autotransformers
21. Construction of Autotransformers
22. Transformation Ratio of an Autotransformer
23. Copper Saving in Autotransformer
24. Power Transfer in Autotransformer
25. VA Rating of Autotransformer
26. Conversion of Two Winding Transformer to an Autotransformer :
i. Additive Polarity
ii. Subtractive Polarity

27. Advantages of Autotransformer
28. Limitations of Autotransformer
29. Applications of Autotransformer
30. Three Phase Autotransformer
31. Methods of Cooling Transformers :
i. Cooling Methods for Dry Type Transformers
ii. Cooling Methods for Oil Immersed Transformers
iii. Forced Methods with Heat Exchangers

Review Questions

Chap. II : SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMERS :
1. E.M.F. Equation of a Transformer
2. Ratios of a Transformer :
i. Voltage Ratio
ii. Concept of Ideal Transformer
iii. Current Ratio
iv. Volt-Ampere Rating

3. Ideal Transformer on No Load
4. Practical Transformer on No Load
5. Transformer on Load (M.M.F. Balancing on Load)
6. Effect of Winding Resistances :
i. Equivalent Resistance

7. Effect of Leakage Reactances
i. Equivalent Leakage Reactance

8. Equivalent Impedance
9. Phaser Diagrams for Transformer on Load :
i. Unity Power Factor Load, cos ф2 – 1
ii. Lagging Power Factor Load, cos ф 2
iii. Leading Power Factor Load, cos ф 2

10. Equivalent Circuit of Transformer :
i. Approximate Equivalent Circuit

11. Voltage Regulation of Transformer :
i. Expression for Voltage Regulation
ii. Zero Voltage Regulation
iii. Regulation Based on Per Unit Values

12. Losses in a Transformer :
i. Core or Iron Losses
ii. Copper Losses

13 Efficiency of a Transformer
14. Condition for Maximum Efficiency :
i. Load Current I2m at Maximum Efficiency
ii. kVA Supplied at Maximum Efficiency

15. Effect of Frequency and Supply Voltage on Iron Losses
16. All Day Efficiency of a Transformer
17. Excitation Phenomenon in Transformers
18. Current Inrush Phenomenon (Switching Transients)

Examples with Solutions
Review Questions

Chap. III : TESTING AND PARALLEL OPERATION OF TRANSFORMERS :
1. O.C. and S.C. Tests on Single Phase Transformer
i. Open Circuit Test (O.C. Test)
ii. Short Circuit Test (S.C. Test)
iii. Calculation of Efficiency from O.C. and S.C. Tests
iv. Calculation of Regulation

2. Polarity Test
3. Sumpner's Test (Back to Back Test)
4. Separation of Core Losses Test
5. Parallel Operation of Transformers
6. Conditions for Satisfactory Parallel Operation :
i. Explanation of Conditions

7. Parallel Operation of Two Ideal Transformers
8. Parallel Operation of Transformers with Equal Voltage Ratios
9. Parallel Operation of Transformers with Unequal Voltage Ratios

Examples with Solutions
Review Questions

Chap. IV : THREE PHASE TRANSFORMERS :
1. Introduction :
i. Advantages of 3 Phase Transformers

2. Principle of Operation
3. Bank of Single Phase Transformers
4. Three Phase Transformer Connections
5. Star-Star Connection :
i. Advantages
ii. Disadvantages

6. Delta-Delta Connection :
i. Advantages
ii. Disadvantage

7. Star-Delta Connection :
i. Advantages
ii. Disadvantage

8. Delta-Star Connection :
i. Advantages
ii. Disadvantage

9. Voltage and Current Relationships for Different Types of Connections :
i. Choice of Transformer Connections

10. Open Delta or V-V Connection
i. Limitations

11. The T-T Connection
12. Conversion from Three Phase to Two Phase (Scott Connection)
13. Three Phase to Six Phase Conversion
14. Labelling of Transformer Terminals
15. Heat Run Test on Three Phase Transformers
16. Three Phase Transformer Phaser Groups :
i. Nomenclature of Transformer Phaser Groups

17. Construction of Vector Diagram
18. Parallel Operation of Three Phase Transformers
19. Harmonics in Transformers

Examples with Solutions
Review Questions

Chap. V : THREE WINDING TRANSFORMERS :
1. Introduction
2. Why to use Tertiary Winding?
3. Stabilization Due to Tertiary Winding
4. Equivalent Circuit of 3 Winding Transformer
5. Advantages and Disadvantages of Three Winding Transformer

Example with Solution
Review Questions

Chap. VI : BASIC CONCEPTS OF THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS
1. Introduction
2. Rotating Magnetic Field (R.M.F.) :
i. Production of R.M.F
ii. Speed of R.M.F.
iii. Direction of R.M.F.

3. Concept of Slip Rings and Brush Assembly
4. Construction :
i. Stator
ii. Rotor :
a. Squirrel Cage Rotor
b. Slip Ring Rotor or Wound Rotor
c. Comparison of Squirrel Cage and Wound Rotor

5. Working Principle :
i. Can N = NS7

6. Slip of Induction Motor
7. Effect of Slip on Rotor Parameters :
i. Effect on Rotor Frequency
ii. Effect on Magnitude of Rotor Induced E.M.F.
iii. Effect on Rotor Resistance and Reactance
iv. Effect on Rotor Power Factor
v. Effect on Rotor Current

8. Induction Motor as a Transformer

Examples with Solutions
Review Questions

Chap. VII : CHARACTERISTICS AND ANALYSIS OF THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS :
1. Torque Equation :
i. Starting Torque

2. Condition for Maximum Torque :
i. Magnitude of Maximum Torque

3. Torque-Slip Characteristics :
i. Full Load Torque
ii. Generating and Braking Region

4. Torque Ratios :
i. Full Load and Maximum Torque Ratio
ii. Starting Torque and Maximum Torque Ratio

5. Speed-Torque Characteristics
6. Effect of Change in Rotor Resistance on Torque
7. Losses in Induction Motor
8. Power Flow in an Induction Motor
9. Relationship between P2, Pc, and Pm :
i. Derivation of K in Torque Equation

10. Efficiency of an Induction Motor
11. Equivalent Circuit of Induction Motor :
i. Approximate Equivalent Circuit
ii. Power Equations from Equivalent Circuit
iii. Maximum Power Output
iv. Maximum Torque
v. Synchronous Watt

12. Phasor Diagram of Induction Motor
13. Effect of Harmonics on Performance of 3 Phase Induction Motor :
i. Crawling
ii. Cogging

14. Applications

Examples with Solutions
Review Questions

Chap. VIII : CIRCLE DIAGRAM AND SPECIAL ROTOR CONSTRUCTION :
1. Introduction
2. Circle Diagram for a Series R-L Circuit
3. Circle Diagram of a 3 Phase Induction Motor
4. Obtaining Data to Plot Circle Diagram
5. No Load Test
6. Blocked Rotor Test
7. Construction of the Circle Diagram :
i. Predicting Performance from Circle Diagram
ii. Maximum Quantities
iii. Full Load Condition

8. Calculation of Equivalent Circuit Parameters
9. Special Rotor Constructions :
i. Deep Bar Rotor Construction
ii. Double Cage Rotor Construction

10. Induction Generator :
i. Phasor Diagram of Induction Generator
ii. Circle Diagram of Induction Generator
iii. Comparison of Induction Generator and Synchronous Generator
iv. Advantages
v. Disadvantages
vi. Applications

Examples with Solutions
Review Questions

Chap. IX : STARTING AND SPEED CONTROL OF INDUCTION MOTOR :
1. Introduction
2. Necessity of Starter :
i. Types of Starters

3. Stator Resistance Starter :
i. Relation between 1st and TF.L.

4. Autotransformer Starter :
i. Relation between 1st and TF.L.

5. Star-Delta Starter :
i. Ratio of Tst to TF. L.

6. Rotor Resistance Starter
i. Calculation of Steps of Rotor Resistance Starter

7. Direct on Line Starter (D.O.L)
8. Electronic Starters :
i. Advantages of Soft Start

9. Introduction to Speed Control of Induction Motor
10. Supply Frequency Control or V/f Control
11. Supply Voltage Control
12. Controlling Number of Poles :
i. Consequent Poles Method
ii. Multiple Staler Winding Method
iii. Pole Amplitude Modulation Method

13. Adding Rheostats in Stator Circuit
14. Adding External Resistance in Rotor Circuit
15. Cascade Control

16. Injecting Slip-Frequency E.M.F. into Rotor Circuit :
i. Kramer System
ii. Scherbius System

Examples with Solutions
Review Questions

Chap. X : SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS :
1. Introduction
2. Construction of Single Phase Induction Motors
3. Working Principle
4. Double Revolving Field Theory :
i. Torque-Speed Characteristics

5. Cross Field Theory
6. Types of Single Phase Induction Motors
7. Split Phase Induction Motor :
i. Applications

8. Capacitor Start Induction Motors :
i. Applications

9. Shaded Pole Induction Motors :
i. Applications

10. Equivalent Circuit of Single Phase Induction Motor :
i. Without Core Loss
ii. With Core Loss

11. Conducting Tests on Single Phase Induction Motor :
i. No Load Test
ii. Blocked Rotor Test

Examples with Solutions
Review Questions
Chapterwise University Questions with Answers

Preface

The importance of Transformers and Induction Machines is well known in various engineering fields. Overwhelming response to our books on various subjects inspired us to write this book. The book is structured to cover the key aspects of the subject Transformers and Induction Machines.

The book uses plain, lucid language to explain fundamentals of this subject. The book provides logical method of explaining various complicated concepts and stepwise methods to explain the important topics. Each chapter is well supported with necessary illustrations, practical examples and solved problems. All the chapters in the book are arranged in a proper sequence that permits each topic to build upon earlier studies. All care has been taken to make students comfortable in understanding the basic concepts of the subject.

The book not only covers the entire scope of the subject but explains the philosophy of the subject. This makes the understanding of this subject more clear and makes it more interesting. The book will be very useful not only to the students but also to the subject teachers. The students have to omit nothing and possibly have to cover nothing more.

We wish to express our profound thanks to all those who helped in making this book a reality. Much needed moral support and encouragement is provided on numerous occasions by our whole family. We wish to thank the Publisher and the entire team of Technical Publications who have taken immense pain to get this book in time with quality printing.

Any suggestion for the improvement of the book will be acknowledged and well appreciated.

List Of Appendix

A. Special Transformers
I. Instrument Transformers
II. Current Transformers (C.T.) :
1. Working Principle

III. Construction of Current Transformers :
1. Wound Type Current Transformer
2. Bar Type Current Transformer

IV. Why Secondary of C.T. should not be Open? :
V. Potential Transformers (P.T.) :
1. Construction

VI. Comparison of C.T. and P.T.
VII. Advantages and Disadvantages of Instrument Transformers
VIII. Welding Transformers
1. Characteristics
2. Reactors Used with Welding Transformers

IX. Tap Changing Transformer :
1. Why Tappings are on High Voltage Side?
2. Off Circuit Tap Changing
3. Parallel Winding Tap Changer
4. On Load Tap Changing
5. Single Winding Tap Changer

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