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Studies in the Lankavatara Sutra One of the Most Important Texts of Mahayana Buddhism, in Which Almost All its Principal Tenets are Presented, Including the Teaching of Zen

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Book Information

Publisher:Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers
Published In:2007
ISBN-10:8121508339
ISBN-13:9788121508339
Binding Type:Hardback
Weight:1.90 lbs
Pages:pp. xxxii + 464, Frontispiece, Tables (1 Folded), Index, Glossary

The Title "Studies in the Lankavatara Sutra One of the Most Important Texts of Mahayana Buddhism, in Which Almost All its Principal Tenets are Presented, Including the Teaching of Zen" is written by Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki. This book was published in the year 2007. The ISBN number 8121508339|9788121508339 is assigned to the Hardback version of this title. This book has total of pp. xxxii + 464 (Pages). The publisher of this title is Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers. We have about 1413 other great books from this publisher. Studies in the Lankavatara Sutra One of the Most Important Texts of Mahayana Buddhism, in Which Almost All its Principal Tenets are Presented, Including the Teaching of Zen is currently Available with us.

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About the Book

The Lankavatara Sutra is one of the most important Mahayana texts, and the Napalese Buddhists consider it to be one of the nine canonical texts. The text contains almost all the main ideas, both philosophical and theological, of Mahayana Buddhism. The Yogacara School of Mahayana considers this text to be its fundamental text, as it contains all those ideas of idealism, like Mind-only, store-house-consciousness, which would form the basis of the philosophy of this school.

As the text is terse, difficult to understand, and complex insofar as the presentation of ideas in concerned, The Author has tried his best to explain the basic ideas of the Lankavatara in the Context of historical evolution of Buddhism, which culminated in the emergence of Mahayana. In the first part of the Book the author has made a textual study of the text in the context of various translations that were carried out in China. Simultaneously the author also has pointed out the impact of the text exerted upon Chinese and Japanese Buddhism, and particularly upon the Zen. In the rest of the book the author has engaged himself in explaining the complex philosophical ideas that are to be found in the text, and how these ideas were made use of by various Buddhist schools.

The author also points out the intimate relationship that exists between the Lankavatara and Zen Buddhism. Although not exclusively a Zen text, yet its impact upon Zen cannot be denied. The non-Zen ideas of the text, particularly those pertaining to the Yogacara, have been discussed by the author in the third part of the book.

The author has prepared a glossary of Sanskrit terms for the benefit of Chinese and Japanese readers. The book, thus, has been written for all those who are deeply interested in Buddhist thought and philosophy. The Studies in the Lankavatara Sutra is the first attempt ever made at studying systematically the philosophical ideas and religious practices that are to be found in the Lankavatara Sutra. Those interested in Mahayana Buddhism will greatly benefit from the scholarly study of Prof. Suzuki of this important text."

Contents

ABSTRACTS OF STUDIES :

I. An Introduction TO THE STUDY OF THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA
I. THE CHINESE AND THE TIBETAN TRANSLATIONS :
1. One of the Important Mahayana Texts, the Title Explained
2. The First Chinese Translation by Dharmaraksha
3. The Second (Sung) by Gunabhadra, Which is the One Given by Bodhidharma to his First Disciple Hui-k'e
4. The Third (Wei) by Bodhiruci
5. The fourth (T' ang) by Sikshananda
6. Fa-tsang's Detailed Remarks on the Different Chinese Translations
7. A Footnote Concerning the Way in which the Sanskrit Texts were Converted into Chinese
8. The Empress Tse-t' Ien 's Preface to the T' Ang Version, Partially Translated
9. The Three or Five Sanskrit (?) Copies Utilised
10. The Fourth Translation the Best of the Chinese Texts Extant
11. Two Tibetan Versions
12. Concerning the Translator of the Tibetan Lankavatara, No. 1 and its Contents
13. The Tibetan Lankavatara No. 2, Translated from Gunabhadra's Chinese
14. A Tabular Comparison of the Two Texts, Tibetan and Chinese
15. Generally one Tibetan Translation for One Sanskrit Text

II. COMPARISON OF THE CONTENTS OF THE THREE CHINESE AND THE TIBETAN TRANSLATIONS AND ONE SANSKRIT TEXT :
1. Table Showing Chapter-Divisions in the Different Texts, Chinese, Tibetan, and Sanskrit
2. Facts Suggested by the Table
3. Gunabhadra the Oldest and Simplest, in which the Havana Chapter, the Dharani, and the "Saga-Thakam" are Missing
4. The Lankavatara is a Collection of Notes Loosely Strung
5. Bodhiruci has More Chapter-Divisions, but no System
6. A Practical Way of Reading the Sutra Suggested
7. Questions Proposed Regarding the History of Mahayana Literature
8. The Havana Chapter is a Later Addition, So is the Meat-Eating Chapter
9. The Position and Make-Up of the " Sagathakam," and its Relation to the Main Text
10. The Rise of Nagarjuna Predicted, and the Teaching of the Pure Land
11. The Construction of the Lankavatara Analysed

III. EXAMPLES OF THE TEXTUAL DIFFERENCES :
1. Comparison Of Extracts from the Different Translations, Gunabhadra (Sung), Bodhiruci (Wei), Sikshananda (T'ang), and the Sanskrit Text- Each Accompanied by an English Translation
2. Comparison of the Opening Gathas of Chapter-II in Sikshananda (T'ang) and the Sanskrit, Showing How the One Differs From the Other in the Order of the Verses and also in the Sense

IV. A FURTHER EXAMINATION OF THE SUTRA AS TO ITS INNER CONNECTION :
1. The Sutra Takes a Form of Dialogue between Buddha and Mahamati, Which Takes Place On Mount Lanka
2. Mahamati's So-Called 108 Questions Incoherently Developing Adjust Themselves Ill to the Main Thesis of the Sutra
3. Buddha's Answers also Irrelevant
4. The 108 Clauses of Negation Unintelligible as they Stand in the Text
5. Concerning the Existence of the Fuller Texts According to Fa-Tsang
6. The Sutra Proper Begins after the 108 Questions and Clauses
7. The Two Japanese Commentators Deserving Study

V. THE LANKAVATARA AND BODHIDHARMA, FATHER OF ZEN BUDDHISM IN CHINA :
1. The Sutra Closely Connected with Zen Buddhism
2. Bodhidharma Giving the Sutra to Hui-K'e, as Stated by Tao-Hsuan, The Author of Biographies of the High Priests
3. The Transmission of the Lamp by Tao-Hsuan on the Incident
4. The Pao-Lin Chuan
5. Ma-Tsu's Relation to the Sutra
6. The Sutra as an Antidote of Poison
7. Ta-Kuan on Bodhidharma's Relation to the Lankavatara
8. Ta-Kuan's Position Justifiable To A Certain Extent
9. History of Orthodox Buddhism Attacks Zen Buddhism of the Sung Period
10. Why is the T'ien-Tai Against the Zen

VI. THE STUDY OF THE SUTRA AFTER BODHIDHARMA IN CHINA AND Japan :
1. The Transmission of the Sutra From Hui-K'e to his Disciples, Na Man and Others
2. The Life of Fa-Ch'ung in the Tang Biographies, who was Noted for his Mastery of the Lankavatara
3. The Transmission of the Sutra Before him Recorded in Detail
4. Ch'ung's "Private Notes "
5. The Historical Relation of the Sutra to Zen Buddhism
6. The Sutra also Studied by the Yogacara School of Buddhism
7. The Sutra and the Ekayana
8. Fa-Ch'ung and Hsuan-Chuang
9. Su Tung-Pei's Remarks on the Four-Fasciculi Lankavatara
10. Chiang Chih-Chi's Preface to the Sung Lankavatara Partly Translated
11. Facts to be Inferred from this Preface
12. One Thing Misrepresented by Chiang Chih-Chi
13. Shen-Hsiu's Relation to the Lankavatara
14. The Lankavatara Compared with the Diamond Sutra (Vajracchedika) as to the Difficulty of Understanding it
15. Why was the Lankavatara Superseded by the Vajracchedika?
16. Hui-Neng Not so Ignorant as Ordinarily Made Out
17. Fa-Tsang's Commentary on the Lankavatara Very Important
18. Chinese and Japanese Commentaries

VII. INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER OF THK LANKAVATARA SUTRA-AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION :
1. The Translation Chiefly Done From the Sanskrit Text Edited by Bunyiu Nanjo
2. The Buddha on Mount Malaya Surrounded by Bodhisattvas Declares his Intention to Teach Ravana, King of Lanka and Chief of Rakshasas
3. Ravana with his Floral Chariot Comes Out to Greet the Buddha
4. Ravana Sings a Hymn to the Buddha
5. Ravana Makes Offerings to the Buddha
6. The Buddha Grants Havana's Request to Preach the Truth Realised in the Inner Consciousness of the Tathagatas
7. Ravana Asks Mahamati to Question the Buddha Concerning the Truth
8. Miraculous Power is Exhibited by the Buddha
9. Ravana Reflects on the Illusory Nature of Existence
10. Ravana is Enlightened
11. The Buddha Instructs Havana on Discipline and Realisation
12. Ravana Asks the Buddha Again to Show his Miraculous Power
13. The Buddha Appears Transfigured
14. The Buddha Laughs Loudly
15. His Laughter Excites Curiosity
16. Mahamati Feeling Pity Decides To Ask the Buddha about the Meaning of his Laughter
17. Ravana Makes More Offerings
18. The Question is Concerned with the Dualism of Dharma and Adharma
19. The Buddha Answers that Dualism Is The Result of Discrimination
20. That Dharmas so Called are Really Beyond the Grasp of the Empirical Consciousness
21. That we Transcend the Dualism Of Dharma and Adharma When they are Seen as Images Reflected in a Mirror
22. The Buddha Talks Further about Prajna Ekagra and Svapratyatmaryajnanago-Cara

II. THE LANKA VATARA SUTRA AND THE TEACHING OF ZEN BUDDHISM :
Preliminary Note
The sutra as a Zen text
Why was its study neglected

Part I. GENERAL SURVEY OF THE PRINCIPAL IDEAS EXPOUNDED IN THE SUTRA :
1. The Breadth of Mahayana Buddhism :
i. Each Sutra has its Own Message
Ii. The Saddharmapundarika and Historical Sakyamuni
iii. The Suvarnaprabhasa on the Age of the Buddha
iv. The Sukhavativyuha on the Saving Power of Faith
V. The Prajnaparamita on the Conception of Emptiness (Sunyata)
vi. The Avatamsaka as the Consummation of Buddhist thought and Life

2. The Teaching Of The Lankavatara :
i. A Quotation Expressive of the Principal Thesis of the Sutra, which Consists in the Self-Realisation of Absolute Truth
ii. The Quotation Paraphrased
iii. The Sutra Herein Closely Connected with the Teaching of Zen

3. The all-Importance of an Inner Realisation :
i. The Mahayana Ideas Developed in a Special Manner here
ii. The Inmost Realisation Emphasised throughout
iii. Not Necessarily Bodhicittotpada But Pratyatmavedyagatigocara

4. The Inner Experience And Language :
i. The Inner Perception and the Tathagatagarbha
ii. Language Inadequate to Demonstrate the Truth (Artha)
iii. Meaning to be Distinguished from Words
iv. Words Necessary as the Finger Pointing at the Moon
v. They are Again Like Lunar Reflections

5. Disastrous Complications Arising from Discrimination (Vikalpa) :
i. Individuation and Discrimination and Errors in Various Forms

6. The Meaning of Yathabhutam and Maya :
i. To Perceive Things with the Eye of Wisdom
ii. Maya Not in the Sense of Transiency
iii. "Empty" (Sunya) does Not Mean Void but Transcending Opposites
iv. Maya, Magical Creations, A Painting, Hair-Net, Fire-Circle, and Other Imageries
v. The Necessity of Effecting a New Orientation, that is, of Being Free from Viparyasa and Bhranti
vi. Because of an Erroneous World it is Possible to have a Revulsion (Paravritti)
vii. Apparent Paradoxes Designed to See Things Yathabhutam
viii. Maya a Subjective Illusion and has No Objective Value

7. What is Meant by Being Unborn (Anutpanna) :
i. Things are Unborn because they are Neither Created nor Uncreated
ii. The Doctrine of No-Birth (Anutpada) and Eternalism (Sasvata)
iii. The Ignorant Fail to See Reality, Quoted
iv. Anutpattikadharmakshanti Discussed
v. Various Kinds of Kshanti

8. How is Nirvana Explained? :
i. Nirvana the Abode of Suchness (Tathata)
ii. The Result of Revulsion
iii. The Hinayanist View of Nirvana is Dualistic
iv. Nirvana and Samsara are One
V. Nirvana Variously Viewed by the Philosophers (Tirthyakara), Quoted
vi. The Mahayana Conception of Nirvana
vii. On Emancipation (Vimoksha), Mind (Citta), and Discrimination (Vikalpa), Gathas 69-78 Quoted from Chapter-III

9. The Essence of Buddhahood :
i. Buddhata as Transcending Opposites, as Above the Four Propositions (Catushkotika)
ii. How To Understand the Meaning of the "Barren Woman 'S Child"
iii. The Idea of Self -Substance (Svabhava) Rejected
iv. The Essence of Buddhahood is Above the Category of Being and Non-Being (Sadasat), Gathas 79-84 Quoted from Chapter-III
v. The Doctrine of Non-Ego (Pudgalanairatmya) does Not Conflict with the Notion of Tatha Gatagarbha

10. The World-Transcending Knowledge :
i. Three Forms of Knowledge (Jnana) Distinguished
ii. Three Aspects of Supreme WISDOM (Aryajnana
iii. Mayopamasamadhi
iv. The Bodhisattva Practises- Prajna in its Highest Form

11. The Doctrine of the Triple Body :
i. Dharmatabuddha Nishyandabuddha Vipakabuddha and Nirmana-Buddha
ii. In what Respect Does the Dharmata Differ from the Nirmana
iii. The Nirmana Not Clearly Differentiated from the Nishyanda
iv. Manomayakaya and Nirmanabuddha
v. The Story of the Inner Perception Told Only by the Mulatathagata

12. The Highest Knowledge and a First Cause :
i. A First Cause Denied by Buddhists
ii. The Highest Knowledge Beyond Causality
iii. Not Meant for Ordinary Minds But for the Tatha-Gatayana
iv. The Ultimate Truth of Mind-Itself (Cittamatram), Gathas 130-133 Quoted from Chapter-II

13. The Parable of the Sands of the Ganges :
i. In What are the Tathagatas Comparable to the Sands of the Ganges
ii. Quotations from Chapter-IV
iii. The Comparison Not Quite Adequate, a Case of “Skilful Means" (Upayakausalya)
iv. The Tathagatas may be Trampled Like the Sands, but their Serenity is Not Disturbed
v. The Dharma-Body Indestructible Like the Sands Even by Fire
vi. Bays of Light Emitted by the Tathagata Immeasurable Like the Sands
vii. The Tathagata Not Subject to Change in Quality and in Quantity
viii. The Tathagata Always Ready to Fulfil his Vows (Pranidhana)
ix. The Tathagata Walks Along the Path Of Nirvana as the Sands Arrange Themselves Along the Stream
x. Cut off the Influence of Habit-Energy (Vasana and we are Emancipated

Part II :
A. THE INTELLECTUAL CONTENTS OF THE BUDDHIST EXPERIENCE :
Philosophical Background of the Buddhist Experience
The numerical Method of Analysis

1. The Five Dharmas (Pancadharma) :
i. The Usage of Dharma in the Buddhist Texts
ii. The Five Dharmas as Five Categories :
a. Name (Nama)
b. Appearance (Nimitta)
c. Discrimination (Vikalpa)
d. Right Knowledge (Samyagjnana)
e. Suchness (Tathata)

2. The Three Forms of Knowledge (Trayah Svabhavah :
i. The Meaning and Use of Svabhava and Lak-Shana
ii. The Parikalpita and the Paratantra Form of Knowledge
iii. The Parinishpanna
iv. Gathas 182-202 Quoted from Chapter-II, Treating of the Relation of the Three Forms of Knowledge
v. The Relation of the Five Dharmas to the Three Svabhavas

3. The Two Kinds of Knowledge :
i. Samvriti and Paramartha
ii. Samvriti as Related to Parikalpita and Paratantra
iii. Two Kinds of Buddhi, Pravicayabuddhi and Pratishthapikabuddhi
iv. Four Establishments (Samaropa)

4. The Twofold Non-Atman Theory :
i. The Meaning of Atman
ii. The Four Marks of Mahayana Buddhism
iii. Non-Atman Explained
iv. No-Self-Substance and Emptiness
v. The World as Free from Subjectivity
vi. Egolessness of all Things (Niratmanah Sarvadhar

B. The Psychology of the Buddhist Experience :
1. The Doctrine of Mind-Only (Cittamatra) :
i. Buddhist Psychology has its Own Field
ii. The Yogacara and the Madhyamika as Related to the Lankavatara
iii. Pratyatmarjnanagatigocara and the "Mind-Only"
iv. The Alaya and the Vijnanas, Gathas 99-124 Quoted from Chapter-II
v. The Analogy of Ocean and Waves
Vi. Footnote on Tattvam
Vii. Vishaya and Particularisation
Viii. No Objective World But Mind-Only

2. The Important Terms Explained :
i. Alaya
ii. Citta
iii. Vijnana
iv. Tathagatagarbha
v. Manas
vi. Manovijnana
vii. Vasana

3. The Theory of Mind-Only (Cittamatra) :
i. Mind-Only Means the Absolute Nature of the Alaya
ii. Citta as the Whole System of Vijnanas
iii. Cittamatram and Vijnaptimatram or Prajnapti-Matram
iv. The Alaya in the Yogacara and Asva-Ghosha

4. The Evolution of the Vijnana System :
i. The Evolution, Modes, and Function of the System
ii. Vasana in the Alaya and its Revulsion
iii. Asraya-Paravritti "the Turning-Up of the Basis
iv. The "Intellect Transcendental"
v. The "Turning" is Returning
vi. On "External Dust" (Agantu-Klesa)

5. The Three Modes of the Vijnana :
i. The Vijnana Described after its "Marks" (Lakshana)
ii. The Relation Between the Activity and the Nature of the Vijnana
iii. The Four Causes Contributing to the Working of the Vijnana

6. The Functioning of the Eight Vijnanas :
i. The Eight Vijnanas Grouped Under Two Heads
ii. The Khyati is the Pure Act of Perception
iii. The Vastu-Prativikalpa is the Working of Manas
iv. Manas and Manovijnana Inseparable
v. Mutual Relationship of the Vijnanas Known as Cittakalapa a Quotation From Chapter-II 192
vi. The Significance of the Alaya in' the System, Quoted from Chapter-VI

7. The Function of Manas :
i. Manas as the Discriminating Agency
ii. The Alaya Compared to the Ocean
iii. Manas' Position in the Vijnana-System
iv. The Working of the System Summarised"
V. The Doctrine of Momentariness Explained in Connection with the Vijnana-System, Quoted from Chapter Vi

8. The Awakening of Prajna :
i. The Four Things Needed for a Bodhisattva's Preparation for Self-Realisation
ii. Prajna as Immediate Perception (Pratyaksha)

Part III. LIFE AND WORKS OP THE BODHISATTVA :
1. Self-discipline and Adhishthana :
i. The Importance of Self-Discipline
ii. The Power "Added" by the Buddha
iii. Two Ways of Adhishthana
iv. Quotation Regarding Addition and Sustenance, and Also Regarding the Earth Playing Music
v. Why the Buddhas' Protection

2. The Purification of the Heart (Cittadrisyadhara-Visuddhi) :
i. Concerning the Vows
ii. The Awakening of the Thought of Enlightenment in the Lankavatara
iii. The Process of Purification
iv. Purification by Degrees
v. Purification Instantaneous

3. The Will-Body (Manomayakaya ) :
i. A Body not Tied to Space-Time Relations
ii. The will-Body Defined
iii. Three Kinds of the Will-body
iv. The Second form of the Will-body Specifically Described
v. Two Kinds of Death (Cyuti)
vi. The Will-body and the Nirmanakaya
vii. The Will-body and the " Originally-Abiding Dharma"
viii. The Realisation is Like an Old Story
ix. "The Originally-Abiding Dharma" and the Alaya Universal

4. The Bodhisattva and Social Life :
i. The Net of Social Life all-Inclusive
ii. Any Need of Saving the World
iii. An Empty World and a Real Compassionate Heart
iv. The Opening Verse of the Sung Translation
v. A Quotation from the Ashtasdhasrika-Prajnapara-Mita-Sutra on the Bodhisattva's Working Hard for Suffering Beings
vi. A Compassionate Heart Working Without Effort (Anabhogacarya)
vii. Variance in the Different Versions of the Lankavatara, and the T' ang and the Sung Text as Representing the Spirit of Mahayana Buddhism

5. The Bodhisattva Never Enters into Nirvana :
i. The Five Orders of Beings
ii. The Sravakas
iii. The Pratyekabuddhas
iv. The Tathagata
v. The Fourth Indeterminate Order
vi. The Icchantika Order
vii. Two Classes Distinguished in this Last Order, and Dr. Unrai Wogiwara on the Etymology of Icchantika
viii. The Bodhisattva as One who would never Enter into Nirvana
ix. His Ten Vows

6. The Bodhisattva's Vows and his Effortless Works :
i. The Bodhisattva's Insight and his Heart
ii. His Ten Vows as he Enters Upon the Career of Bodhisattvahood
iii. His Life to be Free from Discrimination
iv. The Bodhisattva up to the Seventh Stage (Bhumi) Compared to a Great King
v. The Bodhisattva Beyond the Eighth Stage Called Acala Compared to A Man Awakened from a Dream
vi. The Dream Illustration in the Lankavatara
vii. The Analogy of the Sea-Faring Boat in the Dasa-Bhumika Sutra
viii. The Bodhisattva and the Anutpattikadharma-Kshanti with its Descriptive Definition
ix. Further Notes on the Kshanti
x. Some Concluding Remarks on Prajna and Karuna

7. The Ten Vows of Bodhisattva Samantabhadra :
i. The Ten Vows Forming the Concluding Chapter of the Gandavyuha Sutra :
a. Paying Respect to the Buddhas
b. Praising the Buddhas
c. Making Offerings to the Buddhas
d. Repenting of Sins
e. Feeling Sympathetic Joy for Every Good
f. Asking the Buddhas to Revolve the Dharma-wheel
g. Asking the Buddhas not to Enter into Nirvana
h. The Bodhisattva's Whole-Hearted Devotion to the Dharma and to the Life of a Buddha
i. The Bodhisattva's Life with and for all Beings
j. The Bodhisattva's Merit All Turned Over to his Fellow-Beings

III. SOME OF THE IMPORTANT THEORIES EXPOUNDED IN THE LANKAVATARA :
Preliminary Note Regarding the Subjects to be Treated :
(I). THE DOCTRINE OF MIND-ONLY (CITTAMATRA) :
1. One of the Principal Theories in the Sutra :
i. The "Mind-Only" is the Philosophical Explanation of the Inner Experience which is the Central Subject of the Sutra
ii. Gathas (25-33) Quoted from Chapter III
iii. The "Sagathakam," Gathas (358-359, 366-370) Quoted
Iv. Shorter Passages on the "Mind-Only" Quoted

2. Further Passages Quoted Relative to the Doctrine :
i. The "Mind-Only" Leads to the Ultimate Truth Which is Beyond Language and Discrimination
ii. The "Mind-Only" and Prajna
iii. The "Mind-Only" and the Bodhisattva's Entrance into Nirvana
iv. The "Mind-Only" and the Dualistic View Based On Discrimination Irreconcilable
v. The Mind-Only and Eternal Transmigration
VI. The "Mind-Only" and the Alayavijnana
vii. The "Mind-Only" and Logical Controversies and the Spiritual Stages
viii. The "Mind-Only" and a Spiritual Rebirth

3. The Citta and its Evolution :
i. Citta Used in Two Senses
ii. Citta Defined as the Subconscious
iii. Citta and Waves and the Dancer
iv. Relation of Citta to Manas
v. Manas Acts in Two Ways
vi. Manas Distinguished From Manovijnana, the Sagathakam (869-874) Quoted
vii. Citta is more than the Empirical Mind, but its Identification is Difficult
viii. Citta Itself Pure and Good and Free from Turbidity

4. The Citta and the Alayavijnana and the Atman :
i. The Lower Ego and the Higher Ego
ii. The "Sagathakam" (757-771), Quoted, on Citta, Tathagatagarbha, Alaya, Ego, and the Skandhas
iii. The Existence of the Self Upheld
iv. This to be Distinguished from the Atman Theory
v. The Noted Stanza Quoted from the Samdhinir-Mocana-Sutra
vi. Citta Means "Accumulation," Alaya "Storage"
vii. The Tathagatagarbha and the Atman
viii. Gathas (9-17) on Momentariness (Kshanikam), Quoted from Chapter Vi
ix. The Alaya and Tathagatagarbha
x. Queen Srimala Enlightened on the Doctrine Of Tathagatagarbha

5. False Discrimination, No-Birth, and Causation :
I. Quotations from Chapter III, Where in the Buddhist Conception of "No-Birth and No-Death" (Sarvabhava Anutpannaniruddhah) is Shown to be Different from that of the Philosophers, and also what is Meant by Nirvana

6. Proofs for the "Mind-Only" :
i. The Analogy of a Dream and Magical Creations
ii. More Analogical Illustrations
iii. Relativity of Existence
iv. Words and Wrong Representations
v. The "Unborn" is Above Causation
vi. Quotation From Chapter II, Gathas (86-96), on the Doctrine of No-Cause (Ahetu), No-Birth (Anut-Pada), and Emptiness (Sunyata)
vii. The Logical Necessity of Transcending Dualism
viii. The "Mind-Only" is Based on an Intuitive Experience
ix. "Not a Word Uttered"
x. The Twofold Hidden Teaching of the Buddha
xi. Reality Eternally Abiding and an Ancient City

7. Some Concluding Remarks :
i. The "Mind-Only" not a Theory but a Fact
ii. Synonymous Terms and Phrases for the Ultimate Ground of Existence
iii. Cittamatra Different from Vijnaptimatra
iv. Mind as Existing Prior to Subject and Object
v. Difference between Vijnaptimatra and Vijnanamatra
vi. The Lankavatara is not for the Vijnaptimatra or Prajnaptimatra, But for the Cittamatra

(II). THE CONCEPTION OF NO-BIRTH (ANUTPADA) :
1. The Prajnaparamita and the Lankavatara :
i. The Prajnaparamita on Prajna Citta and Acitta
ii. Its Teaching '"Alarming"
iii. The Mahayana Sutras not a Philosophical System
iv. Both Acittata and Cittamatra Come from the No-Birth View of Existence

2. What is Meant by No-Birth :
i. The Idea of No-Birth is Closely Connected with those of Emptiness, Non-duality, and No-substance
ii. Quotation on Seven Kinds of Emptiness
iii. The Meaning of No-birth, No-self-substance, and No-duality
iv. Teaching in Words and Inner Meaning, the Same Fact Differently Expressed

3. The Buddhist Conception of Immortality :
i. Mahamati's Question Regarding Immortality and the Buddha's Answer Quoted

4. No-birth Means Transcending Relativity :
i. Non-Discriminative Knowledge and Anutpattika-Dharmakshanti
ii. Emptiness or No-birth and Causation, Gathas (101-114), Quoted from Chapter III

5. No-birth, Transcendental Truth, and Eternity Unthinkable :
i. Relative Truth and Absolute Truth
ii. No-birth and Supreme Wisdom
iii. Concerning the Non-Existence of the Hare's Horns
iv. "Eternity Unthinkable"
v. This to be Realised by Supreme Wisdom

6. The Positive Conception in No-Birth :
i. Further Quotation on No-birth, etc
ii. Nothing Positive in this
iii. The Conception of Suchness as a "Mysterious Thing" Vastu)
iv. Causal Transformations

III. THE TRIPLE BODY OP THE BUDDHA :
1. The Doctrine Outlined :
i. The Triple Body in the Yogacara Philosophy
ii. The Dharmakaya
iii. The Sambhogakaya
iv. The Nirmanakaya

2. The Suvarnaprabhasa on the Triple Body :
i. The Hua-shen, Ying-shen and Fa-shen
ii. A Tabular View of the Triple Body

3. The Dharmakaya in the Lankavatara :
i. Great Men are Immortal
ii. The Saddharmapundanka on the Eternal Life of the Buddha
iii. The Suvarnaprabhasa on the Same Subject
iv. Rupakaya and Dharmakaya
v. No Kaya-Theory in the Lankavatara
vi. Dharmakaya not as one of the Trinity, but as Synonymous with the Tathagata
vii. Tathagatakaya
viii. Dharmakaya Identified with Sambhogakaya
ix. Dharmakaya Inconceivable
x. All Buddhas as Dharmakaya are the Same
xi. Dharmakaya and Manomayakaya or Nirmanakaya
xii. Dharmakaya Compared to the Sands of the Ganges
xiii. Dharmakaya as Buddhata

4. No Triple Body Theory yet but a Buddha Trinity :
i. Trinity not in Terms of Kaya (Body) but of Buddha
ii. Dharmatabuddha
iii. The Trinity of the Buddha
iv. Nishyandabuddha and Vipakabuddha and Pao-fo
v. Nishyandabuddha and Sambhogakaya
vi. Vipakabuddha
vii. Tabular View of the Buddha Trinity

5. The Nishyandabuddha and the Nirmanabuddha :
i. The Two not Clearly Differentiated
ii. The "Sagathakam" on Nirmanabuddha, Quoted
iii. The "Sagathakam" on the Relationship of the Buddha Trinity

6. The Vipakabuddha :
i. The Idea of Vipaka and Karma
ii. The body of Transfiguration
iii. Akanishtha Heaven and the Original Vows
iv. The Vipaka and the Nirmana
v. The Buddha Trinity and the Principle of Individuality
vi. The Individual in Various Relations

7. The Triple Body in the Awakening of Faith in the Mahayana

IV. THE TATHAGATA :
1. The Tathagata must Leave his Abode of Inner Realisation
2. A Great Compassionate Heart and Supreme Wisdom and Prinidhana
3. The Meaning of the Term Tathdgata
4. Tathata and Yathabhutam
5. The Vajracchedika on Tathagata
6. The Ashtasahasrikaprajnaparamita on Tathata (Thusness)
7. The Tathagata and Constituents of Bodhisattvaship
8. The Tathagata as he is and in his Relation to Sentient Beings
9. The Gathas (79-85) on the Tathagata Quoted from Chapter III
10. Tathagatahood further Described as Free from Twofold Death (Cyuti), etc
11. Truth Itself and Discoursing on it
12. Siddhanta and Desana
13. The Gathas (15-19) on this Distinction Quoted from Chapter III
14. The One Tathagata
15. The Secret Teaching of Fourfold Sameness
16. Mind, Buddha, and Sentient beings (sattva) as of one Essence
17. But the Tathagata Known in Various Ways and Designations
18. Different Names of the Tathagata Specified
19. Why Such a Variety of Names?-the Analogy of Lunar Reflections in Waters
20. The Significance of the Pranidhana
21. The Buddha's Power of Helping Others Known as "Adhishthana"

V. OTHER MINOR SUBJECTS :
The Omission of Parinamana in the Lan-kavatara
Subjects to be Treated here, Specified
1. Ekayana :
i. One Principle Throughout
ii. Mahayana and Ekayana and Dvayana
iii. Triyana, Ekayana, and Ayana
iv. The Gathas (203-210) on the Vehicle Quoted from Chapter II
v. The Way to Realise the Ekayana, that is, the Vehicle of Oneness

2. The Five Deadly Sins :
i. Rather Five Spiritual Deeds that Direct us to the Realisation of the Ultimate Truth
ii. Those who Commit the "External" Ones (Bahyani) never Attain the Realisation Except for the Super-Added Power of the Buddhas
iii. Three Kinds of Transformation-Buddhas (footnote)
iv. The Skilful Means Resorted to by the Bodhisattva and the Conception of the Transformation-body

3. The Six Paramitas :
i. Three Kinds of Paramitas Described : The Worldly, the Super-Worldly, and the Super-Worldly in the Highest Degree

4. The Four Dhyanas the Gathas (161-164) Quoted from Chapter II :
i. The Gathas (176-178) also from Chapter II

5. On Meat-Eating :
i. The Reason for this Special Chapter in the Lan-Kavatara
ii. Why Animal Food to be Shunned :
a. Transmigration Idea
b. Compassion
c. Altered Physiognomy
d. Inspiring Terror
e. Spiritual Annoyance
f. Filthy as Food
g. Personal Pollution

iii. The Proper Food of a Bodhisattva