# Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis (Analytical Chemistry) Reprint

by M. Arora, Aseem Anand, Gurdeep R. Chatwal, Sham K. AnandPaperback

## Book Information

Publisher: | Himalaya Publishing House |

Published In: | 2004 |

ISBN-10: | 8178668351 |

ISBN-13: | 9788178668352 |

Binding Type: | Paperback |

Weight: | 2.64 lbs |

Pages: | Various Pagings Pages, Illustrations, Charts, Tables, Graphs |

The Title "Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis (Analytical Chemistry) Reprint" is written by M. Arora. This book was published in the year 2004. The ISBN number 8178668351|9788178668352 is assigned to the Paperback version of this title. The book displayed here is a Reprint edition. This book has total of Various Pagings (Pages). The publisher of this title is Himalaya Publishing House. We have about 1972 other great books from this publisher. Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis (Analytical Chemistry) Reprint is currently Not Available with us.You can enquire about this book and we will let you know the availability.

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## About the Book

The pace of change in Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis has continued unabated since the last edition was published and in some areas The Changes have been dramatic. Most instrumental techniques have benefitted from these developments in terms of reliability, versatility and the processing and presentation of data. We have tried to indicate the nature of recent changes and developments without techniques, themselves and their applications. As with the new compromising the principal subject matter of the book, which remains the instrumental edition, the format of the Book has been changed. The significant alterations and additions have been made in each instrumental technique. Line diagrams have been redrawn to make the book more illustrated. New instrumental techniques have been added, the uses of which have been growing steadily in the recent past.

The wide range and new standardized format of this book make it the ideal reference work for all undergraduate and postgraduate students of chemistry, biochemistry, industrial chemistry, environmental science, pharmacy, microbiology, biotechnology, geology, materials science, and related disciplines. This book is also useful for anyone who uses chemical analyses in their work. With this book, the users can find information about the most instrumental techniques in an understandable form, simplifying decision about which instrumental techniques can provide the information they are seeking on chemical composition and structure.

## About the Author

G.R. Chatwal is a well-known writer and has written numerous books and monographs on Chemistry and Environmental Science for undergraduate and postgraduate students. In his books, you will find clarity and recent developments. He took his M.Sc. degree from Roorkee University, followed by a Doctorate degree from Delhi University. He has published 20 research papers in International Journals of repute. At present he is working as a reader in chemistry in Dyal Singh College, University of Delhi, Delhi.

S.K. Anand took his M.Sc. Degree from I.I.T. Delhi followed by Ph.D. degree from Delhi University. During his study in IIT, he was getting merit scholarship. He has published 18 research papers/reviews in International Journals of repute. He has co-authored seven books on Chemistry for university students. At present he is working as a reader in chemistry in Dyal Singh College, University of Delhi, Delhi.

## Contents

INTRODUCTION TO INSTRUMENTAL METHODS OF CHEMICAL ANALYSIS :

1. General Introduction

2. Classification of Instrumental Methods

3. Spectroscopy

4. Properties of Electromagnetic Radiation

5. Electromagnetic Spectrum

6. Different Types of Molecular Energies

7. Interaction of Electromagnetic Radiation with Matter

8. Origin of Spectrum

9. The Jablonski Diagram

10. Solved Examples

I. ERRORS, PRECISION AND ACCURACY :

1. Introduction

2. Type of Errors

3. Significant Figures

4. Precision and Accuracy

5. Methods of Expressing Accuracy

6. Methods of Expressing Precision

7. Confidence Limits

8. Photometric Errors

II. MICROWAVE SPECTROSCOPY :

1. Introduction to Microwave Spectroscopy

2. What is Microwave Spectroscopy

3. Differences between Infrared and Microwave Spectroscopy

4. Theory of Microwave Spectroscopy

5. Linear Molecules

6. Spherical Top Molecules

7. Symmetric Top Molecules

8. Asymmetric Top Molecules

9. The Stark Effect

10. Instrumentation for Microwave Spectroscopy

11. Applications of Microwave Spectroscopy

III. INFRARED ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY :

1. Introduction

2. The Range of Infrared Radiation

3. Nomenculature of Infrared Spectra

4. Theory of Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy or Requirements for Infrared Radiation Absorption

5. Mathematical Theory of IR Absorption Spectroscopy

6. Linear Molecules

7. Symmetric Top Molecules

8. Asymmetric Molecules

9. Instrumentation

10. Single Beam and Double Beam Spectrophotometers

11. Modes of Vibrations of Atoms in Polyatomic Molecules

12. Factors Which Influence Vibrational Frequencies

13. Selection Rules.

14. Position and Intensity of Bands

15. Intensity of Absorption Bands

16. Units of Measurement

17. Application of Infrared Spectroscopy to Organic Compounds

18. Applications of Infrared Spectroscopy to Inorganic Complexes

19. Miscellaneous Examples

20. Attenuated Total Reflectance

21. Nondispersive Infrared

22. Photothermal Beam Deflection Spectroscopy (PBDS)

23. Application of Infrared Spectroscopy to Quantitative Analysis

24. Limitation of Infrared Spectroscopy

IV. RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY :

1. Introduction

2. Principle

3. Characteristic Properties of Raman Lines

4. Differences between Raman Spectra and Infrared Spectra

5. Mechanism of Raman Effect

6. Instrumentation

7. Intensity of Raman Peaks

8. Applications of Raman Spectroscopy

9. Short Type Questions

V. VISIBLE SPECTROPHOTOMETRY AND COLORIMETRY :

1. Introduction

2. Theory of Spectrophotometry and Colorimetry

3. Deviations from Beer's Law

4. Instrumentation

5. Obtaining and Interpreting Data

6. Applications of Colorimetry and Spectrophotometry

7. Molar Composition of Complexes

8. Spectrophotometric Titrations

VI. ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROSCOPY :

1. Introduction

2. Origin and Theory of Ultraviolet Spectra

3. Types of Transitions of Inorganic Molecules

4. Types of Transitions in Organic Molecules

5. The Shape of UV Absorption Curves

6. Transition Probability

7. Chromophore and Related Terms

8. Effect of Conjugation

9. Solvent Effects

10. Choice of Solvent

11. Woodward-Feiser Rules for Calculating Absorption Maxima

12. Instrumentation

13. Applications of Spectroscopy to Organic Compounds

14. General Applications of UV Absorption Spectroscopy

VII. NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE :

1. Introduction to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

2. Quantum Description of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

3. Rules Predicting spin Numbers of Nuclei and Calculation of spin Numbers of Elements Responding to NMR

4. Width of Absorption Lines in NMR

5. Number of Signals : Equivalent and Non-Equivalent Protons

6. Chemical Shift

7. Chemical Shifts of Different Types of Protons and Positions of PMR Signals

8. Spin-Spin Coupling : Splitting of Signals

9. Coupling Constants

10. Instrumentation

11. Relationship between the Area of the Peaks and Molecular Formula

12. Solvents Used in NMR

13. Interpretation of NMR Spectra

14. Applications of NMR Spectroscopy

15. Limitations of NMR Spectroscopy

16. Fluorine-9 NMR

17. Phosphorus-31 NMR

18. Carbon-13 NMR

VIII. NUCLEAR MAGNETIC DOUBLE RESONANCE (NDMR) AND INDOR SPECTROSCOPY :

1. Introduction

2. Spin-Spin Decoupling by NDMR

3. INDOR Spectroscopy

IX. NQR SPECTROSCOPY :

1. Introduction

2. Theory of NQR

3. Instrumentation for NQR Spectroscopy

4. Sample Requirements

5. Applications of NQR

X. ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY :

1. Introduction

2. Comparison between NMR and ESR

3. Historical Facts

4. Types of Substances with Unpaired Electrons

5. Theory of ESR

6. Instrumentation

7. Presentation of the ESR Spectrum

8. Hyperfine Splitting

9. Determination of g-Value

10. Deviation of the Value of g

11. Line Width

12. Applications of ESR Spectroscopy

13. ENDOR

14. ELDOR

XI. MASS SPECTROMETRY

1. Introduction

2. Theory

3. Components of Mass Spectrometer

4. Recording of a Mass Spectrogram

5. Resolution of Mass Spectrometer

6. Types of Ions Produced in a Mass Spectrometer

7. General Rules for Interpretation of Mass Spectra

8. A Typical Example of Interpretation of Molecular Mass Spectra

9. Some Example of Mass Spectra

10. Quantitative Analysis

11. Applications of Mass Spectrometry

XII. X-RAY, ABSORPTION, DIFFRACTION, AND FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY (CRYSTAL TONOGRAPHY) :

1. Introduction

2. General Theory

3. Instrumentation

4. X-ray Absorption Apparatus

5. Non-Dispersive X-ray Absorption Method

6. Applications of X-ray Absorption Methods

7. X-ray Diffraction Methods

8. Applications of X-ray Diffraction

9. Fluorescence Methods

10. Crystal Tonograpy

XIII. ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY :

1. Introduction

2. Principle

3. Grotrian Diagrams

4. Detection of Non-metals by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

5. Differences Between Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Flame Emission Spectroscopy

6. Advantages of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy over Emission Flame Spectroscopy

7. Disadvantages of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

8. Instrumentation

9. Operation of Atomic Absorption Spectrometer

10. Single and Double Beam Atomic Absorption Spectrometer

11. Detection Limit and Sensitivity

12. Interference Absorption and Emission Line Profile

14. Typical Analyses

15. Applications of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

XIV. FLAME PHOTOMETRY AND FLAME INFRARED EMISSION :

1. Introduction

2. Limitations of Flame Photometry

3. General Principles of Flame Photometry

4. Instrumentation

5. Effect of Solvent in Flame Photometry

6. Instruments

7. Application of Flame Photometry

8. Interferences in Flame Photometry

9. Factors that Influence the Intensity of Emitted Radiation in a Flame Photometer

10. Limitations of Flame Photometry

11. Determination of Non-metals

12. Flame Infrared Emission (FIRE)

13. Conclusions

XV. NEPHELOMETRY AND TURBIDIMETRY :

1. Introductory ..

2. Turbidimetry and Colorimetry

3. Nephelometry and Fluorimerry

4. Choice between Nephelometry and Turbidimetry

5. Theory

6. Comparison of Spectrophotometry, Turbidimetry and Nephelometry

7. Instrumentation

8. Applications of Turbidimetry and Nephelometry

XVI. FLUORIMETRY AND PHOSPHORIMETRY :

1. Introduction

2. Comparison of Absorption and Fluorescence Methods

3. Theory

4. Instrumentation

5. Applications of Fluorimetry

6. Applications of Phosphorimetry

7. Comparison of Fluorimetry and Phosphorimetry

8. Comparison of Fluorimetry and Phosphorimetry with Absorption Methods

XVII. MOSSBAUER SPECTROSCOPY :

1. Principle

2. Instrumentation and Mossbauer Spectra

3. Applications

XVIII. EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY :

1. Introductory

2. Theory

3. Instrumentation

4. Spectrographs

5. Application of Emission Spectroscopy

6. Advantages and Disadvantages of Emission Spectroscopy

XIX. REFRAETOMETRY :

1. Introduction

2. Abbe Refractometer

3. Applications of Refraetometry

4. Optical Exaltation

XX. POLARIMETRY :

1. Introduction

2. Plane Polarized Light

3. Optical Activity

4. Types of Molecules Analyzed by Polarimetry

5. Theory of Optical Activity

6. Polarimeter

7. Applications of Optical Activity

XXI. OPTICAL ROTATORY DISPERSION AND CIRCULAR DICHROISM SPECTROSCOPY :

1. Theory : Polarized Light

2. Optically Active Molecules

3. Optical Rotatory Dispersion

4. Circular Dichroism

5. Cotton Effect

6. Octant Rule

7. Faraday and Kerr Effects

8. Instrumentation

9. Automatic Recording Spectropolarimeters

10. Instruments for Circular Dichroism Measurement

11. Applications of Optics Rotatory Dispersion and Circular Dichroism

XXII. CONDUCTOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS :

1. Introduction

2. Some Important Laws, Definitions and Relations

3. Effect of Dilution

4. Conductance Measurements

5. Applications of Conductance Measurements

6. Types of Conductometric Titrations

7. Advantages of Conductometric Titrations

8. Disadvantages of Conductometric Titrations

XXIII. HIGH FREQUENCY TITRATIONS :

1. Introduction

2. Theory

3. Instrumentation

4. Theory

5. Applications of High Frequency Methods

6. Advantages of High Frequency Method

7. Disadvantages of High Frequency Method

XXIV. MEASUREMENT OF pH :

1. Introduction

2. Determination of pH

3. Ion Selective Electrode

4. Instrumentation

5. Application of pH Measurement

XXV. POTENTIOMETRIC TITRATIONS :

1. Introduction

2. Instrumentation

3. Types of Potentiometric Titrations

4. Variations in Potentiometric Titrations

5. Advantages of Potentiometric Titrations

XXVI. POLAROGRAPHY :

1. Introduction

2. Apparatus

3. Factors Affecting the Limiting Current

4. Cells

5. Form of Waves and Half Wave Potentials

6. Applications of Polarography

7. Voltammetry

8. Chronopotentiometry

9. Tensammetry

XXVII. AMPEROMETRIC TITRATIONS :

1. Introduction

2. Apparatus Used for Amperometric Titrations

3. Technique of Amperometric Titrations

4. Dead stop and Point Method or Titration with Two Indicator Electrode

5. Advantages of Amperometric Titrations

6. Disadvantages of Amperometric Titrations

7. Applications of Amperometric Titrations

XXIII. ELECTROLYTIC AND COULOMETRIC TECHNIQUES :

1. Electrolysis

2. Electro-Deposition

3. Controlled Current Electrolysis

4. Controlled Electrode Potential Electrolysis

5. Electrography

6. Introduction to Coulometric Methods

7. Primary Coulometric Titrations

8. Secondary Coulometric Titrations

9. Applications of Coulometric Titrations

10. Advantages of Coulometric Methods

XXIX. ELECTROGRAVIMETRY

1. Introduction

2. Theory

3. Instrumentation for Constant-Current Methods

4. Applications

XXX. ANALYTICAL SEPARATIONS INVOLVING SOLVENT EXTRACTION :

1. Introduction

2. Nature of the Separation Process

3. Separation by Precipitation

4. Separation based on Control of Acidity

5. Sulphide Separations

6. Other Inorganic Precipitant

7. Organic Precipitant

8. Separation of Constituents Present in Trace Amounts

9. Separation by Electrolytic Precipitation

10. Extraction Methods

11. Sequence of the Extraction Process

12. Extraction Technique

13. Applications of Extraction Procedures

14. Ion Exchange Separation

XXXI. CHROMATOGRAPHY :

1. Introduction to Chromatography

2. Definition of Chromatography

3. Types of Chromatography

4. Theoretical Principles underlying Chromatographic Techniques

5. Theories of Chromatography

6. Development of the Chromatogram

7. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis by Chromatography

XXXII. PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY :

1. Introduction

2. Principle

3. Migration Parameters

4. Types of Paper Chromatography

5. Experimental Details for Qualitative Analysis

6. Experimental Details for Quantitative Analysis

7. Applications

XXXIII. THIN-LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY

1. Introduction

2. Superiority of TLC over other Chromatographic Technique

3. Experimental Techniques

4. Applications of TLC

5. Applications of some other forms of Thin-Layer Chromatography

6. Limitation

7. Scope

8. High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography

XXXIV. Liquid-Liquid Partition Chromatography :

1. Introduction

2. Theory

3. Solid Supports

4. Selection of Mobile and Stationary Phases

5. Solvent Systems

6. Reversed-Phase Chromatography

7. Choice of Adsorption or Partition

8. Applications of Partition Chromatography

XXV. HIGH PERFORMANCE (PRESSURE) LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPY :

1. Introduction

2. Principle

3. Instrumentation

4. Apparatus and Materials

5. Column Efficiency and Selectivity

6. Comparison of High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Gas Liquid Chromatography

7. Applications

8. HPLC Adsorption Chromatography

9. HPLC Partition Chromatography

XXXVI. ADSORPTION CHROMATOGRAPHY :

1. Introduction

2. Theory

3. Adsorbents

4. Solvents

5. Procedure

6. Differences between Adsorption and Gas-liquid Chromatography

7. Limitations

8. Applications of Adsorption Chromatography

XXXVII. COLUMN CHROMATOGRAPHY :

1. Introduction

2. Principle

3. Experimental Details

4. Theory of Development

5. Column Efficiency

6. Factors affecting Column Efficiency

7. Applications of Column Chromatography

XXXIX. GEL CHROMATOGRAPHY OR GEL PERMEATION CHROMATOGRAPHY :

1. Introduction

2. Principle

3. Materials

4. Gel Preparation, Column Packing and Detectors

5. Applications

6. Advantage of Gel Chromatography

XXXIX. ION EXCHANGE CHROMATOGRAPHY :

1. Introduction

2. Definition

3. Principle

4. Cation Exchangers

5. Anion Exchangers

6. Regeneration

7. Ion Exchange Column Used in Chromatographic Separations

8. Selection of Suitable Systems

9. Ion Exchange Capacity

10. Ion Exchange Techniques

11. Applications of Ion Exchangers

XL. GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY :

1. Introduction

2. Principle of Gas Chromatographic Separations

3. Gas-Liquid Chromatography

4. Instrumentation

5. Evaluation

6. Retention Volume

7. Resolution

8. Branches of Gas Chromatography

9. Applications

10. Gas-Solid Chromatography

11. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)

XLI. THERMAL METHODS :

1. Introduction to Thermal Methods of Analysis

2. Thermogravimetry

3. Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA)

4. Thermometric Titrations

5. Direct Injunction Enthalpimetry

6. Miscellaneous Thermal Methods

XLII. NUCLEAR METHODS :

1. Introduction

2. Nuclear Reactions and Radiations

3. Interaction of Nuclear Radiation with Matter

4. Measurement of Radioactivity

5. Activation Analysis

6. Isotopic Dilution Method

7. Radiometric Titrations