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Yaksas Part 1 - with 23 Plates : Part 2 - with 50 Plates 2 Parts in 1,8121502306,9788121502306

Yaksas Part 1 - with 23 Plates : Part 2 - with 50 Plates 2 Parts in 1



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Publisher:Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers
Published In:2001
Binding Type:Hardback
Weight:1.76 lbs
Pages:pp. 202, Figures, 73 Illus., 73 Plates, Appendix

The Title "Yaksas Part 1 - with 23 Plates : Part 2 - with 50 Plates 2 Parts in 1" is written by Ananda Kentish Coomaraswamy. This book was published in the year 2001. The ISBN number 8121502306|9788121502306 is assigned to the Hardback version of this title. This book has total of pp. 202 (Pages). The publisher of this title is Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers. We have about 1386 other great books from this publisher. Yaksas Part 1 - with 23 Plates : Part 2 - with 50 Plates 2 Parts in 1 is currently Available with us.

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About the Book

Particular significance attaches to Yaksas in Indian mythology, Religion and art. Their almost universal presence in the earlier Indian religions, Hindu, Buddhist and Jaina, wherein they are invested with peculiar traits and powers, indicates their importance.

Ananda Coomaraswamy's Yaksas is an attempt at bringing together the mass of information from literary and monumental sources about Yaksas and Yaksis, their origin, and development from the conceptual, Mythological and iconographical points of view. Coomaraswamy has shown how this non-and pre-Aryan "animistic" concept originated and, in the historical times, dovetailed with the Hindu, Buddhist and Jaina religious systems to the extent that the concept of Yaksattva got closely bound up with the idea of reincarnation.

In the preparation of this monograph, Coomaraswamy has extensively drawn upon the sectarian and semi-secular literature and has shown unmistakable evidences of the Yaksas' once honourable status, their benevolence toward men and the affection felt by men toward them. Coomaraswamy begins by tracing the origin of the word yaksa which is first found in Jaiminiya Brahmana, where it means nothing more than 'a wondrous thing.' In course of time Yaksas and Yaksis arc often mentioned and their names are found in the Epics, Buddhist and Jaina works and even in sculpture. In Jaina books Yakkhas are often called Devas, where, as Sasana Devatas they are usually guardian angels. In Buddhist works they are sometimes represented as teachers of good morals and as guardian spirits.

Of equal importance are the Yaksas and Yaksis in early Indian art and in the early examples (Bharhut, Sanci, Gandhara, etc.) they are frequently represented as Atlantes, supporters of buildings and superstructures. The early iconography of Yaksas, again, seems to have formed the foundation of later Hindu and Buddhist iconography. Coomaraswamy has traced a kind of Bhakti cult centering round the worship of Yaksas on the basis of the Yaksa caityas, the offerings to the Yaksas and has tried to show that the facts of Yaksa worship correspond almost exactly with those of other Bhakti religions.

Coming as it does from the pen of Ananda Coomaraswamy, this brilliant monograph is the acme of scholarship and brilliance and provides a mass of well-documented information. The work is divided into the two parts, an Appendix giving Tale of a Yaksa found in the Divydvaddna, alongwith 73 plates.

About the Author

Ananda Kentish Coomaraswamy, the greatest among the Indian art-historians, was born in Colombo on August 22, 1877. After graduating from the University of London he became the Director of the Mineralogical Survey of Ceylon. Between 1906 and 1917, when he joined as the Curator of Indian art in the Boston Museum he was busy lecturing on Indian art and formed societies for the study of Indian art. In 1938, he became the Chairman of National Committee for India's Freedom. His contributions on Indian philosophy, religion, art and iconography, painting and literature are of the greatest importance as were his contributions on music, science and Islamic art. He died on September 9, 1947.

List of Plates

Part I : YAKSAS :

Plate I :
1. The Yaksa Kunika (the Parkham Image now in the Mathura Museum) : Height 8' 8". Photo by Johnston and Hoffmann

The date and Identification of this Figure have been Matters of great Controversy. All that can be safely said is that the Inscription is in Characters Generally Corresponding to those of the Asokan and Piprahwa vase Inscriptions. Almost the only significant part of the text in the Reading of which all Students agree is the name Kunika. This name has since been found on the so-called Statue of Manasa Devi at Mathura, which is named in the Inscription as that of a Yaksini, Sister of Kunika. These data Appear to Confirm the view long held, that the Parkham image (so-called from the Place of its Discovery) Represents A Yaksa and dates from the Maurya Period. When first Discovered, the Parkham image was Being Worshipped by the Villagers as a Devata, the Baroda fragments (HIIA, fig. 15) as a Yakheya. See also Chanda, R. in Mem. A.S.I. vol. 30

The Parkham Image is of Great Importance as the oldest known Indian stone Sculpture in the round it Establishes a Formulae which can be Followed Through many Succeeding Centuries. A female statue from Besnagar, now in the Indian Museum, Calcutta, height 7' 7", and perhaps Representing a Yaksi, is also Contemporary (see HIIA, fig. 8), so too, or but little later, is a colossal female cauri-bearer from Didarganj near Patna (HIIA, fig. 17). There is, or was, Another Yaksa (or king) Figure at Deoriya, near Allahabad (see Reproduction in my Origin of the Buddha Image, Art Bulletin, 1927, Pt. 4, fig. 47) ; here it can be seen Clearly that the left hand is placed on the hip Further, the figure wears a turban, and is sheltered by an Umbrella. The Deoriya Figure must be of about the same (Maurya) date as the Parkham image.

2. The Yaksa Bhagavata Manibhadra, set up by a guild of Manibhadrabhaktas, at Pawaya, Gwaliar State, now in the Gwaliar Museum, First century B. C. Photograph by the author.

Plate II :
1. 2. The Yaksa Nandi, and Another Yaksa or king Perhaps the Yaksi Nandi of Nandinagara, or the pair may be the Yaksas Nandi and Vardhana of Nandivardhana. Patna, second Century B. C, now in the Museum at Patna. A. S. Photographs

Mr. Jayaswal (J.B.O.R.S. V 1919) Attempted to Prove that the Inscription Included the name of King Kunika Ajatasatru, and he Identified and dated it Accordingly about 618 B.C. (According to others this Saisunaga king died about 459 B.C.). Fatal Objections to Mr. Jayaswal's views are raised by Chanda, Four Ancient Yaksa statues, in the Journal of the Dept. of Letters, Calcutta University, Vol IV, 1921, where other References will be found.

For the Figure of " Manasa Devi," Probably also of Maurya date, see Ann. Rep. Arch. Surv. India, 1920-21, pi. XVIII, and ibid., 1922-23

Plate III :
1. The Yaksa Kuvera (Kupiro Yakho), Bharhut, Second Century B. C, now in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. The Vahanam, not well seen, is a Crouching dwarf demon (Guhyaka?) with pointed ears. India Office Photograph

2. The Yaksa Supavasu, Bharhut, same date; Vahanam, an Elephant. Now in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. India Office Photograph

Plate IV :
1. A Yaksi or Devata from Bharhut, found at Batanmara : Vahanam, a Running dwarf. India Office Photograph

2. Culakoka Devata, from Bharhut : Vahanam, an elephant. Now in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. India Office Photograph

Plate V :
1. Yaksi or Devata from Bharhut; Vahanam, a horse Accompanied by a dwarf with a water-vessel. Now in the Indian Museum, Calcutta

2. Yaksi or Devata : Human (?) Vahanam Bodhgaya India Office Photograph

Plate VI :
1. The Yaksi Sudarsana, from Bharhut Vahanam, a Makara Now in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. India Office Photograph

2. Yaksi Under Asoka-tree Vahanam, a Makara From Mathura, now B. 51 in the Lucknow Museum. L. Mus. Photograph

3. Yaksi Under Asoka-tree, with one foot Pressed Against its stem (Dohada motif). From Mathura, in the Mathura Museum. A.S. Photograph

Plate VII : Yaksa with Padma in hand (Padma-pani) and Auspicious pair (Mithuna, Yaksa and Yaksi?). At Amin, Near Thanesar. Second century B.C.A.S. Photograph

Plate VIII : Guardian Yaksa at the base of a Pillar, North Torana, Sanci The Panel above shows the Worship of a sacred tree (Caitya-urksa) in a grove (the Venuvana at Rajagrha) Though the theme is here Buddhist, the relief Serves very well to illustrate some of the Descriptions of Jakkha ceie cited above. First half of first Century B. C. India Office Photograph

Plate IX : Art of the north torana, Sanci. The Three Uprights of the lower series Constitute a Buddha triad, with, in the center, the Buddha Represented by the Bodhi-tree, and on each side a Padmapani Yaksa (Prototype of the Bodhisattva Padmapani). First half of first Century B.C. Photograph by Johnston and Hoffmann

Plate X :
1. West Torana, Sanci, Showing Yaksa (Guhya) Atlantes. Two panels of the right hand pillar show the worship of caitya-trees. India Office Photograph
2. Upper part of north Torana, Sanci, with a cauri-Bearing Yaksa; showing also a Symbol (often but Wrongly Styled Vardhamana). There was Originally a Buddha Triad Consisting of a Dhamnacakka Between two Yaksas. First half of first century B.C. Photograph by Johnston and Hoffmann

Plate XI :
1. 2. Front and rear views of a Dryad Bracket (Vrksaka and mango-tree) east torana, Sanci first half of first Century B. C. Photographs by the Author

3. Dryad (Yaksi or Vrksaka) Putting on an Earring with Banyan (?) tree Framed in a “caitya-window“ Niche. Amaravati, Second Century A.D. or Earlier. British Museum? India Office Photograph

4. Yaksa bearing a Garland, from rail-coping, Amaravati, Second Century A. D. British Museum? India Office Photograph

Plate XII :
1. Kusapadalamanava Jataka, with the Yaks Assamukhi. Railing Medallion from Pataliputra, Early Second Century b. C, now in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. There are Similar Medallions at Sanci (Stupa II) and Bodhgaya. Indian Museum Photograph

2. Yaksa (?) with bell (cf. fig. 29, right). Terracotta, about first Century A.D. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. M.F.A. Photograph

3. Yaksa (?) : held by the right arm, not seen in the Photograph, is a broad club; thus the Yaksa might be Described as mudgara-pani (of. the Yaksa Moggarapani, supra). Terracotta, Maurya or earlier? Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. M.F.A. Photograph

4. Yaksa (?) Holding a ram; Perhaps a Bucolic Divinity, a kind of Ksetrapala Terracotta, from Ujjain, Probably Kusana, first or Second Century A.D. Author's Collection. M.F.A. Photograph

Plate XIII :
1. Yaksas (Guhyas) as Atlantes, Bharhut, Ca. 175 B.C. Indian Museum, Calcutta. India Office Photograph

2. Winged Yaksas (Guhyas) as Atlantes; from a Railing Pillar at Bodhgaya, about 100 B.C. Photograph by Johnston and Hoffmann

3. Yaksas as Atlantes, Graeco-Buddhist, from Jamalgarhi. One is winged, and provided with a bell. In Lahore Museum. India Office Photograph

Plate XIV :
1. Bacchanalian Kuvera, Kusana, late Second Century A.D. From Mathura, in the Mathura Museum. A.S. Photograph

2. Yaksi or Vrksaka (so-called river-Goddess Ganges) Originally one of a pair from a Doorway (forming the Upper parts of the jambs) : Vahanam, a Makara tree, a Mango. Gupta, about 400 A.D. From Besnagar, now Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. M.F.A. Photograph

Plate XV :
1. Pancika and Hariti, the Tutelary Pair, Patron Deities of wealth and Fertility. Graeco-Buddhist, from Sahri-Bahlol, now in the Lahore Museum. Early second Century A. D.A.S. Photograph

2. Yaksa (?) Vajrapani from Mathura Kusana Early Second Century A. D.? Height of the Fragment, I' 9". Now E 24 in the Mathura Museum. A.S. Photograph

Plate XVI :
1. Yaksa, on Railing to Pillar, Kankali Tila, Mathura. Probably first Century A.D

2. Yaksa, Probably Vaisravana, with flames, from the Kankali Tila, Mathura, same date. Both after Smith, Jaina stupa of Mathura. Both in the Luck-now Museum

Plate XVII :
1. Parasuramesvara Lingam (Siva), Gudimallam, about 100 B.C. For Comparison with Yaksa types from Bharhut, etc. A.S. Photograph
2. Colossal Bodhisattva (Buddha), of Mathura Manufacture, set up by Friar Bala at Sarnath, 123 A.D. For Comparison with Yaksa Types, Plate I, figure I, and Plate 2, figure I.A.S. Photograph

Plate XVIII :
1. Ganesa, with chain of bells; from Bhumara. Gupta, About Fifth Century. A.S. Photograph

2. Dvarapala, a Yaksa, with chain of bells. South Indian, Cola, about the tenth Century. Property of C.T. Loo

Plate XIX :
1. Yaksi, on Doorjamb at Tadpatri Makara Vahanam. The tree is now much conventionalized and Proceeds from the Makara's mouth. The Parrot (Kamadeva's vahanam), Perched on the Yaksi's arm, is a Further Indication that the Makara in these Associations is rather to be Connected with Kamadeva than regarded as a river-symbol. Parrots or Parrokeets are Represented already on the Shoulders of the Voluptuous Yaksis from the Bhutesar side in Mathura : and in the Lalita Vistara. Ch. XXI, some of the Apsarasas, Mara's (Kamadeva's) Daughters, Tempting the Bodhisattva, are said to have Parrokeets or jays Perched on their heads or Shoulders. Smaller Yaksa (Guhya) Atlantes on right side (cf. plate 13). A.S. Photograph

2. Yaksi, on Doorjamb of the Subrahmaniya Temple at Tanjore, Eighteenth Century. Makara Vahanam; the tree much Conventionalized; the Yaksi holds a Parrot and is Pressing one foot against the trunk of the (Presumably) asoka-tree (Dohada Motif). Photograph by the Author

Plate XX :
1. The Conception and Nativity of Siddhartha. Upper right, the Dream of Maya Devi (Mahamaya) (Incarnation of the Bodhisattva in the form of a white Elephant); one Female Attendant also Sleeping, and the Four Great Kings, the Lokapalas (Kubera, etc.), Occupying the four Corners of the chamber, on guard. Upper left, The Interpretation of the Dream; Maya Devi seated, King Suddhodana Enthroned, two Brahman Soothsayers seated below. Lower right, the Nativity; Maya Devi under the asoka-tree, Supporting Herself by one hand (woman and tree, or Yaksi motif), with one Attendant; to her Proper right, the Four Great Kings holding a cloth on which the Presence of the infant, miraculously born from her right side, is indicated by two small feet. The stool represents the First Bath. Lower left, Presentation at the Shrine of the Yaksa Sakyavardhana, as Related in the Tibetan Dulva; Mahaprajapati, aunt of the child, holding the infant in the cloth, where its presence is again indicated by the two small feet; two female Attendants, one with an umbrella. The shrine of the tutelary Yaksa Consists of a tree and altar, the Yaksa visibly emerging from the altar and bowing to the child. From Amaravati, late second Century A. D.; now in the British Museum

2. Another representation of the same Subject, also from Amaravati, is illustrated in Fergusson, J. Tree and Serpent Worship, PI. LXIX; here the Yaksa is Leaning Forward from a sort of booth which may be Called a temple, and bowing to the child. A third example (Burgess, Buddhist Stupas of Amaravati and Jagayyapeta, Frontispiece, detail) resembles that of our Plate 20. A Fourth, ib. PI. XXXII, 2, differs from our Plate 20 only in Minute Details

Plate XXI :
1. Maya Devi's Dream, Descent of the Bodhisattva, in the form of a white Elephant. The Elephant is seen in a Pavilion, Supported by four Yaksas. Amaravati, late Second Century A.D. India Office Photograph

2. The visit of Indra. On the right, the Yaksa Vajrapani above, Indra Standing below. Kusana, Second Century A.D. Mathura. Property of L. Rosenberg, Paris

3. 4. Pancika and Hariti, from Doorjambs. Kusana, Mathura, first or Second Century A.D

5. Pancika and Hariti. Kusana, Mathura, first or second Century A.D

6. Scene from the Buddha's life : the Buddha, Nimbate, in Center, the Bodhi tree above him; on the Proper right, four women, of whom two at least are Represented as tree spirits. I cannot Identify the scene. Amaravati, late Second Century A.D. British Museum ? India Office Photograph

Plate XXII :
1. Yaksi (Vrksaka, Dryad) Bracket, from the Kankali Tila, Mathura. Kusana, first Century A.D. Lucknow Museum. L. Mus. Photograph

2. Yaksi, Madura, Seventeenth Century. Photograph by Dr. Denman W. Ross

3. Nari-lata, ivory, Ceylon, Eighteenth Century. Colombo Museum. Author's Photograph

4. Yaksa, Probably Kubera now C 18 in the Mathura Museum. Author's Photograph

Plate XXIII :
1. 2. Yaksa (gana) Garland-bearers. One with an Elephant's head, Suggesting Ganesa. Amaravati, late Second Century A.D. Madras Museum? India Office Photographs

3. Palace of Kamadeva, a dance of Yaksas. Central Architrave, back face of north torana, Sanci, about 100 B. C. India Office Photograph

Plate II : YAKSAS :

Plate : The well-known kalpavrksa Capital of a dhvajastambha from Besnagar, Usually dated in the third Century B. C. The wishing-tree is a Banyan (nyagrodha), and between the hanging aerial roots will be seen a pot, and two bags, Overflowing with Money : on the other side of the tree, in a Corresponding Position, are found a lotus flower and a conch each Similarly Exuding coins. These last (shown in detail on pi. 47, figs. I, 2) are clearly the nidhis (sankha and padma) of Kubera. Height 5 ft. 8 in Calcutta Museum. India Office Photograph.

Plate II :
1. Seated pot-bellied Yaksa, with Curly hair and Moustache he wears a Dhoti, and is seated with a Supporting Patta Encircling Stomach and left knee. Height 3 ft. 8 in. From near Pali Khera, Mathura, now C3 in the Mathura Museum. Archaeological Survey Photograph

2. Fragment of a Railing Pillar. Yaksa under a mango-tree Perhaps Kamadeva. Height 2 ft. 7i in. 2nd Century A.D. From the Chaubara mounds, Mathura, now J7 in the Mathura Museum. A.K.C. Photograph

3. Fragment of a railing pillar (from a Stairway). Yaksi under tree, with vessels of food and drink. Perhaps a form of Sri-Laksmi, of. my Early Indian Iconography, 2. Sri-Laksmi, in Eastern Art, I, 1928 figs. 16, 28, and B, C. 2nd Century A.D. Mathura Museum. A.K.C. photograph

Plate III : Relief from Nagarjunikonda, Detail. Standing Buddha with the Yaksa Vajrapani below his right arm; Yaksa Dvarapala with Camara on lower left; on the left, above, as coping relief, a Yaksa supporting a lotus-rhizome garland drawn from the open jaws of a makara. Third century A.D. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Photograph by the same.

Plate IV :
1. Mithuna (Yaksa and Yaksi) Under a tree, Supported by Addorsed Makara heads; from the jaws of one of the latter there Emerges a lion. For the paired Addorsed makara heads, cf. pi. 37, fig. 5, and pi. 39, fig. 2. On the lower left will be Noticed a Garuda Bracket. From the right end of an Architrave from Nagarjunikonda, third Century A.D. Madras Museum

2. Kubera. Cup in right hand, Purse in left (cf. pi. 8, fig. I, right hand figure), Kusana; Mathura. Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Plate V :
1. Relief : Hariti and Pancika, with some of their 500 Children. Ajanta, Cave II. About 500 A.D

2. Makara, with lotus Rhizome. From a Sinhalese knife, Eighteenth Century

1. 2. Kubera and Bhadra, relief Images in the Camundaraya Basti, Sravana Belgola. His Attributes seem to be a lotus and a citron, hers Perhaps the same. The trees, though considerably conventionalized, seem to be banyan and mango. Eleventh Century. Mysore Arch. Surv. Photograph

3. Kubera and Bhadra seated on a bench under a tree, each with a child in the arm. Money pots below the bench. Small seated image of Parsvanatha above the fork of the tree. About tenth to Eleventh Century. From Maldeh. India Museum Photograph

Plate VII :
1. Salabhanjika Figure, viz. Yaksi under a mango tree, Forming an Architrave Bracket of the north torana, Sanci

2. Lotus Altar for ball Offerings tot Yaksas (cf. p. 5). From Anuradhapura, Early Medieval, Colombo Museum

Plate VIII :
1. Trinity of Fortune : Ganesa, Laksmi (Abhiseka) and Kubera, seated on lotus seats on a common stem. About eighth century A.D. University Museum, Philadelphia. Photograph by the same. See The University Museum Bulletin, V 41. 2, 1930

2. Yaksa Atlantes Verandah of Cave III, Nasik. Early second century A.D. of. Pethavatthu Atthakatha, 45, 55, where Yaksas are Called Bhumma deva, " Earth gods." Cf. also Yaksas, I pi. 13, and Cunningham, Bharhut

Plate IX :
1. 2. 3. Pilasters from the Pakara slabs, Jaggayyapeta. Left, Yaksi on Fishtailed Elephant (jalebha or jala-hastin') pl. 43, fig. 4;Center, Yaksi on Fishtailed horse (jala-turaga) Right, Padmapani Yaksa on Fishtailed lion. Second Century B.C. Madras Museum. India office Photographs

Plate X :
1. Camda Yakhi, Under tree, Supported by a Fishtailed horse (jala-turaga'). Bharhut Railing Pillar, 150-175 B. C. Indian Museum, Calcutta. India Office, Photograph

2. Yaksi Under Supported on a Cushion on a Makara from a railing pillar, Mathura District. First or second century A.D. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston Photograph by the same

Plate XI :
1. 2. 3. Lotus Rhizomes bearing flowers, fruits, garment, jewels, etc., and Proceeding from the mouth of a (sky-) Elephant. The text cited above, p. 4 Suggests that the Spray is here conceived as “torn by Airavata from the Wishing-tree of Paradise". Bharhut coping, 150-175 B. C. Indian Museum, Calcutta. Photograph by the Same

4. Visnu Anantasayana, and the Birth of Brahma. Cambodian, Classical Period Collection of C.T. Loo, Paris

Plate XII :
1. Architrave, South torana, Sanci : Yaksas Spouting Lotus Sprays (Rhizome and flowers) Two Yaksas in the center holding jewelled Garlands India office Photograph

2. Detail of fig. I. Goloubew Photograph
3. Lotus rhizome borne by Yaksas, and Decoratively Treated, Providing a Transitional type between those of Bharhut and Sanci, and Amaravati, NI in the Mathura Museum, Vogel, Catalogue

4. The lotus Rhizome now fully Decorated, drawn from the jaws of a Makara by a lotus-seated Goddess, Probably Sri-Laksmi, and Supported by a dwarf Yaksa. Note Incidentally the cable Moulding above the lotus Petal Course; like the torus of a “bell-capital", this cable-moulding Represents the Stamens of the open lotus flower. Madras Museum. India Office Photograph

Plate XIII :
1. Similar lotus Rhizome, Rising from the jaws of a makara. Sanci, east Torana. Goloubew Photograph. Cf. Smith, Jaina stupa of Mathura

2. Lotus Rhizome, flower and jewel Bearing, and Framing Human Figures, two of which are seated on lotus Flowers, also Animals and birds. The whole spray Originates from the navel of a Seated dwarf Yaksa at the base of the Pillar, no Longer Extant, but shown in Fergusson, Tree and Serpent worship, pi. VIII, and our Reproduction, pi. 36, fig. i. Sanci, South torana. Goloubew Photograph

Plate XIV :
1. Center Medallion : Sri-Laksmi or a nadi-Devata, Amongst Lotuses, cf. pi. 2, fig. 3, and pi. 19, fig. i. Another Figure in the Doorway above. Right and left, below, lotus Rhizome Rising from the jaws of Makaras, and above, from the navels of dwarf Yaksas. Jamb Pillar of Railing, stupa II, Sanci, first Century B. C. or A.D.A.K.C. Photograph

2. Lotus Rhizome Rising from a full vase (Purna-ghata) Supported by a dwarf Yaksa. Stele at Vihare II, Polonnaruva, Ceylon, Medieval. Cf. pi. 42, fig. i. A. S. C. Photograph

Plate XV :
1. Yaksas, Apparently returning the end of the ornamented lotus rhizome to the mouth of a dwarf Yaksa. Coping, Amaravati, ca. 200 A.D. Madras Museum. India Office Photograph

2. Makara, with the ornamented lotus rhizome Proceeding from its mouth, and Dominated by a dwarf Yaksa. Coping, Amaravati, ca. 200 A.D. Madras Museum. India Office Photograph

Plate XVI :
1. Makara, Limestone, Length 21 in., Property of K. Minassian, New York. There is a socket in the center of the belly, and an Opening Extended from the mouth to the socket. This has evidently been a Makara Standard or small makara dhuaja Stambha, and may have been Connected with a temple of Pradyumna (= Kamadeva) or even Varuna. Mr. Minassian Possesses another Incomplete Example of the same kind. Nothing is known of the source, except that both "were obtained in Northern India. A date about the third or second Century B.C. may be conjectured. Museum of Fine Arts Photograph

2. The makara of the Makara-dhvaja Stambha from Besnagar1 (see pi. 45, fig. 3). Length 3 ft. Second century B. C. Gwalior Museum. Gwalior, A. S., Photograph

3. Makara, in a Railing cross-bar Medallion, Mathura District, ca. Second Century B. C. Similar examples from Bharhut and Bodhgaya are known. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Photograph by the Same

1. Full vase (Purna-ghata) in Center on each side a Conch with a lotus Springing from it, a Vardhamanaka (Powder box), and a lotus Apparently with a flame Rising from it. Early ninth Century. Candi Sewu, Java. A.K.C. Photograph. Similar Conches with Lotuses are used also at Borobudur in the scene representing the Honoring of the Bodhi-trees Previous to the Great Enlightenment.

2. Richly developed full vase as part of a pillar, with dwarf Yaksas at the sides blowing Conches. Eighth Century. Indra Sabha, Elura. India Office Photograph

3. A Similar Richly Developed full vase as a pillar Capital; Verandah of Cave XXIV, Ajanta. Sixth century. India Office Photograph

4. Wooden Tracery Window, with full vase with Richly Developed Foliage. Southern India, Eighteenth Century Present Position (Probably still Chipping Campden, England) Unknown. A.K.C. Photograph

Plate XVIII :
1. One side of the “Pali Khera group", C2 in the Mathura Museum. A Bacchanalian Yaksa, probably Kubera, seated on a Mountain, Attended by female cup-bearers, with trees Behind, the whole forming the base Supporting a bowl, of which only part is Preserved. First or Second Century A. D. Indian Museum Photograph

2. A Similar Pedestal which served as the Support of a bowl, of which only a part is preserved. The two Yaksis stand under an asoka tree, which is fully Represented at the back of the stone. One of the Yaksis holds a parrot. From Kota, near Mathura. Probably second Century A. D. See Cunningham, A.S. Reports, XX, p. 50, and pi. III. India Museum Photograph

3. Back and front of a female figure and column supporting a bowl. The female figure suggests Sri-Laksmi and (or) a Yaks of. pl. 2, fig. 3 (= pl. 45, fig. 2); pl. 14, fig. I, center.

Second Century A.D. Bharata Kala Parisad, Benares. Photograph by the same

Plate XIX :
1. Naga, Amongst Lotuses, i.e. in water, and Attended by nadi-devatas Supported by fish or Madras. Detail from a Railing pillar, Amaravati, about 200 A. D. Madras Museum. India Office Photograph

2. Left hand part of a scene representing the Buddha's Bath in the Neranjana (for the whole see Vogel, Indian serpent-lore, pi. VII, a), showing nadi-devatas bringing offerings of full vases (punna-ghata) to the Bodhisattva. Detail of a railing pillar, Amaravati, about 200 A. D. British Museum. A. K. C. Photograph

3. The Jamna River Goddess, Yamuna Devi, Supported on a Tortoise, and Attended by a dwarf with an Umbrella, and maid with a basket. Both Attendants are supported by fish. Gupta. From Paharpur, Rajshahi District. A.S.I. photograph

Plate XX : Reliefs at the two ends of the Varaha cave, Udayagiri, Gwalior. On the left, the two rivers Jamna and Ganges, with the river Goddesses Standing Respectively on a Tortoise and a makara, Flowing into the ocean, wherein Stands a deity, Probably Varuna, with a Vessel. Above the two Goddesses, and between the rivers, a Dancing Scene, with the dancer in the center, Surrounded by Players on the harp, lute, flute, and drums. Above this, an angel(?) with a Garland(P). On the right, a Similar Composition, Omitting the Dancing Scene. Ca. 400 A. D. India Office Photograph Enlarged.

Plate XXI :
1. Details of the Doorway of the Gupta Dasavatara temple, Deogarh. On the left the river Goddess Ganga Devi, supported by a makara, an Umbrella above her head; on the right Yamuna Devi, Supported by a Tortoise, and with an Umbrella over her head. About 600 A. D. India Office Photograph

2. Left end of the Verandah of the Ramesvara shrine, Elura. On the left, Ganga Devi, with a dwarf, and Supported by a Makara; center and right, Pillars with Purna-ghata Capitals, and Salabhanjika Brackets (Yaksis under trees). Seventh Century. India Office Photograph

Plate XXII : Yamuna Devi, Supported by a tortoise, and Standing Amongst Lotuses, under a Makara-torana, the Makaras with dwarf Yaksa Riders. Kailasa, Elura; Eighth Century. Goloubew Photograph

Plate XXIII :
1. Detail from a Relief (see H.I.I.A. fig. 92) of the Dipankara Jataka. Gandhara, Second Century A. D. Prince Megha ("Cloud") with a Purse is Purchasing Lotuses from Prakrti ("Nature"), alias Bhadra ("Plenty", also a name of the Consort of Kubera) Prakrti holds the Lotuses in her right hand, a vessel under her left arm (cf. fig. 3 on same Plate). Property of K. Minassian, New York.

2. Goddess of a Spring, Supported by a Makara; four armed, Holding a Large Vessel Perforated from front to back of the slab; a camara and Lotus held in the other hands. Height 28 in. In a temple Dated 1428 A.D. at Jagatsukh, Kulu, but the Sculpture is Probably older. See A.S.I.A.R. 1907-08, p. 267 and fig. 2; and Bhattacharya, B.C. Indian Images, p. 44 and pi. XXX, fig. I. Lahore Museum. A.S.I. Photograph

3. 4. Two Goddesses of a Sacred Spring at Mojokerto, Java, now in the Museum at Batavia; both were "Adossees au mur afin de Verser a Exterieur 'eau des urnes qu'elles tiennent a la main" (Krom, N. J., in Ars Asiatica VIII, p. 61 and pi. XXXII). The Resemblance between one of these (fig. 3) and the Prakrti of fig. I will be Remarked. Height of fig. 3 is .72 m. After Krom, loc cit

Plate IIIV : Abhiseka of Sri-Laksmi, Ravana ka Khai, Elura; Eighth Century. There are four dig-gajas, or sky Elephants. Right and left of the Goddess are four-armed crowned male Deities Holding Vessels; one of these, probably the one on the right who holds a Conch in the upper left hand, must be Varuna. The predella Composition Represents a Lotus pond, with Nagas Amongst the Lotuses, Holding full Vessels (Purna-ghata)

1. A Rukkha Devata Offering food and Drink Probably an Illustration to the Story of the Treasurer, etc., Dhammapada Atthakatha, I, 204, see Burlingame, Buddhist Legends, I, 277. From the Bharhut Coping, 150-175 B. C. Indian Museum, Calcutta. Cf. J.R.A.S. 1928

2. Detail from a Parinirvana, with a Rukkha-devata seen Patresu Ardhakayan Abhinirmaya (see Yaksas, I, p. 33, note I), or Upaddha-sarira (Jataka VI, 370). H8 in the Mathura Museum, Vogel, Catalogue

3. As fig. I on this Plate; from a Railing Pillar, Bodhgaya, About 100 b. C

4. Detail from the Sutasoma Jataka; only the face of the Rukkha Devata, is seen. From wall Paintings at Degaldoruwa, nr. Kandy, Ceylon. Eighteenth Century

Plate XXVI :
1. The Bodhisattva, after the Bath in the Neranjana, welcomed by the Naga Kalika, two Naginis and a Deva; and above, left, four nadi-devatas with full vases, and other Deities on the right. The Deva, Apparently with matted locks, may be Brahma. The Buddha is Represented by foot-marks on a lotus Pedestal, and a fiery Pillar Surmounted by the Ratnatraya (of. Sanci, north torana, left Pillar, outer face). Amaravati, about 200 A. D. After Fergusson, Tree and Serpent Worship

i. For Analogous but more Detailed Representations of the same scene, see Vogel, Indian serpent lore, pi. VII, a (=in part our pi. 19, fig. I), Museum of Fine Arts Bulletin, No. 160, and Krom, Life of Buddha on the stupa of Barabudur, fig. 91 (= in part our pi. 41, fig. 4). In all cases the nadi-Devatas bear full vases, but in the Boston and Borobudur Examples without Foliage.

2. Presentation of the Infant Bodhisattva before the Yaksa Sakyavardhana, who Appears within a shrine. Amaravati, about 200 A. D. After Fergusson, loc. cit. pi. LXIX. of. Yaksas

Plate XXVII :
1. Offering vase with Vegetation. Sumerian relief from Susa, third Millennium B.C. Original in the Louvre; for the whole, see Unger, E. Sumerische und Akkadische Kunst, 1926, fig. 59; and cf. Ward, Seal Cylinders of Western Asia, No. 1235, and Heuzey, Origines Orientales de l'art

2. Lower Part of a Kumbha-Panjara, Showing a full vase (Purna-ghata') with a Pilaster Taking the place of the Central Vegetative motifs. Hazara Ramacandra temple, Hampi (Vijayanagar); Begun A.D. 1513

1. Amaravati, About 200 A.D
2. Used as a Welcome Offering. Story of Sudhana and Ratnacuda, Borobudur, Java. About 800 A- D. Krom en Erp, Beschrijving

1. Rhizome with Flowers, buds, and Leaves, Rising from a full vase. Amaravati, about 200 A. D. or earlier. After Fergusson, Tree and Serpent -worship

2. The same motif, Sanci, north torana, left pillar, outer face

3. The Same Motif, more Formally Treated, and Combined with Addorsed animals (as also Commonly at Sanci). From a stele near the south Vahalkada. Eastern Dagaba, Anuradhapura, Ceylon

4. Below, a Lotus Palmette; above, Lotus Rhizome Springing from a Makara's jaws, with Haritsas Perched on the Flowers. From a Railing Pillar, Sarnath first Century B.C

5. Rhizome with Flowers, buds, and Leaves, Rising from the navel of a dwarf Yaksa. Sanci, first Century. A Detail

Plate XXX : LOTUS :
1. Rhizome with Foliage Dissolved in Arabesque, Rising from the navel of a Yaksa. Detail from an Early Pala door jamb, Indian Museum, Calcutta

2. Rhizome with vine and Lotus Elements, rising from the jaws of a Makara. Sanci, north Torana, left Pillar, outer face

3. Rhizome with Flowers, buds, and Leaves, Rising from the Mouth of a Yaksa. Amaravati, about 200 A. D. or Earlier. After Fergusson, Tree and Serpent Worship

1. Detail from a Jaina tympanum, showing three Vaddhamanakas, a Panna-pacchi or Panna-puta, and a Punna-ghata. From the Kankali Tila, Mathura now J 555 in the Lucknow Museum, see Smith, Jaina stupa of Mathura

2. Details from a Jaina Ayagapata, Showing the Astamangala, from left to right, above, fish, mirror, Sirivaccha, Vaddhamanaka and below, ratnatraya, Panna-pacchi or puta, Bhaddasana (?), and Punna-ghata. From the Kankali Tila, Mathura; now J 249 in the Lucknow Museum; see Smith, Jaina stupa of Mathura

3. Detail from a Jaina Ayagapata, vine Springing from a full vase (Punna-ghata'). From the Kankali Tila, Mathura; now J 253 in the Lucknow Museum. See Smith, Jaina stupa

4. Lotus Springing from a full vase, Amaravati

1. Full Vase Capital of a Pilaster, Dasavatara Gupta temple, Deogarh

2. Full vase, from a Railing Pillar, Sarnath; first Century B.C. Sahni, Catalogue. No. D(a)I

3. Full vase, Amaravati : Fergusson, Tree and Serpent Worship

4. Full Vase, Sanci, and first Century B.C

5. Full vase, Sanci, called early Maurya in A.S.I.A.R. 1906-07

1. Full vase, from an architrave, Mathura, second century A.D. M3 in the Mathura Museum; Vogel, Catalogue, and A.S.I.A.R. 1909-10

2. Full vase, one of the Astamangala, from a Fifteenth Century Jaina Manuscript; Hutteman, Miniaturen zum Jinacarita, Baessler Archiv, 1914

3. Full vase, from an Embroidered Jacket, Sinhalese, Nineteenth Century

4. Full vase, held by a Naga Dvarapala, Anuradhapura

5. Lions, Emerging with Vegetation from the jaws of Ntakaras, and Running towards a Flowing full vase (Fountain of Life motif); Amaravati, Ca. 200 A. D.

1. 2. Two Examples of the Lotus Rhizome, with buds, Flowers and Leaves, Rising from a dwarf Yaksa's Mouth; Bharhut, 150-175 B. C. Fig. 2 is Restored

Plate XXXV : Lotus and Yaksa : The Juxtaposition of these Examples from Sanci and Amaravati alone Suffice to show the Identity of the Earlier Realistic Lotus Rhizome and the so-Called Garland of the Amaravati coping. For this Identity cf. Also

1. Sanci, Stupa I, South Torana, Architrave; First Century B. C. A lotus Rhizome, Bearing Flowers, etc., Springs from the dwarf Yaksa's Grimacing Mouth, Narrow at first then Swelling to the full size; the Yaksa's left hand rests on the First node with its Scale leaf, while his Right hand holds a pearl Garland. Another lotus spray springs from his navel. For the whole Composition, see pi. 12, fig. 2. Sir John Marshall Calls these Yaksas klcakas, “spouting forth all summer".

2. The same Motif from the Coping, Amaravati, about 200 A. D. As Before the Rhizome rapidly swells to its full Thickness, but it is here Elaborately Decorated, which disguises its true Character; the nodes, too, are decoratively treated (and as shown on pi. 12, fig. 4, made Symmetrical Rather than Realistic). The lower course shows a lotus Rhizome with Flowers Rising from the jaws of a water Elephant. The upper Course Shows a Decorative Treatment of the expanded lotus seen in Profile, the cable motif, as Already in Asokan Capitals, Representing the Stamens (cf. Indian Historical Qtly

1. Lotus Rhizome rising from the Navel of a dwarf Yaksa, from Fergusson, Tree and Serpent Worship, pi. VIII. This is the now Missing Base of the torana Pillar Shown on pi. 13, fig. 2. Cf. Smith, Jaina stupa of Mathura pl XXVI

2. Dwarf Yaksa with Exaggerated penis, from a Railing Pillar, Bodhgaya; about Ioo B.C Cf pl. 43 fig 7
3. Dwarf Yaksa, with vine springing from the Mouth, and held in the hand; from a stone bowl, Mathura, of Kusana date. See A.S.I.A.R. 1915-16

4. Dwarf Yaksa with lotus rhizome apparently (Since the direction of growth is from left to right) Reentering his mouth. Amaravati, coping, First century B.C.?

5. Lotus Rhizome With nodes and flowers, very Simply Treated; from the altar in the Verandah of the old Monastery at Bhaja, Early Second Century B.C

Plate XXXVII : Makara and Lotus; water-elephant (Jalebha) and Lotus :
1. Kjrttimukha (full-face Makara), with Vegetation Springing from the jaws. From the Dasavatara Gupta Temple at Deogarh. About 600 A. D

2. Lotus Rhizome with Flowers, Leaves, and Animals, drawn from the jaws of a Makara by a dwarf Yaksa; Another Yaksa. is using an Elephant-goad to open the Makara's jaws; Another Makara is Ridden by a Yaksa. Amaravati, about 200 A.D

3. Makaras with interlocked tails; a lotus rhizome with flowers and Leaves Springs from the open jaws on the left, and Following the Direction of Growth around the Circumference of the medallion, Reenters the jaws of the Makara on the right. Amaravati, About 200 A. D. Cf. Smith, Jaina Stupa of Mathura

4. Lotus rhizome with flowers, buds, and Leaves, Springing from the jaws of a water-elephant (jalebha). Amaravati, about 200 A. D. Compare cf. 40, fig. 4, and Contrast

5. Decorated lotus Rhizome Springing from Makara jaws; a Combination of the Decorated node and Source themes, Treated Symmetrically. Note also the Rootlets, which hang from the node. Amaravati, Coping; about 200 A. D. The motif seems to occur first at Mathura, see Smith, Jaina stupa of Mathura, pl. IX. for the Addorsed Makara heads

1. 2. 3. Lotus rhizome, with Leaves, Flowers and buds, running between Affronted makaras. From the Direction of growth it will be seen that the Spray rises from the jaws of one and enters the jaws of the other Makara

Plate XXXIX :
1. Lotus Rhizome with Flowers, buds, Fruits and Leaves, from the hammiya Railing of Stupa IV, Sanci; Second Century B. C. Length 5 ft. 7 Inches. A 69 in the Sanci Museum. Catalogue

2. Detail from a "Moonstone," Polonnaruva : Two Pairs of Affronted Makara Heads with Lotus Sprays, and between them a kirttimukha. About the Twelfth Century

3. Lotus spray with fully Developed Acanthiform Leaves, Springing from a makara. Amaravati, about 200 A.D

1. 2. 3. Nodes of the Lotus Rhizome at Bharhut, Sanci, and Amaravati. The two first are Treated Realistically, Preserving the Direction of Growth; in the third, while the Pedicule motif is retained, the leaf is duplicated for the sake of Symmetry, Without Regard to the Direction of Growth

4. Detail from a Tympanum arch, Rani Gumpha, Udayagiri, first Century B.C. lotus Palmettes rising from lotus leaves, and Flowers, Forming a Continuous Spray Springing from the jaws of a water-elephant (jalebha). Cambridge History of India

Plate XLI :
1. Merman with Double fish tail and Elephant ears; the Latter like Those of some dwarf Yaksas, cf. pl. 43, fig. 7. Sarnath, Railing pillar, first Century B. C. Sahni, Catalogue. D(a)6, p. 209, and pl. VI. Cf. Smith, Jaina stupa of Mathura, Pl IX, Similar Figures but Female.

2. Merman with Double fish tail, each fork terminating in winged Dragons. Mathura, about 100 A.D.

3. Design of ever-flowing vases, built up from the Common Sumerian symbol of the vase and two rivers. After Cros, G., Nouveaux fouilles de Tello, 1910

4. The Bodhisattva Welcomed by Brahma with a full vase, on Emerging from the Neranjana. Borobudur, Java. For the whole, see Krom, The life of Buddha on the stupa of Bdrdbudur, fig. 91. Cf. Jataka, I, 93, where merchant's daughters welcome the Buddha in the same way, also

Plate XLII :
1. Lotus rhizome with flowers and leaves framing animals, etc. Rising from a full vase Supported by a dwarf Yaksa. Amaravati, about 200 A.D

2. Drawing from pl. 9, fig. 2, Pilaster with Yaksi, Supported By a water horse (Jalaturaga); Jaggayyapeta, Second Century B.C

Plate XLIII :
1. Water bull, from a Railing Pillar, Bharhut, 150-175 B.C. Note the Small Fins

2. Water Horse (Jalaturaga), Vehicle of Camda Yakkhi, Bharhut (see pi. 10, fig. I). About 150-175 B. C. Note the small fins

3. Ratnatraya symbol, the two Horns Composed of Makaras. Amaravati, about 200 A. D. Cf. Smith, Jaina stupa of Mathura

4. Water Elephant (Jalebha), Vehicle of a Yakkhi, see pl. 9, fig. 2, and pl. 42, fig. 2. The best Example of a jalebha or jala-dvipa will be found in Smith, Jaina stupa of Mathura

5. Typical lotus Palmette, Composed of Leaves, Tendrils and Flowers, Rising from a leaf at a node, cf. pi. 40, fig. 4. Sanci, East Torana

6. Makara with open jaws, Forming a soma sutra of a Siva Temple; a Warrior standing in (Emerging from?) the open jaws. Hoysala. Mysore A. S., 1913-14

7. Dwarf Yaksa, with Elephant ears and exaggerated penis, dragging at the upper jaw of a makara. Bodhgaya Coping, about 100 B.C

Plate XLIV :
1. Abhiseka of Sri-Laksmi Tympanum of a Doorway, Ananta Gumpha, Udaya-giri, Orissa. First Century B.C

2. Yaksa with Lotus Sprays, Seated on Lotus; larger Rhizome Sprays with Flowers, etc., and Hantsas Perched on Leaves, extending to right and left. Detail from the Dhamekh Stupa, Sarnath, and sixth Century A.D

3. Lotus Pedestal of a Standing Figure, Chamfer relief on a Bharhut Railing Pillar; Showing the Petals, Stamens, and Pericarp, Corresponding to the Petals, cable Moulding, and Abacus of a Lotus (so-called "bell") Capital

4. Similar Pedestal, but of a Larger figure (Unpublished); Bharhut. The Composition is here of the lotus-palmette type, with a scale leaf, indicating a node, at the center of the lower Margin

Plate XLV :
1. Varuna, Seated with his Makara, as Guardian of the soma, which Seems to be Established on a rock (cf. “Varuna has placed Agni in the waters, the Sun in Heaven, Soma on the rock", RV., V, 85, 2). From the Compositions Illustrating the Rape of the Soma, Cave IV, Badami, sixth Century after Chanda, Bas-reliefs of Badami, Mem. A. S. I., 25, 1928 pl XXI. Another Representation of Varuna with the Makara will be found

2. As pi. 2, fig. 3
3. As pi. 16, fig, 2, but showing the makara in place; after Cunningham, loc. cit

1. 2. The Sankha and padma Nidhis of Kubera; Details from pi. I, on the Right : both are Exuding coins

3. A winged Sankha, Similarly Exuding Coins or Pearls; Medallion of a Railing Cross bar, Mathura. After Smith, Jaina Stupa of Mathura In view of the rarity of the winged sankha Symbol, Attention may be called to a winged Sankha Standard at Borobudur (Krom en Erp, Bcschrijving

4. Sankha with Lotus; Detail of
5. Lotus Rhizome, Dissolving into Arabesque, Springing from a Sankha. From Mathura, Probably of Gupta date. After Smith, Jaina stupa of Mathura, pi. LXXXVIII
6. The same, with the nodes now Hardly Recognizable, from the Dasavatara Gupta temple at Deogarh
7. Plaque with sankha, and lotuses in Angles; from Basarh, of Kusana or Gupta date. A.S.I.A.R. 1903-04

Plate XLVII :
1. Birth of Brahma, from a lotus Springing from the navel of Narayana (Visnu-Anantasayana). Dasavatara, Elura, eighth century. See my The Tree of Jesse and Indian sources of parallels, Art Bulletin, Vol. XI, 1929, and above

1. "Makara " motifs in European art
2. Kirttimukha type, from a 1oth Century Psalter, British Museum, Harley MS. 2904; Millar, E. J., English Illuminated Manuscripts from the Xth to the XIIIth Century
3. Makara and Lotus rhizome type, from the Doorway of Aal Church in Halling-dal, Norway, now in Christiania (Oslo) University. About 1200 A. D. From the cast in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

Plate XLVIII :
1. Ganga Devi Approaching Siva. Candimau, Bihar, fifth-sixth Century A. D. = A.S.I.A.R. 1911-12

2. Makara with Lotus : Bharhut, ca. 175 B. C. Indian Museum, Calcutta : Photograph by the same

3. Abhiseka of Sri-Laksmi : Beside her a dwarf Yaksa seated, Supporting a bowl, and a Pillar Surmounted by a cock. From Lala Bhagat, Cawnpore District : Sunga, Second Century B.C. Lucknow Museum : Photo by the same. See Prayag Dayal, A note on Lala Bhagat Pillar, Journ. U.P. Hist. Soc. IV, 2, 1930

Plate XLIX : Sri-Laksmi, on and Amongst Lotuses Rising from a "full-vessel". From Mathura, now Big in the Lucknow. Museum. H. 3 ft. 10-12 Inches. Kusana, ca. 2nd Century A.D

Plate L : Details from the coping, Bodhgaya Railing ca. 100 B.C. Sea Monsters (Makaras) and dwarf Yaksas, etc.

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