Here, the experienced author, Ed Wolf, introduces the current situation and presents a guide to the new possibilities for computing technology. This textbook is the first to handle those important areas not covered in existing books on nanoelectronics, such as quantum computing and alternative energy technology. Intended to be self-contained for students with two years of calculus-based college physics, with corresponding fundamental knowledge in mathematics, computing and chemistry. Cover graphics: Arindam Bandyopadhyay
Edward L. Wolf is Professor of Physics at the Polytechnic Institute of New York University. His long-term teaching experience ranges from undergraduate courses to the direction of thesis research. Professor Wolf's career has included industrial research as well as academic appointments and service as a Program Director at the National Science Foundation. He is a Fellow of the American Physical Society. He has authored over 100 refereed publications as well as a monograph on the principles of Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy. The second edition of his successful textbook 'Nanophysics and Nanotechnology' has been published recently. In 2007, Professor Wolf received Polytechnic's "Jacobs Excellence in Education Award".
Preface. 1 Introduction and Review of Electronic Technology. 1.1 Introduction: Functions of Electronic Technology. 1.1.1 Review of Electronic Devices. 1.1.2 Sources of Current and Voltage: DC. 126.96.36.199 Batteries: Lithium Ion, Ni Cd, NiMH, and Supercapacitors . 188.8.131.52 Thermionic Emitters. 184.108.40.206 Field Emitters. 220.127.116.11 Ferroelectric and Pyroelectric Devices. 1.1.3 Generators of Alternating Current and Voltage: AC. 18.104.22.168 Faraday Effect Devices. 22.214.171.124 Crystal Oscillators. 126.96.36.199 Gunn Diode Oscillators. 188.8.131.52 Esaki Diodes. 184.108.40.206 Injection Lasers. 220.127.116.11 Organic Light Emitting Diodes. 18.104.22.168 Blackbody Emission of Radiation. 1.1.4 Detectors. 22.214.171.124 Photomultiplier and Geiger Counter. 126.96.36.199 Photodetector, Solar Cell, and pn Junction. 188.8.131.52 Imaging Detector, CCD Camera, and Channel Plate. 184.108.40.206 SQUID Detector of Magnetic Field and Other Quantities. 1.1.5 Two-Terminal Devices. 220.127.116.11 Semiconductor pn Junction (Nonohmic). 18.104.22.168 Metal Semiconductor Junction and Alternative Solar Cell. 22.214.171.124 Tunnel Junction (An Ohmic Device). 126.96.36.199 Josephson Junction. 188.8.131.52 Resonant Tunnel Diode (RTD, RITD). 184.108.40.206 Spin-Valve and Tunnel-Valve GMR Magnetic Field Detectors. 1.1.6 Three-Terminal Devices. 220.127.116.11 Field Effect Transistor. 18.104.22.168 Bipolar Junction Transistors: npn and pnp. 22.214.171.124 Resonant Tunneling Hot-Electron Transistor (RHET). 1.1.7 Four-Terminal Devices. 126.96.36.199 Thyristors: npnp and pnpn. 188.8.131.52 Dynamic Random Access Memory. 184.108.40.206 Triple-Barrier RTD (TBRTD). 1.1.8 Data Storage Devices. 220.127.116.11 Optical Memory Devices. 18.104.22.168 Electrical Computer Memory Devices. References. 2 From Electronics to Nanoelectronics: Particles, Waves, and Schrödinger's Equation. 2.1 Transition from Diffusive Motion of Electron Fluid to Quantum Behavior of Single Electrons. 2.1.1 Vacuum Triode to Field Effect Transistor to Single Electron Transistor. 2.1.2 Crystal Detector Radio to Photomultiplier and Gamma Ray Detector. 2.2 Particle (Quantum) Nature of Matter: Photons, Electrons, Atoms, and Molecules. 2.2.1 Photons. 2.2.2 Electrons. 2.2.3 Atoms, Bohr's Model. 22.214.171.124 Quantization of Angular Momentum and Orbit Energy. 126.96.36.199 Light Absorption and Emission Lines. 188.8.131.52 Magnetic Moments of Orbiting Electrons. 184.108.40.206 Stern Gerlach Experiment and Electron Spin. 2.3 Particle Wave Nature of Light and Matter, De Broglie Formulas E = hv. 2.3.1 Wavefunction ψ, Probability Density ψ*ψ, Traveling and Standing Waves. 2.4 Maxwell's Equations. 2.5 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. 2.6 Schrödinger Equation, Quantum States and Energies, Barrier Tunneling. 2.6.1 Schrödinger Equations in One Dimension. 2.6.2 The Trapped Particle in One Dimension. 2.6.3 Reflection and Tunneling at a Potential Step. 2.6.4 Penetration of a Barrier. 2.6.5 Trapped Particles in Two and Three Dimensions: Quantum Dot. 2.7 The Simple Harmonic Oscillator. 2.8 Fermions, Bosons, and Occupation Rules. 2.9 A Bose Particle System: Thermal Radiation in Equilibrium. References. 3 Quantum Description of Atoms and Molecules. 3.1 Schrödinger Equation in Spherical Polar Coordinates. 3.1.1 The Hydrogen Atom, One-Electron Atoms. 3.1.2 Positronium and Excitons. 3.1.3 Magnetization M, Magnetic Resonance, and Susceptibility X. 3.1.4 Electric Dipole Emission Selection Rules for Atoms. 3.1.5 Spontaneous and Stimulated Emission of Light. 3.2 Indistinguishable Particles and Their Exchange Symmetry. 3.2.1 Symmetric and Antisymmetric Wavefunctions. 3.2.2 Orbital and Spin Components of Wavefunction. 3.2.3 Pauli Principle and Periodic Table of Elements. 220.127.116.11 Filled Atomic Shells. 18.104.22.168 Qualitative Aspects of Smallest Atoms. 22.214.171.124 Alkali Atoms, Filled Core Plus One Electron. 3.2.4 Carbon Atom 12 6C 1s22s22p2 ~ 0.07 nm. 3.2.5 Cu, Ni, Xe, Hf. 3.3 Molecules. 3.3.1 Ionic Molecules. 3.3.2 Covalent Bonding in Simple Molecules. 126.96.36.199 Hydrogen Molecule Ion H2. 188.8.131.52 Hydrogen Molecule. 184.108.40.206 Methane CH4, Ethane C2H6, and Octane C8H18. 220.127.116.11 Ethylene C2H4, Acetylene C2H2, and Benzene C6H6. 18.104.22.168 Benzene Delocalized Orbitals, Diamagnetism. 22.214.171.124 Diamagnetic Susceptibility of Benzene. 126.96.36.199 Modeling Delocalized Electrons in a Ring. 188.8.131.52 Other Ring Compounds, Electronic Polarizability. 3.3.3 C60 Buckyball Molecule. References. 4 Metals, Semiconductors, and Junction Devices. 4.1 Metals. 4.1.1 Electronic Conduction. 184.108.40.206 Resistivity, Mean Free Path. 220.127.116.11 Hall Effect, Magnetoresistance. 4.1.2 Metals as Boxes of Free Electrons. 18.104.22.168 Fermi Level, DOS, Dimensionality. 4.2 Energy Bands in Periodic Structures. 4.2.1 Model for Electron Bands and Gaps, Electrons and Holes. 4.2.2 Si, Gas, and InSb. 4.2.3 Semiconductors and Insulators: Electron Bands and Conduction. 4.2.4 Hydrogenic Donors and Excitons in Semiconductors, Direct and Indirect Bandgaps.