Here, the experienced author, Ed Wolf, introduces the current situation and presents a guide to the new possibilities for computing technology. This textbook is the first to handle those important areas not covered in existing books on nanoelectronics, such as quantum computing and alternative energy technology. Intended to be self-contained for students with two years of calculus-based college physics, with corresponding fundamental knowledge in mathematics, computing and chemistry. Cover graphics: Arindam Bandyopadhyay
Edward L. Wolf is Professor of Physics at the Polytechnic Institute of New York University. His long-term teaching experience ranges from undergraduate courses to the direction of thesis research. Professor Wolf's career has included industrial research as well as academic appointments and service as a Program Director at the National Science Foundation. He is a Fellow of the American Physical Society. He has authored over 100 refereed publications as well as a monograph on the principles of Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy. The second edition of his successful textbook 'Nanophysics and Nanotechnology' has been published recently. In 2007, Professor Wolf received Polytechnic's "Jacobs Excellence in Education Award".
Preface. 1 Introduction and Review of Electronic Technology. 1.1 Introduction: Functions of Electronic Technology. 1.1.1 Review of Electronic Devices. 1.1.2 Sources of Current and Voltage: DC. 188.8.131.52 Batteries: Lithium Ion, Ni Cd, NiMH, and Supercapacitors . 184.108.40.206 Thermionic Emitters. 220.127.116.11 Field Emitters. 18.104.22.168 Ferroelectric and Pyroelectric Devices. 1.1.3 Generators of Alternating Current and Voltage: AC. 22.214.171.124 Faraday Effect Devices. 126.96.36.199 Crystal Oscillators. 188.8.131.52 Gunn Diode Oscillators. 184.108.40.206 Esaki Diodes. 220.127.116.11 Injection Lasers. 18.104.22.168 Organic Light Emitting Diodes. 22.214.171.124 Blackbody Emission of Radiation. 1.1.4 Detectors. 126.96.36.199 Photomultiplier and Geiger Counter. 188.8.131.52 Photodetector, Solar Cell, and pn Junction. 184.108.40.206 Imaging Detector, CCD Camera, and Channel Plate. 220.127.116.11 SQUID Detector of Magnetic Field and Other Quantities. 1.1.5 Two-Terminal Devices. 18.104.22.168 Semiconductor pn Junction (Nonohmic). 22.214.171.124 Metal Semiconductor Junction and Alternative Solar Cell. 126.96.36.199 Tunnel Junction (An Ohmic Device). 188.8.131.52 Josephson Junction. 184.108.40.206 Resonant Tunnel Diode (RTD, RITD). 220.127.116.11 Spin-Valve and Tunnel-Valve GMR Magnetic Field Detectors. 1.1.6 Three-Terminal Devices. 18.104.22.168 Field Effect Transistor. 22.214.171.124 Bipolar Junction Transistors: npn and pnp. 126.96.36.199 Resonant Tunneling Hot-Electron Transistor (RHET). 1.1.7 Four-Terminal Devices. 188.8.131.52 Thyristors: npnp and pnpn. 184.108.40.206 Dynamic Random Access Memory. 220.127.116.11 Triple-Barrier RTD (TBRTD). 1.1.8 Data Storage Devices. 18.104.22.168 Optical Memory Devices. 22.214.171.124 Electrical Computer Memory Devices. References. 2 From Electronics to Nanoelectronics: Particles, Waves, and Schrödinger's Equation. 2.1 Transition from Diffusive Motion of Electron Fluid to Quantum Behavior of Single Electrons. 2.1.1 Vacuum Triode to Field Effect Transistor to Single Electron Transistor. 2.1.2 Crystal Detector Radio to Photomultiplier and Gamma Ray Detector. 2.2 Particle (Quantum) Nature of Matter: Photons, Electrons, Atoms, and Molecules. 2.2.1 Photons. 2.2.2 Electrons. 2.2.3 Atoms, Bohr's Model. 126.96.36.199 Quantization of Angular Momentum and Orbit Energy. 188.8.131.52 Light Absorption and Emission Lines. 184.108.40.206 Magnetic Moments of Orbiting Electrons. 220.127.116.11 Stern Gerlach Experiment and Electron Spin. 2.3 Particle Wave Nature of Light and Matter, De Broglie Formulas E = hv. 2.3.1 Wavefunction ψ, Probability Density ψ*ψ, Traveling and Standing Waves. 2.4 Maxwell's Equations. 2.5 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. 2.6 Schrödinger Equation, Quantum States and Energies, Barrier Tunneling. 2.6.1 Schrödinger Equations in One Dimension. 2.6.2 The Trapped Particle in One Dimension. 2.6.3 Reflection and Tunneling at a Potential Step. 2.6.4 Penetration of a Barrier. 2.6.5 Trapped Particles in Two and Three Dimensions: Quantum Dot. 2.7 The Simple Harmonic Oscillator. 2.8 Fermions, Bosons, and Occupation Rules. 2.9 A Bose Particle System: Thermal Radiation in Equilibrium. References. 3 Quantum Description of Atoms and Molecules. 3.1 Schrödinger Equation in Spherical Polar Coordinates. 3.1.1 The Hydrogen Atom, One-Electron Atoms. 3.1.2 Positronium and Excitons. 3.1.3 Magnetization M, Magnetic Resonance, and Susceptibility X. 3.1.4 Electric Dipole Emission Selection Rules for Atoms. 3.1.5 Spontaneous and Stimulated Emission of Light. 3.2 Indistinguishable Particles and Their Exchange Symmetry. 3.2.1 Symmetric and Antisymmetric Wavefunctions. 3.2.2 Orbital and Spin Components of Wavefunction. 3.2.3 Pauli Principle and Periodic Table of Elements. 18.104.22.168 Filled Atomic Shells. 22.214.171.124 Qualitative Aspects of Smallest Atoms. 126.96.36.199 Alkali Atoms, Filled Core Plus One Electron. 3.2.4 Carbon Atom 12 6C 1s22s22p2 ~ 0.07 nm. 3.2.5 Cu, Ni, Xe, Hf. 3.3 Molecules. 3.3.1 Ionic Molecules. 3.3.2 Covalent Bonding in Simple Molecules. 188.8.131.52 Hydrogen Molecule Ion H2. 184.108.40.206 Hydrogen Molecule. 220.127.116.11 Methane CH4, Ethane C2H6, and Octane C8H18. 18.104.22.168 Ethylene C2H4, Acetylene C2H2, and Benzene C6H6. 22.214.171.124 Benzene Delocalized Orbitals, Diamagnetism. 126.96.36.199 Diamagnetic Susceptibility of Benzene. 188.8.131.52 Modeling Delocalized Electrons in a Ring. 184.108.40.206 Other Ring Compounds, Electronic Polarizability. 3.3.3 C60 Buckyball Molecule. References. 4 Metals, Semiconductors, and Junction Devices. 4.1 Metals. 4.1.1 Electronic Conduction. 220.127.116.11 Resistivity, Mean Free Path. 18.104.22.168 Hall Effect, Magnetoresistance. 4.1.2 Metals as Boxes of Free Electrons. 22.214.171.124 Fermi Level, DOS, Dimensionality. 4.2 Energy Bands in Periodic Structures. 4.2.1 Model for Electron Bands and Gaps, Electrons and Holes. 4.2.2 Si, Gas, and InSb. 4.2.3 Semiconductors and Insulators: Electron Bands and Conduction. 4.2.4 Hydrogenic Donors and Excitons in Semiconductors, Direct and Indirect Bandgaps.
Excerpts from Inner Flap (Front)
Quantum Nanoelectronics is the first textbook to handle important growth, including adiabatic quantum computing, nanoelectronic aspects of ink-printed thin film solar cells, nanostructured electrodes, solar water splitting, and convenient hydrogen storage, thereby suggesting profitable new directions for nanoelectronic technology. Expanded tutorial coverage is provided for aspects of molecular electronics, from the basics of electronic conduction through chemical bonds to a sixteen-bit computing device. The reader, whether student or professional, is encouraged to use simple theoretical models and to return to the entrepreneurial approach of the pioneers in the Moore's Law revolution.