Here, the experienced author, Ed Wolf, introduces the current situation and presents a guide to the new possibilities for computing technology. This textbook is the first to handle those important areas not covered in existing books on nanoelectronics, such as quantum computing and alternative energy technology. Intended to be self-contained for students with two years of calculus-based college physics, with corresponding fundamental knowledge in mathematics, computing and chemistry. Cover graphics: Arindam Bandyopadhyay
Edward L. Wolf is Professor of Physics at the Polytechnic Institute of New York University. His long-term teaching experience ranges from undergraduate courses to the direction of thesis research. Professor Wolf's career has included industrial research as well as academic appointments and service as a Program Director at the National Science Foundation. He is a Fellow of the American Physical Society. He has authored over 100 refereed publications as well as a monograph on the principles of Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy. The second edition of his successful textbook 'Nanophysics and Nanotechnology' has been published recently. In 2007, Professor Wolf received Polytechnic's "Jacobs Excellence in Education Award".
Preface. 1 Introduction and Review of Electronic Technology. 1.1 Introduction: Functions of Electronic Technology. 1.1.1 Review of Electronic Devices. 1.1.2 Sources of Current and Voltage: DC. 220.127.116.11 Batteries: Lithium Ion, Ni Cd, NiMH, and Supercapacitors . 18.104.22.168 Thermionic Emitters. 22.214.171.124 Field Emitters. 126.96.36.199 Ferroelectric and Pyroelectric Devices. 1.1.3 Generators of Alternating Current and Voltage: AC. 188.8.131.52 Faraday Effect Devices. 184.108.40.206 Crystal Oscillators. 220.127.116.11 Gunn Diode Oscillators. 18.104.22.168 Esaki Diodes. 22.214.171.124 Injection Lasers. 126.96.36.199 Organic Light Emitting Diodes. 188.8.131.52 Blackbody Emission of Radiation. 1.1.4 Detectors. 184.108.40.206 Photomultiplier and Geiger Counter. 220.127.116.11 Photodetector, Solar Cell, and pn Junction. 18.104.22.168 Imaging Detector, CCD Camera, and Channel Plate. 22.214.171.124 SQUID Detector of Magnetic Field and Other Quantities. 1.1.5 Two-Terminal Devices. 126.96.36.199 Semiconductor pn Junction (Nonohmic). 188.8.131.52 Metal Semiconductor Junction and Alternative Solar Cell. 184.108.40.206 Tunnel Junction (An Ohmic Device). 220.127.116.11 Josephson Junction. 18.104.22.168 Resonant Tunnel Diode (RTD, RITD). 22.214.171.124 Spin-Valve and Tunnel-Valve GMR Magnetic Field Detectors. 1.1.6 Three-Terminal Devices. 126.96.36.199 Field Effect Transistor. 188.8.131.52 Bipolar Junction Transistors: npn and pnp. 184.108.40.206 Resonant Tunneling Hot-Electron Transistor (RHET). 1.1.7 Four-Terminal Devices. 220.127.116.11 Thyristors: npnp and pnpn. 18.104.22.168 Dynamic Random Access Memory. 22.214.171.124 Triple-Barrier RTD (TBRTD). 1.1.8 Data Storage Devices. 126.96.36.199 Optical Memory Devices. 188.8.131.52 Electrical Computer Memory Devices. References. 2 From Electronics to Nanoelectronics: Particles, Waves, and Schrödinger's Equation. 2.1 Transition from Diffusive Motion of Electron Fluid to Quantum Behavior of Single Electrons. 2.1.1 Vacuum Triode to Field Effect Transistor to Single Electron Transistor. 2.1.2 Crystal Detector Radio to Photomultiplier and Gamma Ray Detector. 2.2 Particle (Quantum) Nature of Matter: Photons, Electrons, Atoms, and Molecules. 2.2.1 Photons. 2.2.2 Electrons. 2.2.3 Atoms, Bohr's Model. 184.108.40.206 Quantization of Angular Momentum and Orbit Energy. 220.127.116.11 Light Absorption and Emission Lines. 18.104.22.168 Magnetic Moments of Orbiting Electrons. 22.214.171.124 Stern Gerlach Experiment and Electron Spin. 2.3 Particle Wave Nature of Light and Matter, De Broglie Formulas E = hv. 2.3.1 Wavefunction ψ, Probability Density ψ*ψ, Traveling and Standing Waves. 2.4 Maxwell's Equations. 2.5 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. 2.6 Schrödinger Equation, Quantum States and Energies, Barrier Tunneling. 2.6.1 Schrödinger Equations in One Dimension. 2.6.2 The Trapped Particle in One Dimension. 2.6.3 Reflection and Tunneling at a Potential Step. 2.6.4 Penetration of a Barrier. 2.6.5 Trapped Particles in Two and Three Dimensions: Quantum Dot. 2.7 The Simple Harmonic Oscillator. 2.8 Fermions, Bosons, and Occupation Rules. 2.9 A Bose Particle System: Thermal Radiation in Equilibrium. References. 3 Quantum Description of Atoms and Molecules. 3.1 Schrödinger Equation in Spherical Polar Coordinates. 3.1.1 The Hydrogen Atom, One-Electron Atoms. 3.1.2 Positronium and Excitons. 3.1.3 Magnetization M, Magnetic Resonance, and Susceptibility X. 3.1.4 Electric Dipole Emission Selection Rules for Atoms. 3.1.5 Spontaneous and Stimulated Emission of Light. 3.2 Indistinguishable Particles and Their Exchange Symmetry. 3.2.1 Symmetric and Antisymmetric Wavefunctions. 3.2.2 Orbital and Spin Components of Wavefunction. 3.2.3 Pauli Principle and Periodic Table of Elements. 126.96.36.199 Filled Atomic Shells. 188.8.131.52 Qualitative Aspects of Smallest Atoms. 184.108.40.206 Alkali Atoms, Filled Core Plus One Electron. 3.2.4 Carbon Atom 12 6C 1s22s22p2 ~ 0.07 nm. 3.2.5 Cu, Ni, Xe, Hf. 3.3 Molecules. 3.3.1 Ionic Molecules. 3.3.2 Covalent Bonding in Simple Molecules. 220.127.116.11 Hydrogen Molecule Ion H2. 18.104.22.168 Hydrogen Molecule. 22.214.171.124 Methane CH4, Ethane C2H6, and Octane C8H18. 126.96.36.199 Ethylene C2H4, Acetylene C2H2, and Benzene C6H6. 188.8.131.52 Benzene Delocalized Orbitals, Diamagnetism. 184.108.40.206 Diamagnetic Susceptibility of Benzene. 220.127.116.11 Modeling Delocalized Electrons in a Ring. 18.104.22.168 Other Ring Compounds, Electronic Polarizability. 3.3.3 C60 Buckyball Molecule. References. 4 Metals, Semiconductors, and Junction Devices. 4.1 Metals. 4.1.1 Electronic Conduction. 22.214.171.124 Resistivity, Mean Free Path. 126.96.36.199 Hall Effect, Magnetoresistance. 4.1.2 Metals as Boxes of Free Electrons. 188.8.131.52 Fermi Level, DOS, Dimensionality. 4.2 Energy Bands in Periodic Structures. 4.2.1 Model for Electron Bands and Gaps, Electrons and Holes. 4.2.2 Si, Gas, and InSb. 4.2.3 Semiconductors and Insulators: Electron Bands and Conduction. 4.2.4 Hydrogenic Donors and Excitons in Semiconductors, Direct and Indirect Bandgaps.