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A Comprehensive History of Vedic Literature, Vol. 3 Brahmana and Aranyaka Works 1st Edition

A Comprehensive History of Vedic Literature, Vol. 3 Brahmana and Aranyaka Works 1st Edition

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Publisher:Pranava Prakashan
Published In:1977
Binding Type:Hardback
Weight:2.19 lbs
Pages:pp. xvi + 346, Table, Index, Glossary, Biblio., Abbreviations

The Title "A Comprehensive History of Vedic Literature, Vol. 3 Brahmana and Aranyaka Works 1st Edition" is written by Satya Shrava. This book was published in the year 1977. The book displayed here is a 1st Edition edition. This book has total of pp. xvi + 346 (Pages). The publisher of this title is Pranava Prakashan. We have about 9 other great books from this publisher. A Comprehensive History of Vedic Literature, Vol. 3 Brahmana and Aranyaka Works 1st Edition is currently Not Available with us.You can enquire about this book and we will let you know the availability.

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Contents

Introduction
I. WHAT ARE THE BRAHMANAS
II. BRAHMANAS-OLD AND NEW :
1. Brahmanas of the Rigveda :
i. Aitareya Brahmana
ii. Kaushitaki Brahmana
iii. Samkhayana Brahmana

2. Brahmanas of the Yajurveda :
i. Madhyandina Satapatha Brahmana
ii. Kanva Satapatha Brahmana
iii. Taittiriya Brahmana of the Krishna (or black) Yajurveda

3. Brahmanas of the Samaveda :
i. Tamdya Brahmana
ii. Shadvimsa Brahmana
iii. Mantra Brahmana = Chhandogya Brahmana
iv. Daivata or Devatadhyaya Brahmana
v. Arsheya Brahmana
vi. Samavidhana Brahmana
vii. Samhitopanishad Brahmana
viii. Vamsa Brahmana
ix. Jaiminiya Brahmana
x. Jaiminiya Arsheya Brahmana
xi. Jaiminiyopanishad Brahmana

4. A Brahmana of Atharvaveda :
i. Gopatha Brahmana

III. THE LOST BRAHMANAS :
1. Brahmanas of the Rigveda :
i. Paimgi, Paimgya, Paimgayani Brahmana
ii. Bahvricha Brahmana
iii. Asvalayana Brahmana
iv. Galava Brahmana

2. Brahmanas of the Yajurveda :
i. Charaka Brahmana
ii. Svetasvatara Brahmana
iii. Kathaka Brahmana
iv. Maitrayani Brahmana
v. Jabala Brahmana
vi. Khandikeya Brahmana
vii. Aukheya Brahmana
viii. Haridravika Brahmana
ix. Tumburu Brahmana
x. Ahvaraka Brahmana
xi. Kankati Brahmana
xii. Chhagaleya Brahmana

3. Brahmanas of the Samaveda :
i. Bhallavi Brahmana
ii. Kalabavi Brahmana
iii. Rauruki Brahmana
iv. Satyayana Brahmana
v. Talavakara Brahmana

4. Miscellaneous Brahmanas :
i. Aruneya Brahmana
ii. Saulabha Brahmana
iii. Sailali Brahmana
iv. Parasara Brahmana
v. Mashasaravi Brahmana
vi. Kapeya Brahmana
vii. Rahasyamnaya Brahmana
viii. Nirukta Brahmana
ix. Anvakhyana Brahmana
x. Bashkala Brahmana and Mandukeya Brahmana
xi. Trikharva and Karadvisha Brahmanas

IV. CONTEMPORARY SAGES AND RULERS
V. PERIOD OF THEIR COMPILATION
VI. LITERATURE ANTERIOR TO THE BRAHMANAS
VII. ARE BRAHMANAS THE VEDAS
VIII. THEIR HELP TO UNDERSTAND THE VEDA
IX. BASIS OF THE SARUANUKRAMANIS

X. THE COMMENTATORS :
1. Aitareya Brahmana
i. Bhatta Govinda Svami
ii. Jaya Svami
iii. Bhatta Bhaskara
iv. Shadguru-sishya
v. Sayana

2. Kaushitaki Brahmana :
i. Bhatta Vinayaka
ii. Mitakshara Commentary

3. Satapatha Brahmana :
i. Hari Svami
ii. Uvata
iii. Sayana
iv. Kavindracharya

4. Kanva Satapatha Brahmana :
i. Nilakantha
ii. Anantacharya

5. Mandala Brahmana :
i. Narayanendra Sarasvati

6. Pinda Brahmana
7. Taittiriya Brdhmana :
i. Bhava Svami
ii. Kausika Bhatta Bhaskara Misra
iii. Ramandara - Ramagnichitta
iv. Sayana

8. Tamdya Brdhmana :
i. Jaya Svami
ii. Sayana
iii. Narayanacharya

9. Shaduimsa Brdhmana : Sayana
10. Mantra Brdhmana : Bhatta Gunavishnu
11. Daivata Brahmna : Sayana

12. Arsheya Brdhmana :
i. Sayana
ii. Kasyapa Bhatta Bhaskara Misra

13. Sama-Vidhana Brdhmana : Bharata Svami
14. Samhitopanishad Brdhmana :
i. Sayana
ii. Dvijaraja Bhatta, son of Vishnu

15. Vamsa Brdhmana : Sayana
16. Jaiminiya Brdhmana : Bhavatrata

XI : THEIR SUBJECT MATTER :
i. Apah
ii. Formation of Earth
iii. Agni
iv. Hiranyagarbha-Mahad Anda
v. Prithivi - Nine Stages of Formation
vi. Fena or Foam
vii. Mrit or Clay
viii. Sushkapa;
ix. Usha or Saline Earth
x. Sikata
xi. Sarkara
xii. Asma
xiii. Ayah and Hiranyama
xiv. Vegetation on Earth
xv. Electrons in Prithivi
xvi. Sarpa-Rajni Prithivi
xvii. The Atmosphere = Antariksha
xviii. Marutas
xix. Pasus or Energy Particles
xx. Devatas
xxi. Yajnas
xxii. Main Forms of Yajnas
xxiii. Soul and Cycle of Rebirth
xxiv. Life Span
xxv. Happy Married Life
xxvi. Exalted Position of Wife
xxvii. Actions : Cause and Effect
xxviii. Rain Fall
xxxi. Rivetting of Metals
xxx. Geometry
xxxi. The Heaven

XII. SOCIETY : ITS CLASSES
XIII. THE ARANYAKAS :
1. Aranyakas of the Rigveda :
i. Aitareya Aranyaka
ii. Kaushitaki Aranyaka
iii. Samkhayana Aranyaka

2. Aranyakas of the Yajurveda :
i. Brihadaranyaka (Madhyandina)
ii. Brihadaranyaka (Kanva)
iii. Taittirlya Aranyaka
iv. Maitrayaniya or Brihad Aranyaka of Charaka Recension

3. Aranyaka of the Samaveda :
i. Talavakara Aranyaka or Jaiminiya Upanishad Brahmana

XIV. COMPILATION OF ARANYAKAS :
i. Saunaka
ii. Asvalayana
iii. Katyayana
iv. Yaska
v. Panini
vi. Pimgala
vii. Vyadi
viii. Kautsa

XV. THEIR COMMENTATORS :
1. Aitareya Aranyaka :
i. Shadguru Sishya
ii. Sayana
iii. Govinda Svami

2. Brihad Aranyaka (Madhyandina)
i. Bhartri Prapancha
ii. Dviveda Ganga

3. Brihad Aranyaka : (Kanva) :
i. Acharya Samkara

4. Taittirlya Aranyaka
i. Bhatta Bhaskara
ii. Sayana
iii. Varadaraja

5. Maitrayaniya Aranyaka : Rama Tirtha :
6. Talavakara Aranyaka : Bhavatrata

16. MEANING OF THE VEDA :

Transliteration : Devanagari to Roman

Introduction

The Vedas, meaning the repository of knowledge, form the fundamentals of Vedic religion and Aryan society. The available earliest literature of India has unanimously accepted the four Vedas as revealed to the seers or rishis at the time of the creation of the universe. The great sanctity attached to the Vedas and to the seers enhanced the inter-related importance of both and a rishi signifies a Veda, as well. (See p. 7, Vol. II, Vedic Vangmaya ka Itihasa). An unbiassed and careful introspection of this vast literature leads no doubt to the important conclusion that the revelation of the hymns to the seers had never been questioned. the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries ushered in an era of criticism adversely affecting the fundamentals and pertinently putting forth the sarcastic proposition that the hymns are the songs of cow-herds. The studies initiated in the field during these centuries by the Western scholars had expressed divergent views on the subjecc. The earlier group who had reverence for this sacred literature, was closely followed by a motivated section bent upon denouncing fully their predecessors who had to face vehement opposition. Their view point, that Sanskrit was the source of Greek, Latin, Anglo-Saxon, Slavonic, and also of other European languages etc. which helped to bring the truth to the fore, was repeatedly assailed and shelved by the prejudiced writings of the later group of scholars.

The scholars from the West had attempted writing history of Vedic literature. In the field were Maxmuller, Macdonell, Weber and Winterntz, etc., who treated the intricate subject according to their own interpretations putting forth the material in a brief, concise and summary form. Their writings do not probe into the details or dilate upon the intricacies. The desideratum was A Comprehensive History of Vedic literature.

The earliest Indian pioneer who attempted a subjective analysis and who had the necessary titanic vision was the late Pandit Bhagavad Datta, a close and ardent student of the Vedas, the Brahmanas, the Aranyakas, the Upanishads, the Kalpa Sutras and the vast Vedic as well as classical Sanskrit literature, a very large number of manuscripts of which he had personally collected from remote corners of this vast country and deposited for a critical study in the then Lal Chand Library of D. A, V. College, Lahore, of which he was the Research Superintendent upto 1934 and this collection after the great historical event of the Partition of our Country, is now safely deposited in the Visvesvarananda Vedic Research Institute, Hoshiarpur; while a sizable porion of it remained in the University Library of the Panjab University at Lahore, now in Pakistan. He had written three volumes in Hindi on the Brahmana and Aranyaka Works (1927), the Commentators of the Vedas (1931), and the Recensions of the Vedas (1935). The volume on Brahmana and Aranyaka Works was based on his introduction to the Vedic Kosa (1922) by Hans Raj, his devoted Librarian. The treatment of the subject, his approach to the general problem and the details available with him were in simple and forceful language put forth for a careful study by the student as well as the scholar. These three volumes eventually formed the basis for subsequent writings on the subject both by Indian as well as Western scholars, who unequivocally admired his depth, comprehension and clarity of expression on the subject.

These three volumes in Hindi, required a careful editing and addition of the latest research material. Their editing was undertaken by the present writer in the year 1973. The three volumes in Hindi on Brahmana and Aranyaka Works (1974), the Commentators of the Vedas (1976) and the Vedas, their Samhitas and Recensions (1977) have been published. The volumes on the Upanishads and the Kalpa-Sutras are under preparation and are likely to be published, shortly.

The long cherished desire of the scholars, especially from foreign countries to have a simple, clear, analytical and comprehensive understanding of the subject matter, had led the present writer to bring forth, 'A Comprehensive History of Vedic Literature' in English in five volumes. The material critically put forth, herein, basically shatters the persistent views impregnated into and expressed by the Western and most of the Indian scholars. The fundamental difference between the Western thought and that expressed in these volumes centres round :

1. Were the hymns of the Vedas revealed?
2. Interpretation of the hymns
3. Do the Vedas have history?
4. Are the brahmanas also the Vedas?
5. Is animal sacrifice in yajnas prescribed in the Vedas?

A. Throughout the vast Sanskrit literature, it is maintained that speech or logos neither has a beginning nor an end. It is akshara it is eternal and is grasped at the beginning of each creation. This speech is known as div or daivi. It differs from the speech used by human beings. In the Kathaka and Mai-trayanl Samhitas, the Nirukta, the Satapatha Brahmana and throughout the Vedic literature, this distinction in speech is clearly discernible. the hymns were revealed in the daivl speech. At the time of creation the great Seers were receptive to the chhandasi prakriya or metrical movements through the highly energised particles of electricity in the heaven, the middle region and on the earth and could, therefore, transmit the hymns so available to them. TO add, each human brain, also, has electricity.

The hymns, epissima verbis, have been handed over to posterity undisturbed during the past thousands of years. The arrangement of padas has neither been changed nor replaced by synonyms. Their sanctity has never been disturbed. For example, in the very first hymn of the Rigveda. the pada, agnimlle is nowhere found to be substituted by vanhimlle, a synonym for agni. Kumarila Bhatta, writes to suggest that even if an attempt is made to compose hymns their metrical formation would betray the fact and any such interpolation could be easily detected. The formation of hymns is not regulated by rules of grammar applicable to the spoken language of the people. This had baffled the Western scholars who formed incoherent opinions and a glaring example of such an expression is by Macdonell, who writes : 'Since metrical considerations largely interfere with the ordinary position of words in the Samhitas, the normal order is best represented by the prose of the Brahmanas, and as it there appears is, moreover, doubtless the original one." (pp. 283-284)

Had these scholars correctly grasped the difference between a hymn and its explanation in a brahmana, preposterous theories and inconsistent dicta could well have been eliminated. Brahmanas being an explanation of hymns were in the spoken language of the people even though their authors could possibly have been the same rishis, who were also the seers of the hymns. The hymns are not abnormal, as Macdonell had thought and expressed.

B. Interpretation of the hymns had been confined only to their ritualistic significance by the writers of the mediaeval periods, whose works were easily accessible to the Western scholars. It was expressed that the hymns are confined to the ritualistic yajnas only as : Veda yajnartham pravrittah.

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