Here, the experienced author, Ed Wolf, introduces the current situation and presents a guide to the new possibilities for computing technology. This textbook is the first to handle those important areas not covered in existing books on nanoelectronics, such as quantum computing and alternative energy technology. Intended to be self-contained for students with two years of calculus-based college physics, with corresponding fundamental knowledge in mathematics, computing and chemistry. Cover graphics: Arindam Bandyopadhyay
Edward L. Wolf is Professor of Physics at the Polytechnic Institute of New York University. His long-term teaching experience ranges from undergraduate courses to the direction of thesis research. Professor Wolf's career has included industrial research as well as academic appointments and service as a Program Director at the National Science Foundation. He is a Fellow of the American Physical Society. He has authored over 100 refereed publications as well as a monograph on the principles of Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy. The second edition of his successful textbook 'Nanophysics and Nanotechnology' has been published recently. In 2007, Professor Wolf received Polytechnic's "Jacobs Excellence in Education Award".
Preface. 1 Introduction and Review of Electronic Technology. 1.1 Introduction: Functions of Electronic Technology. 1.1.1 Review of Electronic Devices. 1.1.2 Sources of Current and Voltage: DC. 18.104.22.168 Batteries: Lithium Ion, Ni Cd, NiMH, and Supercapacitors . 22.214.171.124 Thermionic Emitters. 126.96.36.199 Field Emitters. 188.8.131.52 Ferroelectric and Pyroelectric Devices. 1.1.3 Generators of Alternating Current and Voltage: AC. 184.108.40.206 Faraday Effect Devices. 220.127.116.11 Crystal Oscillators. 18.104.22.168 Gunn Diode Oscillators. 22.214.171.124 Esaki Diodes. 126.96.36.199 Injection Lasers. 188.8.131.52 Organic Light Emitting Diodes. 184.108.40.206 Blackbody Emission of Radiation. 1.1.4 Detectors. 220.127.116.11 Photomultiplier and Geiger Counter. 18.104.22.168 Photodetector, Solar Cell, and pn Junction. 22.214.171.124 Imaging Detector, CCD Camera, and Channel Plate. 126.96.36.199 SQUID Detector of Magnetic Field and Other Quantities. 1.1.5 Two-Terminal Devices. 188.8.131.52 Semiconductor pn Junction (Nonohmic). 184.108.40.206 Metal Semiconductor Junction and Alternative Solar Cell. 220.127.116.11 Tunnel Junction (An Ohmic Device). 18.104.22.168 Josephson Junction. 22.214.171.124 Resonant Tunnel Diode (RTD, RITD). 126.96.36.199 Spin-Valve and Tunnel-Valve GMR Magnetic Field Detectors. 1.1.6 Three-Terminal Devices. 188.8.131.52 Field Effect Transistor. 184.108.40.206 Bipolar Junction Transistors: npn and pnp. 220.127.116.11 Resonant Tunneling Hot-Electron Transistor (RHET). 1.1.7 Four-Terminal Devices. 18.104.22.168 Thyristors: npnp and pnpn. 22.214.171.124 Dynamic Random Access Memory. 126.96.36.199 Triple-Barrier RTD (TBRTD). 1.1.8 Data Storage Devices. 188.8.131.52 Optical Memory Devices. 184.108.40.206 Electrical Computer Memory Devices. References. 2 From Electronics to Nanoelectronics: Particles, Waves, and Schrödinger's Equation. 2.1 Transition from Diffusive Motion of Electron Fluid to Quantum Behavior of Single Electrons. 2.1.1 Vacuum Triode to Field Effect Transistor to Single Electron Transistor. 2.1.2 Crystal Detector Radio to Photomultiplier and Gamma Ray Detector. 2.2 Particle (Quantum) Nature of Matter: Photons, Electrons, Atoms, and Molecules. 2.2.1 Photons. 2.2.2 Electrons. 2.2.3 Atoms, Bohr's Model. 220.127.116.11 Quantization of Angular Momentum and Orbit Energy. 18.104.22.168 Light Absorption and Emission Lines. 22.214.171.124 Magnetic Moments of Orbiting Electrons. 126.96.36.199 Stern Gerlach Experiment and Electron Spin. 2.3 Particle Wave Nature of Light and Matter, De Broglie Formulas E = hv. 2.3.1 Wavefunction ψ, Probability Density ψ*ψ, Traveling and Standing Waves. 2.4 Maxwell's Equations. 2.5 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. 2.6 Schrödinger Equation, Quantum States and Energies, Barrier Tunneling. 2.6.1 Schrödinger Equations in One Dimension. 2.6.2 The Trapped Particle in One Dimension. 2.6.3 Reflection and Tunneling at a Potential Step. 2.6.4 Penetration of a Barrier. 2.6.5 Trapped Particles in Two and Three Dimensions: Quantum Dot. 2.7 The Simple Harmonic Oscillator. 2.8 Fermions, Bosons, and Occupation Rules. 2.9 A Bose Particle System: Thermal Radiation in Equilibrium. References. 3 Quantum Description of Atoms and Molecules. 3.1 Schrödinger Equation in Spherical Polar Coordinates. 3.1.1 The Hydrogen Atom, One-Electron Atoms. 3.1.2 Positronium and Excitons. 3.1.3 Magnetization M, Magnetic Resonance, and Susceptibility X. 3.1.4 Electric Dipole Emission Selection Rules for Atoms. 3.1.5 Spontaneous and Stimulated Emission of Light. 3.2 Indistinguishable Particles and Their Exchange Symmetry. 3.2.1 Symmetric and Antisymmetric Wavefunctions. 3.2.2 Orbital and Spin Components of Wavefunction. 3.2.3 Pauli Principle and Periodic Table of Elements. 188.8.131.52 Filled Atomic Shells. 184.108.40.206 Qualitative Aspects of Smallest Atoms. 220.127.116.11 Alkali Atoms, Filled Core Plus One Electron. 3.2.4 Carbon Atom 12 6C 1s22s22p2 ~ 0.07 nm. 3.2.5 Cu, Ni, Xe, Hf. 3.3 Molecules. 3.3.1 Ionic Molecules. 3.3.2 Covalent Bonding in Simple Molecules. 18.104.22.168 Hydrogen Molecule Ion H2. 22.214.171.124 Hydrogen Molecule. 126.96.36.199 Methane CH4, Ethane C2H6, and Octane C8H18. 188.8.131.52 Ethylene C2H4, Acetylene C2H2, and Benzene C6H6. 184.108.40.206 Benzene Delocalized Orbitals, Diamagnetism. 220.127.116.11 Diamagnetic Susceptibility of Benzene. 18.104.22.168 Modeling Delocalized Electrons in a Ring. 22.214.171.124 Other Ring Compounds, Electronic Polarizability. 3.3.3 C60 Buckyball Molecule. References. 4 Metals, Semiconductors, and Junction Devices. 4.1 Metals. 4.1.1 Electronic Conduction. 126.96.36.199 Resistivity, Mean Free Path. 188.8.131.52 Hall Effect, Magnetoresistance. 4.1.2 Metals as Boxes of Free Electrons. 184.108.40.206 Fermi Level, DOS, Dimensionality. 4.2 Energy Bands in Periodic Structures. 4.2.1 Model for Electron Bands and Gaps, Electrons and Holes. 4.2.2 Si, Gas, and InSb. 4.2.3 Semiconductors and Insulators: Electron Bands and Conduction. 4.2.4 Hydrogenic Donors and Excitons in Semiconductors, Direct and Indirect Bandgaps.