Here, the experienced author, Ed Wolf, introduces the current situation and presents a guide to the new possibilities for computing technology. This textbook is the first to handle those important areas not covered in existing books on nanoelectronics, such as quantum computing and alternative energy technology. Intended to be self-contained for students with two years of calculus-based college physics, with corresponding fundamental knowledge in mathematics, computing and chemistry. Cover graphics: Arindam Bandyopadhyay
Edward L. Wolf is Professor of Physics at the Polytechnic Institute of New York University. His long-term teaching experience ranges from undergraduate courses to the direction of thesis research. Professor Wolf's career has included industrial research as well as academic appointments and service as a Program Director at the National Science Foundation. He is a Fellow of the American Physical Society. He has authored over 100 refereed publications as well as a monograph on the principles of Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy. The second edition of his successful textbook 'Nanophysics and Nanotechnology' has been published recently. In 2007, Professor Wolf received Polytechnic's "Jacobs Excellence in Education Award".
Preface. 1 Introduction and Review of Electronic Technology. 1.1 Introduction: Functions of Electronic Technology. 1.1.1 Review of Electronic Devices. 1.1.2 Sources of Current and Voltage: DC. 184.108.40.206 Batteries: Lithium Ion, Ni Cd, NiMH, and Supercapacitors . 220.127.116.11 Thermionic Emitters. 18.104.22.168 Field Emitters. 22.214.171.124 Ferroelectric and Pyroelectric Devices. 1.1.3 Generators of Alternating Current and Voltage: AC. 126.96.36.199 Faraday Effect Devices. 188.8.131.52 Crystal Oscillators. 184.108.40.206 Gunn Diode Oscillators. 220.127.116.11 Esaki Diodes. 18.104.22.168 Injection Lasers. 22.214.171.124 Organic Light Emitting Diodes. 126.96.36.199 Blackbody Emission of Radiation. 1.1.4 Detectors. 188.8.131.52 Photomultiplier and Geiger Counter. 184.108.40.206 Photodetector, Solar Cell, and pn Junction. 220.127.116.11 Imaging Detector, CCD Camera, and Channel Plate. 18.104.22.168 SQUID Detector of Magnetic Field and Other Quantities. 1.1.5 Two-Terminal Devices. 22.214.171.124 Semiconductor pn Junction (Nonohmic). 126.96.36.199 Metal Semiconductor Junction and Alternative Solar Cell. 188.8.131.52 Tunnel Junction (An Ohmic Device). 184.108.40.206 Josephson Junction. 220.127.116.11 Resonant Tunnel Diode (RTD, RITD). 18.104.22.168 Spin-Valve and Tunnel-Valve GMR Magnetic Field Detectors. 1.1.6 Three-Terminal Devices. 22.214.171.124 Field Effect Transistor. 126.96.36.199 Bipolar Junction Transistors: npn and pnp. 188.8.131.52 Resonant Tunneling Hot-Electron Transistor (RHET). 1.1.7 Four-Terminal Devices. 184.108.40.206 Thyristors: npnp and pnpn. 220.127.116.11 Dynamic Random Access Memory. 18.104.22.168 Triple-Barrier RTD (TBRTD). 1.1.8 Data Storage Devices. 22.214.171.124 Optical Memory Devices. 126.96.36.199 Electrical Computer Memory Devices. References. 2 From Electronics to Nanoelectronics: Particles, Waves, and Schrödinger's Equation. 2.1 Transition from Diffusive Motion of Electron Fluid to Quantum Behavior of Single Electrons. 2.1.1 Vacuum Triode to Field Effect Transistor to Single Electron Transistor. 2.1.2 Crystal Detector Radio to Photomultiplier and Gamma Ray Detector. 2.2 Particle (Quantum) Nature of Matter: Photons, Electrons, Atoms, and Molecules. 2.2.1 Photons. 2.2.2 Electrons. 2.2.3 Atoms, Bohr's Model. 188.8.131.52 Quantization of Angular Momentum and Orbit Energy. 184.108.40.206 Light Absorption and Emission Lines. 220.127.116.11 Magnetic Moments of Orbiting Electrons. 18.104.22.168 Stern Gerlach Experiment and Electron Spin. 2.3 Particle Wave Nature of Light and Matter, De Broglie Formulas E = hv. 2.3.1 Wavefunction ψ, Probability Density ψ*ψ, Traveling and Standing Waves. 2.4 Maxwell's Equations. 2.5 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. 2.6 Schrödinger Equation, Quantum States and Energies, Barrier Tunneling. 2.6.1 Schrödinger Equations in One Dimension. 2.6.2 The Trapped Particle in One Dimension. 2.6.3 Reflection and Tunneling at a Potential Step. 2.6.4 Penetration of a Barrier. 2.6.5 Trapped Particles in Two and Three Dimensions: Quantum Dot. 2.7 The Simple Harmonic Oscillator. 2.8 Fermions, Bosons, and Occupation Rules. 2.9 A Bose Particle System: Thermal Radiation in Equilibrium. References. 3 Quantum Description of Atoms and Molecules. 3.1 Schrödinger Equation in Spherical Polar Coordinates. 3.1.1 The Hydrogen Atom, One-Electron Atoms. 3.1.2 Positronium and Excitons. 3.1.3 Magnetization M, Magnetic Resonance, and Susceptibility X. 3.1.4 Electric Dipole Emission Selection Rules for Atoms. 3.1.5 Spontaneous and Stimulated Emission of Light. 3.2 Indistinguishable Particles and Their Exchange Symmetry. 3.2.1 Symmetric and Antisymmetric Wavefunctions. 3.2.2 Orbital and Spin Components of Wavefunction. 3.2.3 Pauli Principle and Periodic Table of Elements. 22.214.171.124 Filled Atomic Shells. 126.96.36.199 Qualitative Aspects of Smallest Atoms. 188.8.131.52 Alkali Atoms, Filled Core Plus One Electron. 3.2.4 Carbon Atom 12 6C 1s22s22p2 ~ 0.07 nm. 3.2.5 Cu, Ni, Xe, Hf. 3.3 Molecules. 3.3.1 Ionic Molecules. 3.3.2 Covalent Bonding in Simple Molecules. 184.108.40.206 Hydrogen Molecule Ion H2. 220.127.116.11 Hydrogen Molecule. 18.104.22.168 Methane CH4, Ethane C2H6, and Octane C8H18. 22.214.171.124 Ethylene C2H4, Acetylene C2H2, and Benzene C6H6. 126.96.36.199 Benzene Delocalized Orbitals, Diamagnetism. 188.8.131.52 Diamagnetic Susceptibility of Benzene. 184.108.40.206 Modeling Delocalized Electrons in a Ring. 220.127.116.11 Other Ring Compounds, Electronic Polarizability. 3.3.3 C60 Buckyball Molecule. References. 4 Metals, Semiconductors, and Junction Devices. 4.1 Metals. 4.1.1 Electronic Conduction. 18.104.22.168 Resistivity, Mean Free Path. 22.214.171.124 Hall Effect, Magnetoresistance. 4.1.2 Metals as Boxes of Free Electrons. 126.96.36.199 Fermi Level, DOS, Dimensionality. 4.2 Energy Bands in Periodic Structures. 4.2.1 Model for Electron Bands and Gaps, Electrons and Holes. 4.2.2 Si, Gas, and InSb. 4.2.3 Semiconductors and Insulators: Electron Bands and Conduction. 4.2.4 Hydrogenic Donors and Excitons in Semiconductors, Direct and Indirect Bandgaps.